[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the metabolic effects of growth hormone (GH) on lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscles. GH primary function is to control substrate metabolism during fasting, when insulin secretion is suppressed. It is a heterogeneous protein secreted from somatotropes in the anterior pituitary gland, in a pulsatile pattern. GH synthesis and secretion are controlled by growth hormone releasing hormone and somatostatin, two hypothalamic regulatory peptides, insulin-like growth factor peptides and GH secretagogues. GH is secreted during early to mid gestation and again its levels increase progressively during childhood and adolescence, after what it starts to slowly decline throughout adult life. It plays a major role in controlling longitudinal growth in children, has regulatory effects related to sex hormones during puberty, and its functions in adulthood are nowadays being related not only on the control of metabolism, but also on body composition and quality of life. GH influences cell metabolism via dimerization of two independent GH receptors (GH-R), which recruits Janus kinase 2 proteins that autophosphorylate, also promoting GH-R phosphorylation and activation several signaling cascades, such as signal transducers and activators of transcription (mainly), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. The action of GH in the adipose, liver and skeletal muscle is discussed. In the adipose tissue, GH stimulates lipolysis, decreases lipogenesis, modifies the pattern of adipose tissue distribution on the body, and has various effects on circulating adipokine levels. In the liver, GH stimulates triacylglycerol uptake, promotes intrahepatic triacylglycerol storage, and modulates gluconeogenesis and glucogenolysis, leading to increased hepatic glucose production. In the skeletal muscle, GH seems to increase fatty acid uptake and increase lipid oxidation, depending on the evaluated context. We finish with a discussion on the GH secretion and action in humans, its role on obesity and metabolic syndrome and the importance of GH treatment on GH deficiency in adulthood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of a pool of peptides, isolated from venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) on glucose concentration in C57BL/6 mice fed on a high-fat diet for 6weeks. The pool of peptides
(molecular mass around of 10kDa) was obtained using a MidJet apparatus with a cartridge of 10KDa. The peptide pool was injected
intraperitoneally in mice in a single dose (0.5mg/animal) or multiple doses (0.2mg/dose). After predetermined times (30,
60, 90 and 120min) post injections, venous blood samples were collected for enzymatic measurement of serum glucose using
a commercial glucose kit (glucose oxidase method). High-fat fed mice showed an increase in blood glucose concentration, in
comparison with mice fed on the chow diet. Thirty minutes after a single dose of the peptide pool, high-fat fed animals showed
a significant decrease (~47%) in glycemia. However, the glucose level increased again at 60 and 120min. Conversely, after
multiple injections of the pool of peptides administered every 30min, the blood glucose concentration in the high-fat mice
was significantly decreased (~37%) and remained at low levels until 120min. These results suggest that the tested pool of
peptides from Crotalus durissus terrificus contained a peptide (or peptides) with a beneficial role on glucose-lowering action of high-fat fed mice.
Crotalus durissus terrificus
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SIRT1 activators isonicotinamide (IsoNAM), resveratrol, fisetin, and butein repressed transcription of the gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C). An evolutionarily conserved binding site for hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) 4alpha (-272/-252) was identified, which was required for transcriptional repression of the PEPCK-C gene promoter caused by these compounds. This site contains an overlapping AP-1 binding site and is adjacent to the C/EBP binding element (-248/-234); the latter is necessary for hepatic transcription of PEPCK-C. AP-1 competed with HNF4alpha for binding to this site and also decreased HNF4alpha stimulation of transcription from the PEPCK-C gene promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that HNF4alpha and AP-1, but not C/EBPbeta, reciprocally bound to this site prior to and after treating HepG2 cells with IsoNAM. IsoNAM treatment resulted in deacetylation of HNF4alpha, which decreased its binding affinity to the PEPCK-C gene promoter. In HNF4alpha-null Chinese hamster ovary cells, IsoNAM and resveratrol failed to repress transcription from the PEPCK-C gene promoter; overexpression of HNF4alpha in Chinese hamster ovary cells re-established transcriptional inhibition. Exogenous SIRT1 expression repressed transcription, whereas knockdown of SIRT1 by RNA interference reversed this effect. IsoNAM decreased the level of mRNA for PEPCK-C but had no effect on mRNA for glucose-6-phosphatase in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. We conclude that SIRT1 activation inhibited transcription of the gene for PEPCK-C in part by deacetylation of HNF4alpha. However, SIRT1 deacetylation of other key regulatory proteins that control PEPCK-C gene transcription also likely contributed to the inhibitory effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo fatty acid synthesis and the pathways of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) production were investigated in brown adipose tissue (BAT) from rats fed a cafeteria diet for 3 weeks. In spite of BAT activation, the diet promoted an increase in the carcass fatty acid content. Plasma insulin levels were markedly increased in cafeteria diet-fed rats. Two insulin-sensitive processes, in vivo fatty acid synthesis and in vivo glucose uptake (which was used to evaluate G3P generation via glycolysis) were increased in BAT from rats fed the cafeteria diet. Direct glycerol phosphorylation, evaluated by glycerokinase (GyK) activity and incorporation of [U-14C]glycerol into triacylglycerol (TAG)-glycerol, was also markedly increased in BAT from these rats. In contrast, the cafeteria diet induced a marked reduction of BAT glyceroneogenesis, evaluated by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-C activity and incorporation of [1-14C]pyruvate into TAG-glycerol. BAT denervation resulted in an approximately 50% reduction of GyK activity, but did not significantly affect BAT in vivo fatty acid synthesis, in vivo glucose uptake, or glyceroneogenesis. The data suggest that the supply of G3P for BAT TAG synthesis can be adjusted independently from the sympathetic nervous system and solely by reciprocal changes in the generation of G3P via glycolysis and via glyceroneogenesis, with no participation of direct phosphorylation of glycerol by GyK.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathways of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) generation for glyceride synthesis were examined in precision-cut liver slices of fasted and diabetic rats. The incorporation of 5 mM [U-(14)C]glucose into glyceride-glycerol, used to evaluate G3P generation via glycolysis, was reduced by approximately 26-36% in liver slices of fasted and diabetic rats. The glycolytic flux was reduced by approximately 60% in both groups. The incorporation of 1.0 mM [2-(14)C]pyruvate into glyceride-glycerol (glyceroneogenesis) increased approximately 50% and approximately 36% in slices of fasted and diabetic rats, respectively, which also showed a two-fold increase in the activity phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The increased incorporation of 1.0 mM [2-(14)C]pyruvate into glyceride-glycerol by slices of fasted rats was not affected by the addition of 5 mM glucose to the incubation medium. The activity of glycerokinase and the incorporation of 1 mM [U-(14)C]glycerol into glyceride-glycerol, evaluators of G3P formation by direct glycerol phosphorylation, did not differ significantly from controls in slices of the two experimental groups. Rates of incorporation of 1 mM [2-(14)C]pyruvate and [U-(14)C]glycerol into glucose of incubation medium (gluconeogenesis) were approximately 140 and approximately 20% higher in fasted and diabetic slices than in control slices. It could be estimated that glyceroneogenesis by liver slices of fasted rats contributed with approximately 20% of G3P generated for glyceride-glycerol synthesis, the glycolytic pathway with approximately 5%, and direct phosphorylation of glycerol by glycerokinase with approximately 75%. Pyruvate contributed with 54% and glycerol with 46% of gluconeogenesis. The present data indicate that glyceroneogenesis has a significant participation in the generation of G3P needed for the increased glyceride-glycerol synthesis in liver during fasting and diabetes.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathways of glycerol-3-P (G3P) generation were examined in retroperitoneal (RETRO) and epididymal (EPI) adipose tissues from rats fed a cafeteria diet for 3 wk. The cafeteria diet induced marked increases in body fat mass and in the plasma levels of insulin and triacylglycerol (TAG). RETRO and EPI from cafeteria diet-fed rats had increased rates of norepinephrine turnover (143 and 60%, respectively) and of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis (58 and 98%), compared with controls fed a balanced commercial diet. Cafeteria diet feeding induced marked increases in RETRO and EPI in vivo rates of glucose uptake (52 and 51%, respectively), used to evaluate G3P generation via glycolysis, as well as in glycerokinase activity (119 and 36%) and TAG-glycerol synthesis from glycerol (56 and 71%, respectively). In contrast, there was a marked reduction of glyceroneogenesis in RETRO and EPI from cafeteria diet-fed rats, which was evidenced by the significant decreases of P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) activity (48 and 36%) and TAG-glycerol synthesis from pyruvate (45 and 56%, respectively). Denervation of RETRO from cafeteria diet-fed rats reduced the activity of glycerokinase by 50%, but did not affect glucose uptake or PEPCK-C activity and TAG-glycerol synthesis from pyruvate by the tissue. The data show that glyceroneogenesis can also be inhibited to adjust the supply of G3P to the existing rates of FA esterification and TAG synthesis and suggest that this adjustment is made by reciprocal changes in the generation of G3P from glucose via glycolysis and from glyceroneogenesis, independently from G3P production by glycerokinase.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Nutrition