[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide experimental evidence for the effect of inflammation on cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we investigated the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor A (SR-A) genes and proteins in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cell line. RAW264.7 cells were incubated in serum-free medium in the absence or presence of LDL alone, LDL + LPS and LPS alone. Intracellular cholesterol content, tumor necrosis factor α levels in the supernatants, mRNA and protein expression of LDL-R and SR-A in the treated cells were assessed by Oil Red O staining cholesterol enzymatic assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results demonstrated that LPS was able to upregulate SR-A mRNA and protein expression, override LDL-R suppression induced by a high dose of LDL and increase LDL uptake by enhancing receptor expression, leading to foam cell formation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings suggest that the synergy of the upregulation of SR-A and dysregulation of LDL-R under inflammatory stress may contribute to macrophage-derived foam cell formation.
Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim:
A number of studies have shown that hepatitis virus infections may be associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CC). However, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and CC, especially intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), is still controversial.
Relevant studies were identified by searching PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science Datebases up to September 2011. Pooled risk estimates were calculated using a random-effects model. Potential sources of heterogeneity were performed by subgroup analyses. A total of 18 papers were included in this meta-analysis.
The pooled risk estimate of all studies showed a statistically significant increased risk of CC among individuals with HBV infection (rate ratio [RR]: 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.97, 3.60). Compared with those without HBV infection, persons with HBV infection had an increased risk of intra-CC (ICC) (RR: 3.42; 95% CI: 2.46, 43.74), extrahepatic CC (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.17), and CC (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.56). In a subgroup analysis of HBV infection and risk of ICC, the pooled risk estimate of studies in Asians (RR: 3.63; 95% CI: 2.56, 5.13) was higher than that in non-Asians (RR: 1.93; 95% CI: 0.78, 4.76). A Begg funnel plot and Egger test revealed no evidence for publication bias.
This meta-analysis shows that HBV is associated with increased risk of CC, especially for ICC. Further investigation is needed to focus on the mechanism by which HBV may be involved in the pathogenesis of CC.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology