Mir Ajab Khan

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islāmābād, Islāmābād, Pakistan

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Publications (68)42.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The plant diversity of Himalayan region has been reduced to greater extent due to environmental degradation and human exploitation. Anthropogenic disturbance was the major factor responsible for fragmentation of forest vegetation into small patches. Little research has been conducted in the Himalayan region of Poonch Valley of North eastern Pakistan with reference to plants biodiversity and its conservation. The present research was carried out to provide a checklist of vegetation for biodiversity conservation. A total of 430 vascular and 5 nonvascular plant species with 5 species of Bryophytes (5 families), 13 species of Pteridophytes (6 families), 4 species of Gymnosperms (1 family) and 413 species of angiosperms (95 families) were enumerated from the Poonch valley Azad Kashmir. The genera were classified into three categories according to the number of species. 25 plant communities with phytosociological parameters and diversity indices were reported. Present study revealed that there were 145 threatened, 30 endangered, 68 vulnerable and 47 rare species. It is recorded that extensive grazing, uprooting of plants and soil slope erosion intensify the environmental problems. Since there is maximum exploitation of vegetation, the valley showed a decline in plant diversity. The study was also indicated that the main threats to the biodiversity are expansion of settlement and army installations in the forest area of the valley. For sustainable use In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, controlled harvesting and afforestation may be the solution. Moreover, forest area should be declared prohibited for settlements and army installations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
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    ABSTRACT: This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31-75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: The transesterification of jojoba oil with methanol has been studied in the presence of various catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), dibutyltin diacetate (C4H9)2Sn (OOCCH3)2, dioctyltin diacetate (C8H17)2Sn (OOCCH3)2, dibutyltin oxide (C4H9)2SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C8H17)2SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C6H5)2SnO, monobutyltin chloride dihydroxide ((C4H9)Sn(OH)2Cl) and monobutyltin hydroxide oxide hydrate ((C4H9)Sn(=O)OH⋅xH2O), with % age conversion of oil into biodiesel was 84.5%, 61.3%, 92.6%, 25.4%, 22.0%, 23.3%, 12.0%, 2.15% and 1.05%, respectively. The optimization of experimental parameters was established to achieve maximum yield of the product by using dibutyltin diacetate (C4H9)2Sn (OOCCH3)2. The physical and fuel properties of jojoba biodiesel like density, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, pour point, cloud point, flash point, and acid number were determined by ASTM procedures and were found to be comparable to ASTM standards for diesels. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB) was confirmed by FT-IR and NMR (1H and 13C) analyses of both oil and biodiesel. Chemical composition of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in jojoba biodiesel was established by GC-MS analysis and verified by retention time data and mass fragmentation pattern.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Fuel
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2014
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2014
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2014
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Materials and methods: Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. Results: A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Conclusions: Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Fresh wild leafy vegetables and related soil samples were collected from Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan to evaluate the trace metal levels and related health risk to the consumers. The samples were prepared by acid digestion, followed by quantification of selected trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd and Pb) on atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Generally, in the vegetables highest concentrations were detected for Fe, followed by Zn, Mn and Pb. Among the vegetables, highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cr were found in Solanum nigrum, while Stellaria media showed the elevated levels of Fe and Cd. Nevertheless, maximum concentrations of Mn and Pb were found in Convolvulus arvensis and Amaranthus viridis, respectively. In the case of soil, highest levels were observed for Fe, followed by Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cu. Translocation of trace metals from soil to the vegetables exhibited highest values for Cd, followed by Zn. Multivariate principal component analysis showed significant anthropogenic contributions of the Pb, Cr, Zn, Cd and Fe in the vegetables. Health risk assessment was evaluated in terms of health risk index, target hazard quotient and hazard index which showed that the intake of some trace metals through vegetables was higher than the recommended values, consequently consumption of the vegetables may be associated with non-carcinogenic health risks. Nonetheless, elevated levels of Cr and Pb were also found to be associated with lifetime carcinogenic risk to the consumers.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    Maryam Jamil · Bushra Mirza · Abida Yasmeen · Mir Ajab Khan
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, four plants [Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng (Euphorbiaceae), Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf (Ephedraceae), Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. (Astraceae), and Quercus dilatata L. (Fegaceae)] collected from different regions of Pakistan were screened to identify any chemotherapeutic agents present in them. Seven methanol extracts of these plants (leaf, stem, and root extracts of C. hierosolymitana; stem and root extracts of E. gerardiana; aerial parts of C. leucanthemum, and aerial parts of Q. dilatata) were examined for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp assay, antitumor activity using potato disc assay, and phytotoxicity activity using radish seed bioassay. Two methanol plant extracts, that is, leaf extract of C. hierosolymitana and root extract of E. gerardiana showed significant brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity ranging from 171.55 to 523.8 ppm. Six of the seven extracts exhibited tumor inhibition at all the three concentrations tested, ranging from 10 to 80%. All extracts showed growth and seed germination inhibition at high concentration against radish seeds, while two extracts (root extract of C. hierosolymitana and aerial parts of Q. dilatata) showed growth stimulating effects at lower concentrations. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, flavones, tannins, phlobatannins, and cardiac glycosides in different concentrations in these extracts.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Pollen and mold allergies are highly problematic in Islamabad. This study was conducted to investigate the type and concentration of airborne pollens/molds causing allergic diseases in susceptible individuals. A volumetric spore trap (Burkard) was placed at the height of 11 m and ran continuously for 3 years. Once a week, the collecting drum was prepared by affixing Melinex tape with a double-sided adhesive that was coated with a thin layer of silicone grease. Every Sunday at 9:00 AM the drum was replaced by another drum and the pollen/mold spores were removed and permanently mounted on slides. Using a microscope, the trapped particles were identified and recorded as counts per cubic meter of air per hour. From these data, the pollen and mold calendars were constructed and expressed as counts per cubic meter of air per day. Skin prick tests were performed on more than 1000 patients attending the Pakistan Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology Centre of Islamabad. The results indicated that there were 2 main pollen plants that contributed to seasonal allergies. These were Broussonetia papyrifera and Cannabis sativa during the March/April season and the July/September season, respectively. Although mold spores were continuously detected throughout the year, the most prominent mold was undetected mold and unconfirmed mold species similar to Stachybotrys species, which was high from July to September/October. Two additional molds contributing to al-lergic reactions were Pithomyces species and Cladosporium species, which were active during January and April, with the latter also being detected between October and November. These results may prove beneficial to both patients and physicians in planning a therapeutic protocol for avoidance and amelioration.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · World Allergy Organization Journal
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    Muhammad Azam Khan · Mir Ajab Khan · Mazhar Hussain
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    ABSTRACT: Plants with medicinal properties were held in the highest esteem in indigenous medicine systems all over the world. All indigenous remedies, whether traditional or modern, have originated directly or indirectly from folklore, rituals and folk medicinal knowledge. The objective of this study was to collect the information about how the local people used the plants of their area to cure a wide variety of ailments in human and livestock. Extensive surveys were carried out during the field work; interviews were conducted with the local inhabitants, the herbalists 'Hakims' (local physicians). About fifty informants were interviewed on random basis. The ethnobotanical data obtained was checked and compared with the existing literature and was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. In total 68 species of plants belonging to 44 families were recorded as used medicinally for preparations of folk recipes of 68 ailments. During the field study, it was found that the indigenous knowledge related to medicinal uses comes from women age between 30-50 years, whereas the folk medicinal use comes from men. This survey indicated that 72% source of indigenous knowledge related to the medicinal use of plants comes from people between age of 50 years, while 28% of it comes from people between age 30 and 50 years. The survey also indicated that men especially old one's are more informative of folk knowledge of medicinal plants than women in the area. It was also indicated that about 60% of the homemade drugs were used by people above the age of 50 years, 30% by children below age of 15 years especially infants. While remaining 10% of the traditional medicines of plant origin were utilized by people between ages of 15-50 years.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm consisting of 45 genotypes were clustered phenotypically using ten morphological traits and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) as measure of stripe rust resistance. The clustering was ratified by using twenty three molecular markers (SSR, EST and STS) linked to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistant QTLs. The aim was to asses the extent of genetic variability among the genotypes in order to select the parents for crossing between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with respect to stripe rust. The Euclidian dissimilarity values resulted from phenotypic data regarding morphological traits and AUDPC were used to construct a dendrogram for clustering the accessions. Using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic means, another dendrogram resulted from the similarity coefficient values was used to distinguish the genotypes with respect to stripe rust. Clustering based on phenotypic data produced two major groups and five clusters (with Euclidian dissimilarity ranging from 244 to 16.16) whereas genotypic data yielded two major groups and four clusters (with percent similarity coefficient values ranging from 0.1 to 46.0) to separate the gene pool into highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible genotypes. With few exceptions, the outcome of both type of clustering was almost similar and resistant as well as susceptible genotypes came in the same clusters of molecular genotyping as yielded by phenotypic clustering. As a result seven genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Frontana, Saleem 2000, Tatara, Inqilab-91, Fakhre Sarhad and Karwan) of diverse genetic background were selected for pyramiding stripe rust resistant genes as well as some other agronomic traits after hybridization.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · T͡Sitologii͡a i genetika
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was confined to pollen morphology and pollen fertility estimation using a taxonomic description of 11 species of genus Ficus family Moraceae. The species were Ficus bengalensis L, Ficus microcarpa L.f., Ficus palmata Forrsk., Ficus religiosa L., Ficus lacor Ham., Ficus pumila L., Ficus hispida L.f., Ficus sarmentosa Buch.Ham, Ficus auriculata Wall., Ficus virens Dryand. and Ficus racemosa Roxb. A palynomorphic study of the following species was conducted for the first time not only in Asia, but worldwide. As such, no published details were available for such comprehensive morphopalynological studies of the following species of genus Ficus L. It was found that pollen characters (that is, shape, surface of exine and pollen morphology) were considered as important characters and were used as tools in the taxonomy of these species. In the present research, the highest (97.82%) value was observed in F. palmata Forrsk. (Table 1) and the lowest (60%) was observed in F. bengalensis L. The present study shows that the flora of the selected species is a stable one. However, genetic diversity and molecular studies may also be helpful in this regard.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of medicinal plant research
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    ABSTRACT: An ethnobotanical exploration was carried out in Dir Kohistan Valleys. The checklist consisted of 65 species out of which 62 species were of 47 angiospermic families while three were of gymnospermic families. These plants were used medicinally and for other purposes. The investigation indicated that medicinal plants were used singly or in mixtures by local inhabitants. It was observed that unplanned exploitation had resulted in loss of medicinally important plant species. It was concluded that reforestation programs followed by proper protection is need of time.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Pakistan Journal of Botany
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District of KPK, Pakistan, during 2005 - 2007. The area was extensively surveyed in order to collect floating aquatic weeds. From the study area 11 floating aquatic weed species belonging to 9 genera and 9 families were collected and identified in the light of available literature. These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering period, availability, distribution in D.I.Khan, Pakistan and world, beneficial and harmful effects. Key to the floating aquatic species of the area was developed for easy and correct identification and differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is the detailed morphological study of leaf epidermis of Genus Ficus (Moraceae). The study based on the micro characters of leaf epidermis of some species of Ficus collected from Pakistan. The study revealed the many interesting epidermal features of leaves that have not previously been reported before and has been conducted first time. No published details are available of such comprehensive foliar anatomical studies of following species of genus Ficus L. species has been conducted first time. Note the measurements, shape and type of the leaf epidermal cells including pavement cells, stomata and shape of guard cell pairs, trichomes and ornamentation of cuticular membrane. Pavement cells are often polygonal and irregular. Among the species the F. virens has larger pavement cells as well as stomata as compare to other species. Whereas there are little variations represented in qualitative and quantitative characters among the species of same genus. Stomata are paracytic except in F. nerrifolia and F. callosoa and are restricted on abaxial surface. Trichomes present in some species mostly are unicellular and non-glandular with bulbous base. Cuticular membrane is mostly smooth and pubescent. And in some species peltate glands also observed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Journal of medicinal plant research

Publication Stats

657 Citations
42.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2014
    • Quaid-i-Azam University
      • • Department of Plant Science
      • • Department of Biotechnology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Islāmābād, Islāmābād, Pakistan
  • 2013
    • Umeå University
      • Department of Plant Physiology
      Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden