Pramod Kushwah


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Publications (3)5.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 1. Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a semiconductor, exerts toxicity as a result of its constitutive moieties; that is, gallium and arsenic that becomes dissociated after exposure. The present study focuses on reducing arsenic concentration from the target organs using monoesters of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) either individually or in combination. 2. Animals were exposed to GaAs (0.0014 mol/kg, orally for 8 weeks) and then treated with monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA), monocyclohexyl DMSA (MchDMSA) or monomethyl DMSA (MmDMSA) either individually (0.3 mmol/kg, orally) or in combination (0.15 mmol/kg each, orally) for five consecutive days. 3. GaAs exposure significantly inhibited blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD), suggesting alterations in the heme synthesis pathway. Whereas a significant increase in blood, liver and kidney reactive oxygen species accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation points to the involvement of oxidative stress in GaAs toxicity. 4. GaAs also significantly disturbed glutathione metabolism. Hepatic and renal catalase activity decreased significantly, whereas hepatic and renal superoxide dismutase activity, as well as serum transaminases activity, showed marginal increase. Treatment with MiADMSA in combination with MchDMSA showed better therapeutic efficacy compared with other treatments in the aforementioned variables. 5. Co-administration of MiADMSA with MchDMSA provided better therapeutic effects, including reduction of arsenic burden, compared with all other treatments.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids have been extensively studied and reported to possess widespread biological activities, including antioxidant and chelating properties. They have been proposed to exert beneficial effects in a multitude of diseased states generated due to oxidative stress. Therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of Silymarin and Quercetin after fluoride exposure (50 ppm in drinking water for 45 days) was investigated in rats. Animals exposed to fluoride showed a marked enhancement in reactive oxygen species (ROS), a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood. In brain and kidney also, a significant elevation in ROS and Thiobarbituric Acid Substances (TBARS) level was noted accompanied by a significant decline in reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH: GSSG) ratio. Furthermore, significant protection was observed in altered neurotransmitters level following the administration of Silymarin and Quercetin. Interestingly, both the flavonoids were able to reduce the level of fluoride from blood and kidney suggesting that the two flavonoids have the ability to bind fluoride ion too. It can be concluded from the results that, posttreatment with these flavonoids not only significantly protects against fluoride-induced oxidative stress but reduce its burden too from blood and tissues. KeywordsFluoride toxicity–Silymarin–Quercetin–Flavonoids–Oxidative stress
    Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Molecular and Cellular Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenic exposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion of arsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenic toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Toxicology mechanisms and methods