[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aim: This study compared the genotypes and virulence factors of Candida species isolated from oral cavities of healthy individuals and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods: A total of 142 healthy individuals and 73 diabetic patients participated in this study. Study populations were classified into 4 groups as follows: Group I — Healthy, without caries; Group II — Healthy, with caries; Group III — DM, with caries; Group IV — DM, without caries. Diabetic patients’ blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c concentrations were determined. Identification of Candida species was performed with conventional methods. Biofilm production, proteinase, phospholipase, and esterase were analyzed. The genetic diversity of Candida species was established using rep-PCR. Results: The most isolated species was Candida albicans. There were statistical differences in terms of isolated Candida frequency between healthy subjects and diabetic patients. There was no statistical difference between the virulence factors of groups. Twelve genotypes were determined. While there were statistical differences in aerobe biofilm production, proteinase, and phospholipase activity between genotypes, there were no statistical differences in anaerobe biofilm production and esterase activity between genotypes. Conclusion: Diabetes has no effect on the activities of virulence factors of Candida species. Different genotypes of Candida albicans exhibited different virulence activities.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of study was to investigate the virulence factors of phospholipase, proteinase, esterase production and biofilm formation in Candida species isolated from patients with candidemia, and to assess their relationship with Candida genotypes derived after repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) fingerprinting.
Fifty-two strains were identified to species level according to conventional methods and sequencing. The DiversiLab system was used for the genotyping. Enzyme activities and biofilm formation were evaluated using microbiological methods.
The 52 strains were identified as follows: 29 C. parapsilosis, 19 C. albicans, 2 C. glabrata, and 2 C. tropicalis. Phospholipase and proteinase activities were observed to have statistically significant differences between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) strains (p < 0.05), with C. albicans strains showing higher virulence. Rep-PCR revealed eight major genotypes (A-H).The 19 C. albicans and the 33 non-albicans Candida isolates yielded seven (A-G) and four (A, B, C, H) genotypes, respectively. C. albicans strains were not shown to have a predominant genotype and showed higher phospholipase and proteinase activitiy than did NAC, regardless of genotype. Genotype H (52%) was the predominant genotype for the NAC including 27 C. parapsilosis strains, but the majority of strains showed low virulence.
NAC species were the most common causative agent for candidemia. Genotyping showed low transmission of C. albicans strains, but transmission of C. parapsilosis was high. In candidemia, several Candida virulence factors may be responsible at the same time. However, different genotypes of Candida strains showed different virulence activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The Candida species, which are one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections, present with high mortality and morbidity rates. This study aims to investigate the production of esterase, phospholipase, proteinase, and biofilm formation ability of the Candida strains isolated from the blood cultures.
Materials and methods:
Between June 2011 and July 2012, the Candida strains, which were isolated from blood cultures of a total of 50 patients, were studied. The esterase activity was analyzed in the Tween-80 agar, while phospholipase activity was studied in the egg yolk agar. The proteinase activity and biofilm formation were identified by using the petri dish method and microplate method, respectively.
Of 50 specimens obtained from individual patients, 17 (34%) were identified as C. albicans, 14 (28%) as C. glabrata, 9 (18%) as C. parapsilosis, 5 (10%) as C. krusei, 4 (8%) as C. kefyr, and 1 (2%) as C. tropicalis. The rate of proteinase, phospholipase, and esterase positivity was higher in the C. albicans isolates. Biofilm formation was the highest in the C. parapsilosis strains.
Higher rate of virulence factors in the most commonly isolated Candida species than other species indicates that these virulence factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Nigerian journal of clinical practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phaeohyphomycosis is a term used to define infections caused by darkly pigmented fungi with septate hyphae which contain melanin in their cell walls. Although fungi rarely cause central nervous system (CNS) infections, the incidence of CNS infections caused by melanin-containing fungi has been increasing in the recent years. Cladophialophora bantiana is the most frequently isolated species from cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. It mostly affects adult men in the second and third decade of life and about half of the cases occurs in immunocompetent patients. In this report, the isolation of C.bantiana from brain tissue of an immunocompetent patient who was operated with the initial diagnosis of a brain abscess, was presented. A 27 year-old male patient presenting without any chronic disease was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital with the complaints of persistent headache and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a space-occupying lesion in the right parietal lobe and left frontal lobe. Brain abscess was diagnosed in the patient who was referred to the neurosurgery department. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole. The abscess material sent for direct microscopic examination in the mycology laboratory was stained with Gram and Giemsa and cultured in the Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) with and without antibiotics (cycloheximide and chloramphenicol). Then, it was incubated at 37°C and 25°C. Direct examination and staining revealed a septate hyphae. The patient who received liposomal amphotericin B was referred to the infectious diseases department. Surface colors of all media including SDA with cycloheximide were olive-gray to black and contained velvety colonies. Lemon-like very long and integrated chains of conidium with poor branching in cornmeal Tween 80 agar, as well as growth at 42°C in passages, positive urease test result and cycloheximide resistance suggested C.bantiana. The isolate was confirmed as C. bantiana based on its DNA sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) values for amphotericin B, voriconazole, caspofungin, and posaconazole were 2 µg/ml, 0.03 µg/ml, 0.03 µg/ml and 0.03 µg/ml, respectively. Liposomal amphotericin B was replaced with voriconazole due to the antifungal susceptibility profile. The patient who was symptom-free was discharged at 24 days after hospitalization with oral voriconazole treatment. In conclusion, cerebral phaeohyphomycosis should be considered in immunocompetent individuals. Given the fact that early diagnosis saves lives, such specimens should promptly be sent for mycological analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of tinea capitis and tinea pedis in school children in Turkey.
The study included 8122 students from 24 schools in the rural and urban areas around Kayseri,Turkey. We asked every student for their personal identification and also for their sanitation in order to get an idea about dermatophytosis. Samples taken from suspicious lesions were collected and inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar slants. For identification of grown fungi, macroscopic appearance of colonies, microscopic examination and biochemical tests were used.
There were 41 (0.5%) suspicious lesions in feet and 31 (0.3%) in scalp and 22 (0.2%) students were diagnosed as tinea pedis and 9 (0.1%) as tinea capitis by fungal culture. The predominant etiologic agents in feet were Trichophyton rubrum 8 (36%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 1 (4%), Rhodotorula 8 (36%), Trichosporon 2 (9%), Candida glabrata 2 (9%), Candida albicans 1 (4%), while Trichophyton verrucosum 8 (88%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 1 (12%) were identified in scalp samples. School settlement was found as risk factors on the frequency of tinea pedis and capitis. Age and gender were also found as risk factors on the frequency of tinea pedis.
The results of this study demonstrate a low prevalence of tinea capitis and tinea pedis in school children of central Anatolia of Turkey. School settlement is a very important factor affecting the prevalence of tinea capitis and pedis in school children in central Anatolia of Turkey.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scedosporium apiospermum is a saprophytic fungus which is isolated worldwide in soil, fertilizers, polluted water, rotten vegetables, and other natural environments. It is the cause of mycetoma, a subcutaneous infection, characterized by granule formation. It may also cause severe local or diffuse infections in immunosuppressive patients. S.apiospermum-induced arthritis, endocarditis, keratitis, scleritis, endophthalmitis, meningitis, osteomyelitis, otomycosis, onychomycosis, chronic prostatitis, peritonitis, esophagitis, renal infection, and hepatosplenic abscess have been previously reported in the literature. Possible risk factors of fungal keratitis, one of the major causes of fungal ocular infection, include ocular injury, long-term therapy with topical or systemic steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and underlying diseases such as pre-existing corneal surface abnormality and diabetes mellitus, and wearing contact lenses. We paid great attention to the case report presented by Kalkan Akçay E et al. titled "Fungal keratitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum: first report from Turkey", which was published in the October 2013 issue of Bulletin of Microbiology [Mikrobiyol Bul 2013; 47(4): 727-33]. Although it is deemed as the first case report of S.apiospermum-related fungal keratitis in Turkey, there were several previous case reports of ocular infections associated with this type of fungus in Turkey, including those of Yucel A titled "An eye mycosis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum (Monosporium apiospermum)" published in 1989, Kiratli et al. titled "Scedosporium apiospermum chorioretinitis" in 2001, Saracli et al. titled "Scedosporium apiospermum keratitis treated with itraconazole" in 2003 and Erdem et al. titled "Clinical follow up of a keratomycosis case with total corneal melting" in 2005. In conclusion, it should be highlighted that the report of Kalkan Akcay et al. is not the first case report of Scedosporium apiospermum-related fungal keratitis in Turkey. We believe, hence, that correction of this misinformation would be beneficial for further studies.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumoniae (PJP) may be difficult to diagnose. Since pneumocystis cannot be cultured, the diagnosis of PJP requires microscopic examination to identify pneumocystis from induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. In order to evaluate the usefulness of (1-3) beta-D-glucan (BDG) levels in the early diagnosis of PJP, we describe the case of PJP in a 25-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) admitted to hospital with progressive dyspnea and fever with chills. The patient was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sputum, blood, and urine cultures were negative; smears for acid-fast bacilli and tests for viral antibodies were both negative. The microbiology study of the BAL with Giemsa and immunofluorescence staining, seven days after admission showed the existence of P. jiroveci in the lungs. Further, one day and five days after admission, (1-3) beta-D-glucan (BDG) levels were very high. The high serum level of BDG considerably decreased after treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and the clinical condition of the patient increasingly improved.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are associated with high mortality and morbidity. However, the diagnosis of IFIs in an immunocompromised host is difficult and often missed or delayed. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of the (1→3)-β-DGlucan assay as a diagnostic complement for IFIs. Methods: We reviewed the records of all inpatients in various units at Erciyes University's Medical Faculty Hospital (Kayseri, Turkey) who had at least one (1→3)-β-D-Glucan assay result from August 2009 to April 2011. According to the criteria of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group, IFI was classified into three clinical categories: proven, probable, and possible. Serum (1→3)-β-D-Glucan was estimated using the Fungitell assay according to the manufacturer's instructions (Associates of Cape Cod, East Falmouth, Ma, USA). Optical density index ≥ 80 pg/ml was considered positive. Results: Of the 83 patients who underwent (1→3)-β-D-Glucan assay, five patients were classified as having proven IFI, 18 patients had probable IFI and 20 patients had possible IFI. The overall (proven+probable+possible) sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the BG assay were 81% (95% confidence interval, 67-92%), 88% (95% confidence interval, 73-96%), 88% (95% confidence interval, 73-96%), and 81% (95% confidence interval, 67-92%), respectively. Conclusions: In this study, we evaluated the utility of the (1→3)-β-D-Glucan assay as a diagnostic complement for IFIs. Our results suggest that (1→3)-β-D-Glucan is a beneficial marker for the diagnosis of IFIs.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Acta Medica Mediterranea
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis jirovecii causes pneumonia in premature, newborn or malnourished children, as well as in immunocompromised subjects such as chemotherapy receiving, transplant and AIDS patients. Since the mortality and morbidity rates of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in these patients were high, rapid and accurate diagnosis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Giemsa staining (GS), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, (1→3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG) test and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of P.jirovecii in clinical specimens. A total of 100 PCP-suspected patients with underlying diseases who were followed-up in outpatient and inpatient clinics of our hospital between December 2008-July 2010 were included in the study. All the patients (66 male, 34 female; mean age: 42.04 years) were under long-term immunosuppressive drug therapy due to their hematological malignancies, kidney transplantation, neutropenia or chronic diseases. Respiratory samples [86 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 8 endotracheal aspirate, 1 nasotracheal aspirate, 3 pleural, 2 lung biopsy samples] obtained from the patients have been studied with GS (Merck, Germany), DFA (Pneumo Cel, Cellabs, Australia) and PCR (primers targeting MSG gene, LightCycler, Roche, USA), while serum samples (n= 100) with BDG (Fungitell, ACC Inc, USA) and PCR methods. In BAL samples two were found positive by GS, DFA and PCR, and six were positive only by PCR, yielding a total positivity in 8 (8%) samples. All of the sera were negative with PCR, however 29 of them were positive (> 80 pg/ml), five were equivocal (61-79 pg/ml) and 66 were negative (< 60 pg/ml) with BDG test. Eight patients with positive results in BAL-PCR were also positive with BDG test. Although the agreement between GS and DFA was high (κ= 1), it was observed as low between PCR and DFA (κ= 0.38), DFA and BDG (κ= 0.07), BAL-PCR and BDG (κ= 0.28). DFA taken as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity values of GS, PCR and BDG methods were calculated as 100% and 100%; 100% and 93%; 100% and 67%, respectively. In the ROC analysis performed for BDG test, with DFA and BAL-PCR taken as the gold standards, the sensitivity, specificity and cut-off values of BDG were estimated as 100%, 93.9% and 494 pg/ml, and 100%, 72.8% and 62 pg/ml, respectively. Our data indicated that, overall specificity was high (100%) when using GS and DFA tests together, while the sensitivity has been elevated to 93% with the additional use of PCR and BDG tests, in the diagnosis of PCP-suspected patients. In conclusion, combination of all these tests should be performed for the laboratory diagnosis of P.jirovecii.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blastoschizomyces capitatus is a rare fungal pathogen that may lead to severe and fatal systemic infections especially in immunosuppressive individuals. B.capitatus strains have also been reported as the cause of hospital-acquired infections and outbreaks. In this report, three fungemia cases caused by B.capitatus with hematologic malignancies have been presented. The first case was a 20-year-old female with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the second was a 26-year-old female with B-cell malignant lymphoma and the third was a 7-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All of the patients have been receiving chemotherapy, and treated with antibacterial and antifungal agents due to neutropenia. The blood cultures obtained from the second and third patients yielded B.capitatus although they were under empirical caspofungin therapy. Those patients have been treated with voriconazole and amphotericin B after the identification of B.capitatus, and clinical improvement were noted during their follow-up. However the first patient who was also under caspofungin therapy had died just before the isolation of B.capitatus from her blood culture. Conventional mycological methods [macroscopic and microscopic morphology, germ tube test, urea hydrolysis, carbohydrate assimilation tests (API 20C AUX; BioMerieux, France), growth temperature, cycloheximide sensitivity] were used for the identification of the isolates. The strains were identified as B.capitatus with the characteristics of annelloconidia formation, urease negativity, carbohydrate utilization, growth at 45°C and resistance to cycloheximide. Antifungal susceptibilities of isolates were determined by using microdilution method (for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole) and E-test (for caspofungin). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the three B.capitatus strains were detected as 0.25, 0.125, 0.032 µg/ml for amphotericin B; 2, 2, 16 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.064, 0.032, 0.032 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.125, 0.064, 0.064 µg/ml for ketoconazole, respectively, while MIC values of all strains were 0.032 µg/ml for voriconazole and > 32 µg/ml for caspofungin. Since B.capitatus strains were isolated from the cases within about 15 days -sequentially-, the genotypes of the isolates were determined by repetitive sequence-based PCR (DiversiLab System; BioMerieux, France) to investigate the similarity rates. The results of analysis indicated 97% similarity between two (case 1 and 2) strains and 94.9% similarity in one strain (case 3) of B.capitatus, however the transmission route could not be clarified due to the absence of environmental sampling. In conclusion, B.capitatus should also be considered as a cause of systemic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Determination of the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of clinical B.capitatus strains may contribute to the therapeutic approaches and epidemiological data.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Urinary system infections caused by Candida species are the most common nosocomial infections. Diabetes mellitus, urinary system defects, chronic renal failure, neutopenia, immunsuppressive treatment, and use of antimicrobials of patients increase the incidence of these infections. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin by E-test method are aimed to be investigated. Method: 61 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures of hospitalized patients between June-December 2011 are included in the study. Germ tube test, growth on Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and chylamidospore formation, presence of psudohyphae, carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation tests, urease test and nitrate tests were used to identificate Candida species. The antifungal (amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin) susceptibility of the identified Candida strains was investigated by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) method. For this method, RPMI 1640 medium with 2% glucose and 1.5% agar (Sigma, USA) was used. The results were evaluated according to manufacturer recommendation. Results: Total of 61 strains were identified as follows; 18 (30%) were C. albicans, 18 (30%) were C. glabrata, 14 (23%) were C. tropicalis, 7 (11%) were C. parapsilosis, 2 (3%) were C. krusei and 2 (3%) were C. kefyr. All of the strains were found as susceptible to amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole except two C. krusei strains resistant to fluconazole and one C. glabrata strain dose-dependant susceptible to fluconazole. Conclusion: In our hospital, C. albicans was the most frequently isolated Candida species from urine cultures, however, C. glabrata was found as the second most frequent species. As a result, in parallel to the increase of patient population who are at risk for Candida infections, the necessity of doing epidemiological studies for identification of species and susceptibility tests including new antifungal agents was concluded.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Türk hijiyen ve deneysel biyoloji dergisi. Turkish bulletin of hygiene and experimental biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Candida spp. are the most important pathogens in critically ill patients and the epidemiology is changing. While Candida albicans remains the predominant pathogen, the proportion of infection caused by other species of Candida continues to increase. In recent years, due to the increase in incidence of infections with non-albicans strains and the development of resistance to antifungals, identification of Candida strains to species level gained significant importance.The aim of this study was to identify Candida strain isolated from various clinical specimens. Method: January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied Results: Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%), 271 from sputum (24.2%), 114 from blood (10.2%), 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%), 50 from urine (4.4%), 30 from tissue (2.6%), 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA) (1.9%), nine from pleural mai (0.80%), six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%), four from gastric fluid(0.35%),three from stool(0.28%),two from abscess (0.18%),three from nail (0.26%), one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%). From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%), 143 C. glabrata (12.8%), 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%), 33 C. krusei (2.94%), 33 C. kefyr (2.94%), 19 C. tropicalis (1.7%) were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides Conclusion: It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Türk hijiyen ve deneysel biyoloji dergisi. Turkish bulletin of hygiene and experimental biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To explore the presence of ALS1 and HWP1 genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Candida albicans strains. Materials and methods: By using the multiplex PCR method, the presence of agglutinin-like sequence 1 (ALS1) and hyphal wall protein 1 (HWP1) genes were investigated in 206 C. albicans strains that were isolated from various clinical samples. Phenotypic identification of slime formation by microplate and tube adherence tests was performed. Results: The presence of the ALS1 gene was detected in 53.9% of all strains, while the HWP1 gene was present in 5.3%. Slime formation was phenotypically detected in the 62.2% of the strains in which the ALS1 and/or the HWP1 gene was found, using the microplate and/ or tube adherence test. The genes evaluated were found to be present in the 76.7% of strains in which slime formation was detected by phenotypic tests. There was a moderate correlation between the presence of the ALS1 gene and the microplate method, yet there was no correlation when using the tube adherence test. Conclusion: It was concluded that various genes other than those evaluated could be present in slime formation of C. albicans, and the presence of the genes may not always be represented in the phenotype.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate some virulence factors in Candida species isolated from patients with suspected invasive fungal infection and to identify their relationship with Candida genotypes. Materials and methods: Overall 45 isolates (20 Candida albicans and 25 non-albicans Candida spp.) genotyped by rep-PCR were included in this study. Virulence factors were studied in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In isolates, egg yolk agar was used for determining phospholipase activity, while bovine serum albumin agar was used for proteinase activity, Tween-80 medium for esterase activity, and Sabouraud dextrose agar with sheep blood for hemolysin activity. Biofilm formation was detected by the microplate method. Results: In both Candida spp., it was found that hemolytic activity and proteinase activity were higher in aerobic conditions, whereas biofilm formation was higher in anaerobic conditions. It was also found that phospholipase and esterase activity were only detected in C. albicans isolates, which were found to be higher in aerobic conditions. No difference was found in virulence factors evaluated among the C. albicans genotypes. Conclusion: The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere may affect the virulence of Candida spp. Further comprehensive studies are needed in order to identify the relationship between Candida genotypes and virulence factors.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
To investigate the relationship between depression, nutritional status, and inflammatory markers in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD).
Patients and methods:
This prospective study included 40 PD patients and 20 healthy people. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck depression inventory, the Hamilton depression rating scale, and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale. The depressive patients received antidepressant drug for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before and after antidepressant treatment for the high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels.
Ten (25%) of the 40 PD patients had depression. No significant difference was determined between depressive patients and nondepressive patients. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher in depressive patients. There was no significant difference for other inflammation parameters, including hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6, between depressive patients and nondepressive patients. In the depressive patients, we did not observe any significant change in nutritional parameters after antidepressant treatment. When we evaluated inflammation parameters of the depressive patients before and after antidepressant treatment, only IL-1 and IL-6 levels were significantly increased after antidepressant treatment.
The depressive disorder in PD patients is a common psychopathology and has no significant effects on nutritional status and inflammation.