Shree Ram Singh

National Cancer Institute (USA), 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (52)251.76 Total impact

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    Shree Ram Singh · Ying Liu · Jiangsha Zhao · Xiankun Zeng · Steven X. Hou

    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Nature Communications
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    Ying Liu · Shree Ram Singh · Xiankun Zeng · Jiangsha Zhao · Steven X Hou
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    ABSTRACT: In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-initiating cells are important for the formation and maintenance of tumor bulks in various tumors. To identify surface markers of liver tumor-initiating cells, we performed primary tumorsphere culture and analyzed the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen genes using NanoString. Interestingly, we found significant upregulation of the complement proteins (p = 1.60 × 10(-18)), including C7 and CFH. Further studies revealed that C7 and CFH are required to maintain stemness in liver cancer cells. Knockdown of C7 and CFH expression abrogated tumorsphere formation and induced differentiation, whereas overexpression stimulated stemness factor expression as well as in vivo cell growth. Mechanistically, by studying C7 and CFH-dependent LSF-1 expression and its direct role on stemness factor transcription, we found that LSF-1 is involved in this regulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the unprecedented role of complement proteins on the maintenance of stemness in liver tumor-initiating cells.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer letters
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    ABSTRACT: The histone demethylase KDM1A specifically demethylates lysine residues and its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, KDM1A's molecular role and its pathological consequences, and prognostic significance in oral cancer remain less understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of KDM1A and its downstream role in oral cancer pathogenesis. By comparing mRNA expression profiles, we identified an elevated KDM1A expression in oral tumors when compared to normal oral tissues. In silico pathway prediction identified the association between KDM1A and E2F1 signaling in oral cancer. Pathway scanning, functional annotation analysis and In vitro assays showed the KDM1A's involvement in oral cancer cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Moreover, real time PCR and luciferase assays confirmed KDM1A's role in regulation of E2F1 signaling activity in oral cancer. Elevated KDM1A expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer. Our data indicate that deregulated KDM1A expression is positively associated with proliferative phenotype of oral cancer and confers poor clinical outcome. These cumulative data suggest that KDM1A might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Cancer letters
  • Swapnil Bawage · Pooja Tiwari · Vida Dennis · Shree Ram Singh

    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
  • Shree Ram Singh · Pranela Rameshwar · Peter Siegel
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    ABSTRACT: • This is featuring the guest editors: Special issue tumor microenvironment
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Cancer letters
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    ABSTRACT: Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) found in cooked meat, is a known food carcinogen that causes several types of cancer, including breast cancer, as PhIP metabolites produce DNA adduct and DNA strand breaks. Curcumin, obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has potent anticancer activity. To date, no study has examined the interaction of PhIP with curcumin in breast epithelial cells. The present study demonstrates the mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits PhIP-induced cytotoxicity in normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). Curcumin significantly inhibited PhIP-induced DNA adduct formation and DNA double stand breaks with a concomitant decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The expression of Nrf2, FOXO targets; DNA repair genes BRCA-1, H2AFX and PARP-1; and tumor suppressor P16 was studied to evaluate the influence on these core signaling pathways. PhIP induced the expression of various antioxidant and DNA repair genes. However, co-treatment with curcumin inhibited this expression. PhIP suppressed the expression of the tumor suppressor P16 gene, whereas curcumin co-treatment increased its expression. Caspase-3 and -9 were slightly suppressed by curcumin with a consequent inhibition of cell death. These results suggest that curcumin appears to be an effective anti-PhIP food additive likely acting through multiple molecular targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Cancer letters
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult animals and maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in both Drosophila and mammals. To comprehensively identify genes and pathways that regulate ISC fates, we performed a genome-wide transgenic RNAi screen in adult Drosophila intestine and identified 405 genes that regulate ISC maintenance and lineage-specific differentiation. By integrating these genes into publicly available interaction databases, we further developed functional networks that regulate ISC self-renewal, ISC proliferation, ISC maintenance of diploid status, ISC survival, ISC-to-enterocyte (EC) lineage differentiation, and ISC-to-enteroendocrine (EE) lineage differentiation. By comparing regulators among ISCs, female germline stem cells, and neural stem cells, we found that factors related to basic stem cell cellular processes are commonly required in all stem cells, and stem-cell-specific, niche-related signals are required only in the unique stem cell type. Our findings provide valuable insights into stem cell maintenance and lineage-specific differentiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Cell Reports
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    ABSTRACT: microRNA-155 (miR-155) is one of the well-known oncogenic miRNA implicated in various types of tumors. Thiamine, commonly known as vitamin B1, is one of critical cofactors for energy metabolic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase. Here we report a novel role of miR-155 in cancer metabolism through the up-regulation of thiamine in breast cancer cells. A bioinformatic analysis of miRNA array and metabolite-profiling data from NCI-60 cancer cell panel revealed thiamine as a metabolite positively correlated with the miR-155 expression level. We confirmed it in MCF7, MDA-MB-436 and two human primary breast cancer cells by showing reduced thiamine levels upon a knock-down of miR-155. To understand how the miR-155 controls thiamine level, a set of key molecules for thiamine homeostasis were further analyzed after the knockdown of miR-155. The results showed the expression of two thiamine transporter genes (SLC19A2, SLC25A19) as well as thiamine pyrophosphokinase-1 (TPK1) was decreased in both RNA and protein level in miR-155 dependent manner. Finally, we confirm the finding by showing a positive correlation between miR-155 and thiamine level in 71 triple negative breast tumors. Taken altogether, our study demonstrates a role of miR-155 in thiamine homeostasis and suggests a function of this oncogenic miRNA on breast cancer metabolism. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Cancer Letters
  • Brian Chan · Jacob Manley · Jae Lee · Shree Ram Singh
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    ABSTRACT: The major goal of cancer therapy is to destroy cancer cells without harming normal cells. However, because cancer cells have incredible heterogeneity and adaptability, it is difficult to target them therapeutically. Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a common feature of cancer. Ever since microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to influence metabolism, researchers have been trying to address the connection between cancer cells and specific miRNAs. Many of the well-known miRNAs relate to crucial genes that can impact metabolic pathways, both negatively and positively. With a better understanding of how different pathways are affected, the roles of miRNAs will be more transparent, which could lead to the discovery of new ideas about the concept of tumorigenesis and other cancer-related topics.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cancer Letters
  • Feng Yin · Junfeng Cai · Wen Zen · Yanhui Wei · Wei Zhou · Feng Yuan · Shree Ram Singh · Yiyong Wei
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    ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage has restricted self-regenerative capacity; therefore, treatment of cartilage lesions is a great challenge in the field of orthopedics. In the present study, we evaluate the enhancing effect of a transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-immobilized scaffold, fabricated by incorporating TGF-β1-loaded gelatin microspheres into PLGA framework, on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into chondrocytes. Significant increase in cell proliferation was observed in the TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold, as compared with the ASC-seeded non-TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold. When chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs was evaluated for both constructs, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was significantly higher in the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold. This study showed that ASCs containing the TGF-β1-immobilized scaffold better promoted cartilage regeneration in defective articular cartilage, which is assessed by histological observation. Based on the above results, we conclude that TGF-β1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold seeded with ASCs considerably enhances the quality of the tissue-engineered cartilage, therefore, advancing the field of cartilage tissue engineering.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Stem Cell Reviews and Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced toxicity and ease of modification make gold nanoparticles (GNPs) suitable for targeted delivery, bioimaging and theranostics by conjugating cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). This study presents the biodistribution and enhanced intracellular uptake of GNPs functionalized with VG-21, a CPP derived from vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G). Cell penetrating efficiency of VG-21 was demonstrated using CellPPD web server, conjugated to GNPs and were characterized using, UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential. Uptake of VG-21 functionalized GNPs (fGNPs) was tested in eukaryotic cell lines, HEp-2, HeLa, Vero and Cos-7, using flow cytometry, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and inductively coupled plasmon optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The effects of nanoparticles on stress and toxicity related genes were studied in HEp-2 cells. Cytokine response to fGNPs was studied in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution of nanoparticles was studied in BALB/c mice using TEM and ICP-OES. VG-21, GNPs and fGNPs had little to no effect on cell viability. Upon exposure to fGNPs, HEp-2 cells revealed minimal down regulation of stress response genes. fGNPs displayed higher uptake than GNPs in all cell lines with highest internalization by HEp-2, HeLa and Cos-7 cells, in endocytotic vesicles and nuclei. Cytokine ELISA showed that mouse J774 cells exposed to fGNPs produced less IL-6 than did GNP-treated macrophage cells, whereas TNF-α levels were low in both treatment groups. Biodistribution studies in BALB/c mice revealed higher accumulation of fGNPs than GNPs in the liver and spleen. Histopathological analyses showed that fGNP-treated mice accumulated 35 ng/mg tissue and 20 ng/mg tissue gold in spleen and liver respectively, without any adverse effects. Likewise, serum cytokines were low in both GNP- and fGNP-treated mice. Thus, VG-21-conjugated GNPs have enhanced cellular internalization and are suitable for various biomedical applications as nano-conjugates.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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    ABSTRACT: The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors or oncogenes has been widely reported. Epigenetic change is one of the mechanisms of transcriptional silencing of miRNAs in cancer. To identify lung cancer-related miRNAs that are mediated by histone modification, we conducted microarray analysis in the Calu-6 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line after treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The expression level of miR-373 was enhanced by SAHA treatment in this cell line by microarray and the following quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Treatment with another HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A, restored the levels of miR-373 expression in A549 and Calu-6 cells, while demethylation drug treatment did not. Importantly, miR-373 was found to be down-regulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Transfection of miR-373 into A549 and Calu-6 cells attenuated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and reduced the expression of mesenchymal markers. Additional microarray analysis of miR-373-transfected cells and computational predictions identified IRAK2 and LAMP1 as targets of miR-373. Knockdown of these two genes showed similar biological effects to those of miR-373 overexpression. In clinical samples, overexpression of IRAK2 correlated with decreased disease-free survival of patients with non-adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we found that miR-373 is silenced by histone modification in lung cancer cells and identified its function as a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of the mesenchymal phenotype through downstream IRAK2 and LAMP1 target genes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Cancer Letters
  • Shree Ram Singh · Ming Tan · Pranela Rameshwar

    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Cancer Letters
  • Shree Ram Singh · Ming Tan · Prana Rameshwar

    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Cancer letters
  • Wen Zeng · Peiyi Liu · Weimin Pan · Shree Ram Singh · Yiyong Wei
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the abnormal vasculature, most growing solid tumors contain regions that experience either acute or chronic hypoxia. However, tumor cells can maintain a high glycolytic rate even when there is enough oxygen supply. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play crucial role in the response of tumor cells to this distinct microenvironment by shifting energy production from mitochondria towards glycolysis. In this review, we focus on the metabolism of tumor cell survival in hypoxic microenvironments. Furthermore, we also emphasize the mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate tumor metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Cancer letters
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    ABSTRACT: Hybrid nanostructures consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNs) coated with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) are of great interest due to their numerous potential applications in nanotechnology, medicine, and homeland security. Recent experiments have demonstrated that DNA-CN hybrids can detect the hybridization of complementary DNA strands, paving the way for applications in DNA sequencing and genetic testing. However, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations studying DNA-CN self-assembly have found that adsorbed DNA bases are poorly positioned to hybridize with complementary DNA strands. Here, we apply the adaptive biasing force (ABF) method to all-atom MD models, and find that DNA bases must desorb from the swCN sidewall and suffer significant energy penalties to hybridize with complementary DNA. This agrees with the extremely slow hybridization time scales in fluorescence experiments, as well as observations made using DNA-CN transistor devices. We present the free energy landscape for two model systems and compare the energy required to hybridize a G-C versus an A-T pair. These results reveal significant impediments to rapid DNA hybridization on the swCN surface, and further our understanding of the mechanism by which hybridization gradually occurs—essential knowledge for the advancement of nanotechnology based on DNA-CN.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of primary tumors are very useful as a personalized screening system for effective therapeutic options. We here describe an effective method of reproducing human primary colon tumors through primary culture and a mouse xenograft model. A total of 199 primary colon tumor cultures were successfully established under optimized conditions to enrich for tumor cells and to expand it for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. To examine whether these stored cultures retained original tumor properties, fifty primary cultures were xenografted into NOD-SCID mouse. Histological and tumor marker analysis of four representative tumor xenografts revealed that all of the xenograft retained its primary tumor characteristics. Oncomap analysis further showed no change in the major mutations in the xenografts, confirming that our method faithfully reproduced human colon tumors. A drug sensitivity assay revealed that two of the primary cultures were hypersensitive to oxaliplatin rather than 5-FU, which was used in the patients, suggesting it as an effective therapeutic option. We thus present an effective, reproducible preclinical model for testing various personalized therapeutic options in colon cancer patients.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Cancer letters
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    ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The interdisciplinary fields, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology, have facilitated the development of modern detection systems for RSV. Many anti-RSV compounds like fusion inhibitors and RNAi molecules have been successful in laboratory and clinical trials. But, currently, there are no effective drugs for RSV infection even after decades of research. Effective diagnosis can result in effective treatment, but the progress in both of these facets must be concurrent. The development in prevention and treatment measures for RSV is at appreciable pace, but the implementation into clinical practice still seems a challenge. This review attempts to present the promising diverse research approaches and advancements in the area of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment that contribute to RSV management.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Advances in Virology

Publication Stats

762 Citations
251.76 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2015
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Basic Research Laboratory
      • • Mouse Cancer Genetics Program
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2009-2015
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 2010-2014
    • Alabama State University
      • Center for Nanobiotechnology Research
      Montgomery, Alabama, United States
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
      Columbia, South Carolina, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Immunology
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • University of Haifa
      • Institute of Evolution
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel