[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the hypothesis that a novel prolactin-like protein gene (PRL-L) is involved in cold-induced growth of skeletal muscle in chicks. Six-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed to cold at 4 °C or kept warm at 30 °C for 24 hours. Cold exposure induced significant increases in PRL-L expression that coincided with increases in the weight of the sartorius muscle, which comprises both fast- and slow-twitch fibers. Meanwhile, no induction of PRL-L mRNA was observed in the heart, liver, kidney, brain, or fat. Myoblast cells that expressed PRL-L mRNA grew faster than untransduced cells in media containing 2% serum. These results suggested that PRL-L might be involved in in controlling cold-induced muscle growth of chicks.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · General and Comparative Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) show considerable growth of skeletal muscle during the neonatal period. The in vivo gene transfer method is useful for studying gene function and can be employed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle growth in chicks. We evaluated the following conditions for gene transfer to the skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks by electroporation: (i) voltage; (ii) age of the chick; (iii) plasmid DNA injected amount; and (iv) duration of gene expression. The results obtained from this study indicate that the most efficient gene transfer condition was as follows: 75 µg of plasmid DNA encoding β-galactosidase was injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of chicks at 4 days of age electroporated at 50 V/cm. In addition, peak transferred gene expression was observed from 3 days to 5 days after electroporation. Our results provide optimal electroporation conditions for elucidating the gene function related to skeletal muscle growth and development in neonatal chicks.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Animal Science Journal