Brian D Thrall

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Ричленд, Washington, United States

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Publications (79)294.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly utilized for commercial and medical applications, thus understanding their potential adverse effects is an important societal issue. Herein, we investigated protein S-glutathionylation (SSG) as an underlying regulatory mechanism by which ENPs may alter macrophage innate immune functions, using a quantitative redox proteomics approach for site-specific measurement of SSG modifications. Three high-volume production ENPs (SiO2, Fe3O4 and CoO) were selected as representatives which induce low, moderate, and high propensity, respectively, to stimulate cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disrupt macrophage function. The SSG modifications identified highlighted a broad set of redox sensitive proteins and specific Cys residues which correlated well with the overall level of cellular redox stress and impairment of macrophage phagocytic function (CoO > Fe3O4 > SiO2). Moreover, our data revealed pathway-specific differences in susceptibility to SSG between ENPs which induce moderate versus high levels of ROS. Pathways regulating protein translation and protein stability indicative of ER stress responses, and proteins involved in phagocytosis were among the most sensitive to SSG in response to ENPs that induce subcytoxic levels of redox stress. At higher levels of redox stress, the pattern of SSG modifications displayed reduced specificity and a broader set pathways involving classical stress responses and mitochondrial energetics (e.g., Glycolysis) associated with apoptotic mechanisms. An important role for SSG in regulation of macrophage innate function was also confirmed by RNA silencing of glutaredoxin, a major enzyme which reverses SSG modifications. Our results provide unique insights into the protein signatures and pathways that serve as ROS sensors and may facilitate cellular adaption to ENPs, versus intracellular targets of ENP-induced oxidative stress that are linked to irreversible cell outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · ACS Nano
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Widespread use of silver nanoparticles raises questions of environmental and biological impact. Many synthesis approaches are used to produce pure silver and silver-shell gold-core particles optimized for specific applications. Since both nanoparticles and silver dissolved from the particles may impact the biological response, it is important to understand the physicochemical characteristics along with the biological impact of nanoparticles produced by different processes. The authors have examined the structure, dissolution, and impact of particle exposure to macrophage cells of two 20 nm silver particles synthesized in different ways, which have different internal structures. The structures were examined by electron microscopy and dissolution measured in Rosewell Park Memorial Institute media with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were used to measure biological impact on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The particles were polycrystalline, but 20 nm particles grown on gold seed particles had smaller crystallite size with many high-energy grain boundaries and defects, and an apparent higher solubility than 20 nm pure silver particles. Greater oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were observed for 20 nm particles containing the Au core than for 20 nm pure silver particles. A simple dissolution model described the time variation of particle size and dissolved silver for particle loadings larger than 9 μg/ml for the 24-h period characteristic of many in-vitro studies.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Biointerphases
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    Vamsi Kodali · Brian D. Thrall
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    ABSTRACT: The incorporation of nanoscale engineered materials into industrial technologies and consumer goods has rapidly escalated to the point that classical approaches for assessing the safety of new materials are not practical. Consequently, there is a critical need to understand fundamental and predictive principles that govern the biocompatibility of engineered nanomaterials, both to guide safe nano design and prioritize needs for in vivo toxicity assessments. The ability of engineered nanomaterials to initiate cellular oxidative stress has emerged as a leading predictive hypothesis in nanotoxicology. Here, we discuss the direct and indirect mechanisms by which oxidative stress is induced in biological systems by nanomaterials, and emerging knowledge of the fundamental physicochemical properties of these materials that govern these effects. Given the diverse sources of reactive oxygen species in biological systems, it is often difficult to discern whether oxidative stress is a cause, or consequence of nanotoxicity. Thus, while oxidative stress remains an important biological endpoint for toxicological screening purposes, caution should be taken in implicating it as a central mechanism of toxicity.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2015

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Toxicity testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells.Methods Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) generated from of 12.8 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO). Target cell doses were calculated, histological evaluations conducted, and biomarkers of response were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels of nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose.ResultsTarget tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 ¿g SPIO/cm2 in lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 ¿g SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 & CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell.Conclusions Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems and advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar to those calculated for humans exposed to the same material at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: S-glutathionylation (SSG) is an important regulatory posttranslational modification on protein cysteine (Cys) thiols, yet the role of specific cysteine residues as targets of modification is poorly understood. We report a novel quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic method for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylation across different conditions. Briefly, this approach consists of initial blocking of free thiols by alkylation, selective reduction of glutathionylated thiols and covalent capture of reduced thiols using thiol affinity resins, followed by on-resin tryptic digestion and isobaric labeling with iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) for MS-based identification and quantification. The overall approach was initially validated by application to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with different doses of diamide to induce glutathionylation. A total of 1071 Cys-sites from 690 proteins were identified in response to diamide treatment, with ∼90% of the sites displaying >2-fold increases in SSG-modification compared to controls. This approach was extended to identify potential SSG- modified Cys-sites in response to H2O2, an endogenous oxidant produced by activated macrophages and many pathophysiological stimuli. The results revealed 364 Cys-sites from 265 proteins that were sensitive to S-glutathionylation in response to H2O2 treatment, thus providing a database of proteins and Cys-sites susceptible to this modification under oxidative stress. Functional analysis revealed that the most significantly enriched molecular function categories for proteins sensitive to SSG modifications were free radical scavenging and cell death/survival. Overall the results demonstrate that our approach is effective for site-specific identification and quantification of SSG-modified proteins. The analytical strategy also provides a unique approach to determining the major pathways and cellular processes most susceptible to S-glutathionylation under stress conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2013

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. We created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm - 1.5 μm) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared to large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modeling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes, and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalyzing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (μg/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterization and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical and chemical characteristics.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Nanotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pre-treatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pre-treatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pre-treatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from a M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNF production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia, and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Nanotoxicology screening strategies should therefore consider how exposure to these materials alters susceptibility to other environmental exposures.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · ACS Nano

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
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    ABSTRACT: In-vitro tests intended for evaluating the potential health effects of magnetic nanoparticles generally require an accurate measure of cell dose to promote the consistent use and interpretation of biological response. Here, a simple low-cost inductive sensor is developed for quickly determining the total mass of magnetic nanoparticles that is bound to the plasma membrane and internalized by cultured cells. Sensor operation exploits an oscillating magnetic field (f(0)=250kHz) together with the nonlinear response of particle magnetization to generate a harmonic signal (f(3)=750kHz) that varies linearly with particulate mass (R(2)>0.999) and is sufficiently sensitive for detecting ∼100ng of carboxyl-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles in under a second. When exploited for measuring receptor-mediated nanoparticle uptake in RAW 264.7 macrophages, results show that the achieved dosimetric performance is comparable with relatively expensive analytical techniques that are much more time-consuming and labor-intensive to perform. The described sensing is therefore potentially better suited for low-cost in-vitro assays that require fast and quantitative magnetic particle detection.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk. Cancer Res; 72(21); 1-8. ©2012 AACR.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, it is recognized that understanding and predicting nanoparticle behavior is often limited by the degree to which the particles can be reliably produced and adequately characterized. Two examples that demonstrate how sample preparation methods and processing history may significantly impact particle behavior are: 1) an examination of cerium oxide (ceria) particles reported in the literature in relation to the biological responses observed and 2) observations related that influence synthesis and aging of ceria nanoparticles. Examining data from the literature for ceria nanoparticles suggests that thermal history is one factor that has a strong influence on biological impact. Thermal processing may alter many physicochemical properties of the particles, including density, crystal structure, and the presence of surface contamination. However, these properties may not be sufficiently recorded or reported to determine the ultimate source of an observed impact. A second example shows the types of difficulties that can be encountered in efforts to apply a well-studied synthesis route to producing well-defined particles for biological studies. These examples and others further highlight the importance of characterizing particles thoroughly and recording details of particle processing and history that too often are underreported.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Surface and Interface Analysis
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    ABSTRACT: To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF) using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle biological activity, biocompatibility and fate can be directly affected by layers of readily adsorbed host proteins in biofluids. Here, we report a study on the interactions between human blood plasma proteins and nanoparticles with a controlled systematic variation of properties using 18O-labeling and LC-MS-based quantitative proteomics. We developed a novel protocol to both simplify isolation of nanoparticle bound proteins and improve reproducibility. LC-MS analysis identified and quantified 88 human plasma proteins associated with polystyrene nanoparticles consisting of three different surface chemistries and two sizes, as well as, for four different exposure times (for a total of 24 different samples). Quantitative comparison of relative protein abundances was achieved by spiking an 18O-labeled “universal” reference into each individually processed unlabeled sample as an internal standard, enabling simultaneous application of both label-free and isotopic labeling quantification across the entire sample set. Clustering analysis of the quantitative proteomics data resulted in distinctive patterns that classified the nanoparticles based on their surface properties and size. In addition, temporal data indicated that the formation of the stable protein corona was at equilibrium within 5 min. The comprehensive quantitative proteomics results obtained in this study provide rich data for computational modeling and have potential implications towards predicting nanoparticle biocompatibility.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is known to involve active transport mechanisms, yet the biological molecules involved are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the uptake of amorphous silica ENPs by macrophage cells, and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, is strongly inhibited by silencing expression of scavenger receptor A (SR-A). Conversely, ENP uptake is augmented by introducing SR-A expression into human cells that are normally non-phagocytic. Confocal microscopy analyses show that the majority of single or small clusters of silica ENPs co-localize with SR-A and are internalized through a pathway characteristic of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In contrast, larger silica ENP agglomerates (>500 nm) are poorly co-localized with the receptor, suggesting that the physical agglomeration state of an ENP influences its cellular trafficking. As SR-A is expressed in macrophages throughout the reticulo-endothelial system, this pathway is likely an important determinant of the biological response to ENPs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Nanotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated macrophage activation using computational analyses of a compendium of transcriptomic data covering responses to agonists of the TLR pathway, Salmonella infection, and manufactured amorphous silica nanoparticle exposure. We inferred regulatory relationship networks using this compendium and discovered that genes with high betweenness centrality, so-called bottlenecks, code for proteins targeted by pathogens. Furthermore, combining a novel set of bioinformatics tools, topological analysis with analysis of differentially expressed genes under the different stimuli, we identified a conserved core response module that is differentially expressed in response to all studied conditions. This module occupies a highly central position in the inferred network and is also enriched in genes preferentially targeted by pathogens. The module includes cytokines, interferon induced genes such as Ifit1 and 2, effectors of inflammation, Cox1 and Oas1 and Oasl2, and transcription factors including AP1, Egr1 and 2 and Mafb. Predictive modeling using a reverse-engineering approach reveals dynamic differences between the responses to each stimulus and predicts the regulatory influences directing this module. We speculate that this module may be an early checkpoint for progression to apoptosis and/or inflammation during macrophage activation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores some of the fundamental and practical issues related to the behavior of nanoparticles in the environment and their potential impacts on human health. In our research we have explored the reactive behaviors of nanoparticles with contaminants in the environment, how nanoparticle change in response to their environment and time, and how nanoparticles interact with biological systems of various types. It has become apparent that researchers often underestimate the difficulties of preparing and delivering well characterized nanoparticles for specific types of testing or applications. Difficulties arise in areas that range from not understanding what imparts the “nano” character of a particle to not knowing the impacts of minor species on the properties of high surface area materials. Some of our adventures and misadventures serve as examples of some of these issues as they relate to providing well defined particles for biological studies.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 2011

Publication Stats

3k Citations
294.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997-2015
    • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
      • Biological Sciences Division
      Ричленд, Washington, United States
  • 1991-2002
    • Washington State University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • School of Molecular Biosciences
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Pullman, Washington, United States