[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify positive or negative factors for HIV-1 infectivity, clones from the U937 promonocytic cell line that express similar levels of CD4 and CXCR4, but differ in HIV-1 susceptibility, were compared. In contrast to HIV-1 permissive clone 10 (plus), nonpermissive clone 17 (minus) was adherent to coverslips coated with chemokines, was phagocytic, killed bacteria, and expressed human leukocyte elastase (HLE) in a granule-like compartment (HLEG) that was never detected at the cell surface (HLECS). In contrast to the minus clone, the plus clone expressed HLE on the cell surface and was adherent to coverslips coated with the HLECS ligands alpha1proteinase inhibitor (alpha1PI, alpha1antitrypsin) and the HIV-1 fusion peptide. The phosphorylation status of several important signaling proteins was studied at the single cell level. Tumor suppressor p53, NF-kappaB p65, and Akt were constitutively phosphorylated in the plus clone, but not in the minus clone. Surprisingly, both alpha1PI and LPS induced phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 Ser-536 in both clones, but induced dephosphorylation of Ser-529 in the plus clone only. HIV-1 permissivity was conferred to the minus clone in a manner that required stimulation by both alpha1PI and LPS and was coincident to NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events as well as translocation of HLE to the cell surface. Even when stimulated, the minus clone exhibited greater reverse transcriptase activity, but less p24, than the plus clone. Results presented suggest that HIV-1 uptake and production efficiency are influenced by signaling profiles, receptor distribution, and the phagocytic capacity specific to the stage of differentiation of the CD4+ target cell.
Preview · Article · Feb 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The shifting balance between proteinases and proteinase inhibitors in blood, a function of their relative affinities and concentrations, has long been hypothesized to influence immune competency. The identification of proteinase-activated receptor responses in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system suggests a potential explanation. The major serum proteinase inhibitor, alpha1proteinase inhibitor (alpha1PI, alpha1-antitrypsin), has been reported to increase in concentration during inflammation. Quantitative determination of serum alpha1PI has traditionally been performed nephelometrically; however, antigenically quantitated levels may not be representative of functional capacity. It has previously been observed that alpha1PI in serum exhibits bimodal behavior as the result of various concentrations of proteinase inhibitors, specifically alpha2macroglobulin (alpha2M) and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, which compete in binding to a panel of serine proteinases. Consequently, it has not previously been possible to assign a numerical value for the specific activity of these competing proteinase inhibitors in serum. By applying known constants representing the association of proteinase inhibitors with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), the theoretical relationship between the functional and antigenic values for alpha1PI and alpha2M has been empirically derived allowing, for the first time, the calculation of their specific activities in serum. As predicted, the serum concentration of alpha1PI was found to be highly correlated with residual uninhibited PPE catalytic activity in healthy individuals, but not in individuals exhibiting fragmented or complexed alpha1PI. Using these techniques, both the antigenic and functional levels of alpha1PI were determined in sera from subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) who had been clinically diagnosed as having either periodontal disease or gingival health. Determination of quantitative levels by antigen-capture suggests that the IDDM subjects with periodontitis manifest dramatically increased levels of fragmented serum alpha1PI compared with their orally healthy counterparts or normal controls. In contrast, functional analysis of serum alpha1PI revealed no differences between the three subject populations. The elevated levels of antigenically determined serum alpha1PI reflect the inflammatory status of periodontal disease. These results support the importance of and provide methodology for determining the functionally active levels of alpha1PI allowing reexamination of changes detected during the acute phase of inflammation, replacement therapy, and longitudinal studies in relevant disease processes including malignancy and diabetes.
No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology