Y. Fukui

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (818)2580.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Polarization maps of the Vela C molecular cloud were obtained at 250um, 350um, and 500um during the 2012 flight of the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol. These measurements are used in conjunction with 850um data from Planck to study the submillimeter spectrum of the polarization fraction for this cloud. The spectrum is relatively flat and does not exhibit the minimum at \lambda ~350um observed in previous measurements of other molecular clouds. The shape of the spectrum does not depend strongly on the radiative environment of the dust, as quantified by the column density or the dust temperature obtained from Herschel data. The polarization ratios observed in Vela C are consistent with a model of a porous clumpy molecular cloud being uniformly heated by the interstellar radiation field.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first detection of thermal X-ray line emission from the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946, the prototype of the small class of synchrotron dominated SNRs. A softness-ratio map generated using XMM-Newton data shows that faint interior regions are softer than bright shell regions. Using Suzaku and deep XMM-Newton observations, we have extracted X-ray spectra from the softest area, finding clear line features at 1 keV and 1.35 keV. These lines can be best explained as Ne Ly-alpha and Mg He-alpha from a thermal emission component. Since the abundance ratios of metals to Fe are much higher than solar values in the thermal component, we attribute the thermal emission to reverse-shocked SN ejecta. The measured Mg/Ne, Si/Ne, and Fe/Ne ratios of 2.0-2.6, 1.5-2.0, and <0.05 solar suggest that the progenitor star of RX J1713.7-3946 was a relatively low-mass star (<~20 M_sun), consistent with a previous inference based on the effect of stellar winds of the progenitor star on the surrounding medium. Since the mean blastwave speed of ~6000 km/s (the radius of 9.6 pc divided by the age of 1600 yr) is relatively fast compared with other core-collapse SNRs, we propose that RX J1713.7-3946 is a result of a Type Ib/c supernova whose progenitor was a member of an interacting binary. While our analysis provides strong evidence for X-ray line emission, our interpretation of its nature as thermal emission from SN ejecta requires further confirmation especially through future precision spectroscopic measurements using ASTRO-H.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present results for Vela C obtained during the 2012 flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). We mapped polarized intensity across almost the entire extent of this giant molecular cloud, in bands centered at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m. In this initial paper, we show our 500 {\mu}m data smoothed to a resolution of 2.5 arcminutes (approximately 0.5 pc). We show that the mean level of the fractional polarization p and most of its spatial variations can be accounted for using an empirical three-parameter power-law fit, p = p_0 N^(-0.4) S^(-0.6), where N is the hydrogen column density and S is the polarization-angle dispersion on 0.5 pc scales. The decrease of p with increasing S is expected because changes in the magnetic field direction within the cloud volume sampled by each measurement will lead to cancellation of polarization signals. The decrease of p with increasing N might be caused by the same effect, if magnetic field disorder increases for high column density sightlines. Alternatively, the intrinsic polarization efficiency of the dust grain population might be lower for material along higher density sightlines. We find no significant correlation between N and S. Comparison of observed submillimeter polarization maps with synthetic polarization maps derived from numerical simulations provides a promising method for testing star formation theories. Realistic simulations should allow for the possibility of variable intrinsic polarization efficiency. The measured levels of correlation among p, N, and S provide points of comparison between observations and simulations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the longevity of broad bridge features in position–velocity diagrams that appear as a result of cloud–cloud collisions. Broad bridges will have a finite lifetime due to the action of feedback, conversion of gas into stars and the time-scale of the collision. We make a series of analytic arguments with which to estimate these lifetimes. Our simple analytic arguments suggest that for collisions between clouds larger than R ∼ 10 pc the lifetime of the broad bridge is more likely to be determined by the lifetime of the collision rather than the radiative or wind feedback disruption time-scale. However, for smaller clouds feedback becomes much more effective. This is because the radiative feedback time-scale scales with the ionizing flux Nly as $R^{7/4}N_{{\rm ly}}^{-1/4}$ so a reduction in cloud size requires a relatively large decrease in ionizing photons to maintain a given time-scale. We find that our analytic arguments are consistent with new synthetic observations of numerical simulations of cloud–cloud collisions (including star formation and radiative feedback). We also argue that if the number of observable broad bridges remains ∼ constant, then the disruption time-scale must be roughly equivalent to the collision rate. If this is the case, our analytic arguments also provide collision rate estimates, which we find are readily consistent with previous theoretical models at the scales they consider (clouds larger than about 10 pc) but are much higher for smaller clouds.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: List of contributions from the CTA Consortium presented at the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 30 July - 6 August 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A common idea for the origin of the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission, particularly that of the iron lines from neutral and highly ionized atoms, is a superposition of many cataclysmic variables and coronally active binaries. In this scenario, the flux should symmetrically distribute between the east and west on the plane with respect to Sagittarius A$^*$ because the stellar mass distribution determined by infrared observations is nearly symmetric. This symmetry is confirmed for the highly ionized iron line as well as the continuum emission. However, a clear excess of the neutral iron line in the near east of the Galactic center compared to the near-west side is found. The flux distribution of the excess emission well correlates with molecular column density. The X-ray spectrum of the excess emission is described by a power-law continuum plus a 6.4 keV line with the large equivalent width of $\sim1.3$ keV, which is hardly explained by the low-energy electron bombardment scenario. The longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of the excess emission disfavors the X-ray irradiation, neither by Sagittarius A$^*$ nor by nearby X-ray binaries. Then the low-energy proton bombardment is the most probable origin although the high energy density $\sim 80$ eV cm$^{-3}$ in 0.1-1000 MeV is required and there is no conventional proton source in the vicinity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: By performing a global magneto-hydrodynamical simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic center region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches >~ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. In addition, the magnetic pressure-gradient force also drives radial flows in a similar manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternative to the bar-potential-driven model for the parallelogram-shape of the central molecular zone. This is a natural extension into the central few 100 pc of the magnetic activity, which is observed as molecular loops at radii from a few 100 pc to 1 kpc. Furthermore, the time-averaged net gas flow is directed outward, whereas the flows are highly time-dependent, which we discuss from a viewpoint of the outflow from the bulge.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The results of Mopra molecular spectral line observations towards the supernova remnant HESSJ1731-347 (G353.6-0.7) and the unidentified gamma-ray source HESSJ1729-345 are presented. Dense molecular gas in three different velocity-bands (corresponding to three Galactic arms) are investigated using the CS(1-0) line. The CS-traced component provides information about the dense target material in a hadronic scenario for gamma-ray production (cosmic rays interacting with gas) and an understanding of the dynamics. Furthermore, the effects of cosmic ray diffusion into dense gas may alter the gamma-ray spectrum to cause a flattening of spectra towards such regions. Dense molecular gas mass at a level of ~10^5 Mo was revealed in this survey, with mass of the order of ~10^3 Mo towards HESSJ1729-345 in each coincident Galactic arm, but no significant detection of dense molecular gas towards HESSJ1731-347 at the currently-preferred distance of ~5.2-6.2 kpc was discovered.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Collisions between giant molecular clouds are a potential mechanism for triggering the formation of massive stars, or even super star clusters. The trouble is identifying this process observationally and distinguishing it from other mechanisms. We produce synthetic position-velocity diagrams from models of: cloud-cloud collisions, non-interacting clouds along the line of sight, clouds with internal radiative feedback and a more complex cloud evolving in a galactic disc, to try and identify unique signatures of collision. We find that a broad bridge feature connecting two intensity peaks, spatially correlated but separated in velocity, is a signature of a high velocity cloud-cloud collision. We show that the broad bridge feature is resilient to the effects of radiative feedback, at least to around 2.5Myr after the formation of the first massive (ionising) star. However for a head on 10km/s collision we find that this will only be observable from 20-30 per cent of viewing angles. Such broad-bridge features have been identified towards M20, a very young region of massive star formation that was concluded to be a site of cloud-cloud collision by Torii et al (2011), and also towards star formation in the outer Milky Way by Izumi et al (2014).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out 13CO (J=2-1) observations of the active star-forming region N159 West in the LMC with ALMA. We have found that the CO distribution at a sub-pc scale is highly elongated with a small width. These elongated clouds called "filaments" show straight or curved distributions with a typical width of 0.5-1.0 pc and a length of 5-10 pc. All the known infrared YSOs are located toward the filaments. We have found broad CO wings of two molecular outflows toward young high-mass stars in N159W-N and N159W-S, whose dynamical timescale is ~10^4 yrs. This is the first discovery of protostellar outflow in external galaxies. For N159W-S which is located toward an intersection of two filaments we set up a hypothesis that the two filaments collided with each other ~10^5 yrs ago and triggered formation of the high-mass star having ~37Mo. The colliding clouds show significant enhancement in linewidth in the intersection, suggesting excitation of turbulence in the shocked interface layer between them as is consistent with the magneto-hydro-dynamical numerical simulations (Inoue & Fukui 2013). This turbulence increases the mass accretion rate to ~10^-4 Mo yr^-1, which is required to overcome the stellar feedback to form the high-mass star.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: RCW120 is a Galactic HII region which has a beautiful infrared ring. Previous studies on RCW120 provided a wealth of information on the second generation star formation, but the origin of the exciting O star located inside the ring structure has not been focused so far. Our new CO observations performed with the NANTEN2, Mopra, and ASTE telescopes have revealed that two molecular clouds with a velocity separation 20km/s are both physically associated with RCW120. The cloud at -8km/s apparently traces the infrared ring, while the other cloud at -28km/s is mainly distributed just outside the opening of the infrared ring, interacting with the HII region as supported by high kinetic temperature of the molecular gas and by the complementary distribution with the ionized gas. A spherically expanding shell driven by the HII region is usually discussed as the origin of the observed ring structure in RCW120. In this model, the neutral material which surrounds the HII region is expected to have an expanding motion. Our observations, however, indicate no evidence of the expanding motion in the velocity space, being inconsistent with the expanding shell scenario. We here postulate an alternative that, by applying the model introduced by Habe & Ohta (1992), the exciting O star in RCW120 was formed by a collision between the present two clouds at a colliding velocity of ~30km/s. In the model, the observed infrared ring can be interpreted as the cavity created in the larger cloud by the collision, whose inner surface is illuminated by the strong UV radiation after the birth of the O star. We argue that the present cloud-cloud collision scenario explains the observed signatures of RCW120, i.e., its ring morphology, coexistence of the two clouds and their large velocity separation, and absence of the expanding motion.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present fully sampled ~3' resolution images of the 12CO(J=2-1), 13CO(J=2-1), and C18O(J=2-1) emission taken with the newly developed 1.85-m mm-submm telescope toward the entire area of the Orion A and B giant molecular clouds. The data were compared with the J=1-0 of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O data taken with the Nagoya 4-m telescope and the NANTEN telescope at the same angular resolution to derive the spatial distributions of the physical properties of the molecular gas. We explore the large velocity gradient formalism to determine the gas density and temperature by using the line combinations of 12CO(J=2-1), 13CO(J=2-1), and 13CO(J=1-0) assuming uniform velocity gradient and abundance ratio of CO. The derived gas density is in the range of 500 to 5000 cm-3, and the derived gas temperature is mostly in the range of 20 to 50 K along the cloud ridge with a temperature gradient depending on the distance from the star forming region. We found the high-temperature region at the cloud edge facing to the HII region, indicating that the molecular gas is interacting with the stellar wind and radiation from the massive stars. In addition, we compared the derived gas properties with the Young Stellar Objects distribution obtained with the Spitzer telescope to investigate the relationship between the gas properties and the star formation activity therein. We found that the gas density and star formation efficiency are well positively correlated, indicating that stars form effectively in the dense gas region.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse $\gamma$-ray emission is the most prominent observable signature of celestial cosmic-ray interactions at high energies. While already being investigated at GeV energies over several decades, assessments of diffuse $\gamma$-ray emission at TeV energies remain sparse. After completion of the systematic survey of the inner Galaxy, the H.E.S.S. experiment is in a prime position to observe large-scale diffuse emission at TeV energies. Data of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey are investigated in regions off known $\gamma$-ray sources. Corresponding $\gamma$-ray flux measurements were made over an extensive grid of celestial locations. Longitudinal and latitudinal profiles of the observed $\gamma$-ray fluxes show characteristic excess emission not attributable to known $\gamma$-ray sources. For the first time large-scale $\gamma$-ray emission along the Galactic Plane using imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes has been observed. While the background subtraction technique limits the ability to recover modest variation on the scale of the H.E.S.S. field of view or larger, which is characteristic of the inverse Compton scatter-induced Galactic diffuse emission, contributions of neutral pion decay as well as emission from unresolved $\gamma$-ray sources can be recovered in the observed signal to a large fraction. Calculations show that the minimum $\gamma$-ray emission from $\pi^0$-decay represents a significant contribution to the total signal. This detection is interpreted as a mix of diffuse Galactic $\gamma$-ray emission and unresolved sources.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Physical Review D
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    ABSTRACT: The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Halpha observations. In the diffuse atomic ISM, we derive the gas-to-dust ratio as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find gas-to-dust ratios of 380+250-130 in the LMC, and 1200+1600-420 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 Mo pc-2 in the LMC and 0.03 Mo pc-2 in the SMC, corresponding to AV ~ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on XCO to be 6x1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the LMC (Z=0.5Zo) at 15 pc resolution, and 4x 1021 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the SMC (Z=0.2Zo) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ~2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H2 in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H2. Within the expected 5--20 times Galactic XCO range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H2.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. 12CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H2)) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (103-105 cm–3) and their kinetic temperatures (T kin) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H2) and T kin, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale ISM flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining 12CO, 13CO and C18O(J=1-0) data with new high-resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (MH2 ~ 1.7 x 10^5 Msol), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular gas is relatively diffuse, and the cloud as a whole shows little evidence of star formation activity, supporting a scenario in which it is young and recently formed. Drip-like formations along its lower edge may be explained by fluid dynamical instabilities in the cooled gas.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of Supergiant Shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. $^{12}$CO ($J$=3-2, 1-0) and $^{13}$CO ($J$=1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out towards these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities ($n({\rm H}_2)$) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density ($10^3$-$10^5$ cm$^{-3}$) and their kinetic temperatures ($T_{\rm kin}$) are typically high (greater than $50$ K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of H$\alpha$, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density HI envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high $n({\rm H}_2)$ and $T_{\rm kin}$, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) HESS J1825-137 is one of the most extended TeV PWN and its morphology is influenced by the molecular gas located north of the TeV sources. In order to refine the composition and dynamics of the cloud, we have used the telescope Mopra in the 7 and 12 mm bands. Our results highlight dense regions and also perturbations in the southern part of the dense cloud.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results of the new CO J = (2 − 1) observations toward the central molecular zone (CMZ) using the NANTEN2 telescope at an angular resolution of 100″. Large area coverage of 4° × 2° in l and b and a high angular resolution of 100″ enable us to investigate detailed structures of the molecular gas in the CMZ including peculiar molecular filaments perpendicularly to the Galactic plane to b > |0.5°|. The major components of the CMZ, e.g., Sgr A, Sgr B and Sgr C cloud complexes, show high CO J = (2 − 1)/J = (1 − 0) ratios around 0.9, indicating highly excited conditions of the molecular gas, while the local foreground components show less than 0.4. The molecular filaments show the typical ratios of 0.6–0.7 indicate that they are indeed located in the Galactic center.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/HIFI sub-mm atomic carbon ([Ci] 3 P 1 – 3 P 0 and [Ci] 3 P 2 – 3 P 1), ionized carbon ([Cii] 2 P 3/2 – 2 P 1/2), and ionized nitrogen ([Nii] 3 P 1 – 3 P 0) line observations obtained in the frame of the Herschel Guaranteed Time HEXGAL (Herschel EXtraGALactic) key program (P. I. Rolf Güsten, MPIfR), and NANTEN2/SMART carbon monoxide (CO(J = 4 – 3)) observations of the warm gas around the Sgr A region. The spectrally resolved emission from all lines, and the corresponding line intensity ratios, show a very complex morphology. The determination of spatial and spectral (anti)correlation with known sources in the Sgr A region such as the Arched Filaments, NTF filaments, the Sickle, Quintuplet cluster, CND clouds, is ongoing work.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,580.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1986-2015
    • Nagoya University
      • Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2014
    • Ibaraki University
      • College of Science
      Mito-shi, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2013
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Physics
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 1992-2013
    • Osaka Prefecture University
      • • Graduate School of Science
      • • Department of Physical Science
      Sakai, Ōsaka, Japan
    • University of Tsukuba
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2012
    • James Cook University
      • Centre for Astronomy
      Townsville, Queensland, Australia
  • 1989-2011
    • Nagoya City University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2010
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2007
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1999-2007
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • University of Udine
      Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2005
    • Tokyo Metropolitan University
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002-2004
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2003
    • Tomsk Polytechnic University
      • Institute of Physics and Technology
      Tomsk, Tomsk, Russia
  • 2001-2003
    • High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Physics
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Brookhaven National Laboratory
      • Physics Department
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2000-2002
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Physics
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1998-2002
    • Università di Pisa
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2000-2001
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1993-1998
    • Argonne National Laboratory
      • Division of X-ray Science
      Lemont, Illinois, United States
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995-1997
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada