[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurocritical care patients are at high risk for stress-related upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the risks and benefits of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in this patient group.
A systematic search of major electronic literature databases was conducted. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which researchers compared the effects of SUP (with proton pump inhibitors or histamine 2 receptor antagonists) with placebo or no prophylaxis in neurocritical care patients. The primary outcome was UGI bleeding, and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and nosocomial pneumonia. Study heterogeneity was sought and quantified. The results were reported as risk ratios/relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs).
We included 8 RCTs comprising an aggregate of 829 neurocritical care patients. Among these trials, one study conducted in a non–intensive care unit setting that did not meet our inclusion criteria was ultimately included based on further evaluation. All studies were judged as having a high or unclear risk of bias. SUP was more effective than placebo or no prophylaxis at reducing UGI bleeding (random effects: RR 0.31; 95 % CI 0.20–0.47; P < 0.00001; I 2 = 45 %) and all-cause mortality (fixed effects: RR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.50–0.98; P = 0.04; I 2 = 0 %). There was no difference between SUP and placebo or no prophylaxis regarding nosocomial pneumonia (random effects: RR 1.14; 95 % CI 0.67–1.94; P = 0.62; I 2 = 42 %). The slight asymmetry of the funnel plots raised the concern of small trial bias, and apparent heterogeneity existed in participants, interventions, control treatments, and outcome measures.
In neurocritical care patients, SUP seems to be more effective than placebo or no prophylaxis in preventing UGI bleeding and reducing all-cause mortality while not increasing the risk of nosocomial pneumonia. The robustness of this conclusion is limited by a lack of trials with a low risk of bias, sparse data, heterogeneity among trials, and a concern regarding small trial bias.
International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) identifier: CRD42015015802. Date of registration: 6 Jan 2015.
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) typically presents in the supratentorial white matter, commonly within the centrum semiovale as a ring-enhancing lesion with areas of necrosis. An atypical presentation of this lesion, both anatomically as well as radiographically, is significant and must be part of the differential for a neoplasm in this anatomical location.
Case Description We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with headaches, increasing somnolence, and cognitive decline for several weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mild left ventricular dilatation with a well-marginated, homogeneous, and nonhemorrhagic lesion located at the ceiling of the third ventricle within the junction of the septum pellucidum and fornix, without exhibiting the typical radiographic features of hemorrhage or necrosis. Final pathology reports confirmed the diagnosis of GBM.
Conclusion This case report describes an unusual location for the most common primary brain neoplasm. Moreover, this case identifies the origin of a GBM related to the paracentral ventricular structures infiltrating the body of the fornix and leaves of the septum pellucidum. To our knowledge this report is the first reported case of a GBM found in this anatomical location with an entirely atypical radiographic presentation.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Neurological Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is rare and difficult to diagnose because it is often overlooked or mistaken for other pathologies due to its nonspecific symptoms. A 32-year-old Hispanic man with advanced acquired immunodeficiency virus presented with altered mental status and reported confusion for the past 3 months. He had a Glasgow Coma Scale of 12, repetitive nonfluent speech, and a disconjugate gaze with a right gaze preference. Lung computed tomography (CT) findings indicated a pulmonary histoplasmosis infection. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the left caudate nucleus. A CT-guided left retroperitoneal node biopsy was performed and indicated a benign inflammatory process with organisms compatible with fungal yeast. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by itraconazole was initiated in spite of negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and proved effective in mitigating associated CNS lesions and resolving neurologic deficits. The patient was discharged 3 weeks later in stable condition. Six weeks later, his left basal ganglia mass decreased. Early recognition of symptoms and proper steps is key in improving outcomes of CNS histoplasmosis. Aggressive medical management is possible in the treatment of intracranial deep mass lesions, and disseminated histoplasmosis with CNS involvement can be appropriately diagnosed and treated, despite negative CSF and serology studies.
Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Neurological Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seizures account for significant morbidity and mortality early in the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there is sufficient literature suggesting short-term benefits of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in post-TBI patients, there has been no study to suggest a time frame for continuing AEDs in patients who have undergone a decompressive craniectomy for more severe TBI. We examined trends in a level-II trauma center in southern California that may provide guidelines for AED treatment in craniectomy patients.
A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy and those who underwent a standard craniotomy from 2008 to 2012.
Out of the 153 patients reviewed, 85 were included in the study with 52 (61%) craniotomy and 33 (39%) craniectomy patients. A total of 78.8% of the craniotomy group used phenytoin (Dilantin), 9.6% used levetiracetam (Keppra), 5.8% used a combination of both, and 3.8% used topiramate (Topamax). The craniectomy group used phenytoin 84.8% and levetiracetam 15.2% of the time without any significant difference between the procedural groups. Craniotomy patients had a 30-day seizure rate of 13.5% compared with 21.2% in craniectomy patients (P = 0.35). Seizure onset averaged on postoperative day 5.86 for the craniotomy group and 8.14 for the craniectomy group. There was no significant difference in the average day of seizure onset between the groups P = 0.642.
Our study shows a trend toward increased seizure incidence in craniectomy group, which does not reach significance, but suggests they are at higher risk. Whether this higher risk translates into a benefit on being on AEDs for a longer duration than the current standard of 7 days cannot be concluded as there is no significant difference or trend on the onset date for seizures in either group. Moreover, a prospective study will be necessary to more profoundly evaluate the duration of AED prophylaxis for each one of the stated groups.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Surgical Neurology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracranial germ cell tumors are uncommon and account for only 0.3-3.4% of all intracranial tumors. Teratomas are a subset of these neoplasms, and their finding in brain structures is exceptionally rare, and occurrence within the skull base is quite novel. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented with vision changes, incontinence, ataxia, and altered mental status of 1 week's duration. Imaging revealed a large intrasellar mass with suprasellar extension, involvement of the ventricular system, and marked hydrocephalus with the enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The patient underwent a pterional craniotomy/transsylvian approach for resection of the mass. Postoperative histological examination of the resected mass was confirmatory for a mature cystic teratoma. This was followed by radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and adjuvant radiotherapy. At the most recent followup, approximately 4 years later, the patient is doing well with improved vision since the operation. This report highlights our experience with a teratoma in a very unusual location, and we review the relevant literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients with glioblastoma multiforme or meningiomas has not been described. These infections are known to modulate the activity of the immune system, which potentially influences the development and course of cancer. We hypothesized that chronic hepatitis infection, which activates the immune system, decreases the risk of brain tumors, particularly those that are highly malignant. We performed a retrospective study to examine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients with meningiomas and glioblastomas. The combined prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the USA from 1999-2008 was 5.7%. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients with meningiomas was 2.4%; while among glioblastoma patients, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C was 1.38%. The odds ratio of having hepatitis B or C with glioblastoma versus meningiomas was 0.56, with a confidence interval of 0.19-1.6 and a P-value of 0.29. Compared with historical controls, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in meningioma and glioblastoma patients was decreased. However, this difference may be attributed to the retrospective nature of our data and the natural history of hepatitis B and C infections. The prevalence of these viral infections was not statistically different in patients with meningiomas and glioblastomas. This suggests that hepatitis B and C primarily influence slow-growing, benign tumors and more aggressive cancers equally, if at all. To definitively test our hypothesis, future studies in which data are prospectively gathered are likely to be required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors predominantly occur in children, and are rare in the adult population. Less than 100 cases of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor have been reported in adults internationally. Our case study reports this rare incident.
A 22-year-old Hispanic man presented with headaches, blurry vision, diplopia, intermittent vomiting, and grossly decreased vision. A magnetic resonance image showed a left posterior parietal heterogeneously enhancing mass measuring 4.2cm × 7.2cm × 7.0cm. After craniotomy for resection and decompression, the mass was histologically revealed to be a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Standardized immunohistochemical studies for this mass were carried out.
We have concluded that immunohistochemical and genetic workup should be included in the standardized pathological workup for primitive neuroectodermal tumors in order to provide more prognostic information. Based on our current literature review, we propose an immunohistochemical panel.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LD), or dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma, is a hamartoma considered pathognomonic for Cowden disease. Classically, LD has a progressive and insidious onset of symptoms. In this case report, we present a patient having rapid neurological deterioration from acute-onset LD. There are only three reported cases of acute LD presentation. A 22-year-old female presented to the emergency department with diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and gait instability which developed within 6 h. A non-contrast CT scan revealed diffuse attenuation in the left cerebellum and mild ventricular dilatation. LP revealed no organisms. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed salient "tiger stripe" appearance of the left cerebellar cortex and effacement of the fourth ventricle. The patient subsequently underwent suboccipital craniotomy and gross total resection of the lesion. The tumor histology showed distortion of normal cerebellar architecture with dysplastic ganglion cells, loss of Purkinje cells, atrophy of the white matter, and expansion of cerebellar folia. Findings were consistent with adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease.