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ABSTRACT: Energy dissipation (ε) during electroporation was theoretically determined to be ε=0.5CV 0 2 for the various combinations of capacitance (C) and initial voltage (V 0). Experiments on asparagus protoplasts established that electroporation efficiency (EE) and survival rate were directly proportional to energy dissipation during electroporation. A positive linear relationship exists between energy dissipation per unit volume and EE, whereas energy dissipation per unit volume and survival rate of protoplasts are related in a negative linear manner. At the same energy level, longer time constants were more effective at increasing EE. This suggest that energy dissipation approximating rectangular waveforms is more important than that dissipated as sharply decaying exponential waveforms. With energy as the key parameter, the optimization of electrical parameters for efficient electroporation is greatly simplified, is not machine-dependent, and generally applies to all species.
Abraham Lincoln UniversityLos Angeles, California, United States