J. Maíz Apellániz

University of Surrey, Guilford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (117)274.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We introduce a HST/STIS stellar census of R136a, the central ionizing star cluster of 30 Doradus. We present low resolution far-ultraviolet STIS/MAMA spectroscopy of R136 using 17 contiguous 52×0.2 arcsec slits which together provide complete coverage of the central 0.85 parsec (3.4 arcsec). We provide spectral types of 90% of the 57 sources brighter than mF555W = 16.0 mag within a radius of 0.5 parsec of R136a1, plus 8 additional nearby sources including R136b (O4 If/WN8). We measure wind velocities for 52 early-type stars from C ivλλ1548–51, including 16 O2–3 stars. For the first time we spectroscopically classify all Weigelt & Baier members of R136a, which comprise three WN5 stars (a1-a3), two O supergiants (a5-a6) and three early O dwarfs (a4, a7, a8). A complete Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the most massive O stars in R136 is provided, from which we obtain a cluster age of 1.5$^{+0.3}_{-0.7}$ Myr. In addition, we discuss the integrated ultraviolet spectrum of R136, and highlight the central role played by the most luminous stars in producing the prominent He ii λ1640 emission line. This emission is totally dominated by very massive stars with initial masses above ∼100M⊙. The presence of strong He iiλ1640 emission in the integrated light of very young star clusters (e.g A1 in NGC 3125) favours an initial mass function extending well beyond a conventional upper limit of 100 M⊙. We include montages of ultraviolet spectroscopy for LMC O stars in the Appendix. Future studies in this series will focus on optical STIS/CCD medium resolution observations.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We study the O-type star HD 161853, which has been noted as a probable double-lined spectroscopic binary system. We secured high-resolution spectra of HD 161853 during the past nine years. We separated the two components in the system and measured their respective radial velocities for the first time. We confirm that HD 161853 is an $\sim$1 Ma old binary system consisting of an O8 V star ($M_{\rm A,RV} \geq 22$ M$_\odot$) and a B1--3 V star ($M_{\rm B,RV} \geq 7.2$ M$_\odot$) at about 1.3 kpc. From the radial velocity curve, we measure an orbital period $P$ = 2.66765$\pm$0.00001 d and an eccentricity $e$ = 0.121$\pm$0.007. Its $V$-band light curve is constant within 0.014 mag and does not display eclipses, from which we impose a maximum orbital inclination $i=54$ deg. HD 161853 is probably associated with an H II region and a poorly investigated very young open cluster. In addition, we detect a compact emission region at 50 arcsec to HD 161853 in 22$\mu$m-WISE and 24$\mu$m-Spitzer images, which may be identified as a dust wave piled up by the radiation pressure of the massive binary system.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We present the first orbital solution for the O-type supergiant star HD 74194, which is the optical counterpart of the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J08408-4503. Methods. We measured the radial velocities in the optical spectrum of HD 74194, and we determined the orbital solution for the first time. We also analysed the complex H{\alpha} profile. Results. HD 74194 is a binary system composed of an O-type supergiant and a compact object in a short-period ($P=9.5436\pm0.0002$ d) and high-eccentricity ($e=0.63\pm0.03$) orbit. The equivalent width of the H{\alpha} line is not modulated entirely with the orbital period, but seems to vary in a superorbital period ($P=285\pm10$ d) nearly 30 times longer than the orbital one.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The contact phase expected to precede the coalescence of two massive stars is poorly characterized due to the paucity of observational constraints. Here we report on the discovery of VFTS 352, an O-type binary in the 30 Doradus region, as the most massive and earliest spectral type overcontact system known to date. We derived the 3D geometry of the system, its orbital period $P_{\rm orb}=1.1241452(4)$ d, components' effective temperatures -- $T_1=42\,540\pm280$ K and $T_2=41\,120\pm290$ K -- and dynamical masses -- $M_1=28.63\pm0.30 M_{\odot}$ and $M_2 = 28.85\pm0.30 M_{\odot}$. Compared to single-star evolutionary models, the VFTS 352 components are too hot for their dynamical masses by about 2700 and 1100 K, respectively. These results can be explained naturally as a result of enhanced mixing, theoretically predicted to occur in very short-period tidally-locked systems. The VFTS 352 components are two of the best candidates identified so far to undergo this so-called chemically homogeneous evolution. The future of VFTS 352 is uncertain. If the two stars merge, a very rapidly rotating star will be produced. Instead, if the stars continue to evolve homogeneously and keep shrinking within their Roche Lobes, coalescence can be avoided. In this case, tides may counteract the spin down by winds such that the VFTS 352 components may, at the end of their life, fulfill the requirements for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors in the collapsar scenario. Independently of whether the VFTS 352 components become GRB progenitors, this scenario makes VFTS 352 interesting as a progenitor of a black hole binary, hence as a potential gravitational wave source through black hole-black hole merger.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    J. Maíz Apellániz · R. H. Barbá · A. Sota · S. Simón-Díaz
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Nearly one century after their discovery, the carrier(s) of Diffuse Interstellar Bands is/are still unknown and there are few sightlines studied in detail for a large number of DIBs. Aims: We want to study the ISM sightlines towards LS III +46 11 and LS III +46 12, two early-O-type stellar systems, and LS III +46 11 B, a mid-B-type star. The three targets are located in the stellar cluster Berkeley 90 and have a high extinction. Methods: We use the multi-epoch high-S/N optical spectra presented in paper I (Ma\'iz Apell\'aniz et al. 2015), the extinction results derived there, and additional spectra. Results: We have measured equivalent widths, velocities, and FWHMs for a large number of absorption lines in the rich ISM spectrum in front of Berkeley 90. The absorbing ISM has at least two clouds at different velocities, one with a lower column density (thinner) in the K I lines located away from Berkeley 90 and another one with a higher column density (thicker) associated with the cluster. The first cloud has similar properties for both O-star sightlines but the second one is thicker for LS III +46 11. The comparison between species indicate that the cloud with a higher column density has a denser core, allowing us to classify the DIBs in a sigma-zeta scale, some of them for the first time. The LS III +46 12 sightline also has a high-velocity redshifted component.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Extremely broad emission wings at H$\beta$ and H$\alpha$ have been found in VFTS data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of H$\beta$ and the shortward wing of H$\alpha$. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables. No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Optical spectroscopic monitoring has been conducted of two O stars in the Small and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the spectral characteristics of which place them in the Of?p category, which has been established in the Galaxy to consist of oblique magnetic rotators. All of these Magellanic stars show systematic spectral variations typical of the Of?p class, further strengthening their magnetic candidacy to the point of virtual certainty. The spectral variations are related to photometric variations derived from OGLE data by Naze et al. (2015) in a parallel study, which yields rotational periods for two of them. Now circular spectropolarimetry is required to measure their fields, and ultraviolet spectroscopy to further characterize their low-metallicity, magnetically confined winds, in support of hydrodynamical analyses.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we present high resolution spectroscopic data of the giant star-forming region of N11, obtained with the GIRAFFE instrument at the Very Large Telescope. By using this data set, we find that most of the H$\alpha$ emission lines profiles in this complex can be fitted by a single Gaussian, however, multiple emission line profiles can be observed in the central region of N11. By adding all the spectra, we derive the integrated H$\alpha$ profile of this complex, which displays a width ($\sigma$) of about 12 km s$^{-1}$ (corrected by instrumental and thermal width). We find that a single Gaussian fit on the integrated H$\alpha$ profile leaves remaining wings, which can be fitted by a secondary broad Gaussian component. In addition, we find high velocity features, which spatially correlate with soft diffuse X-ray emission.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), a number of clusters will be observed that were chosen specifically for their massive-star content. We report on the procedures we followed to determine the stellar parameters from the massive-star spectra of this survey. We intercompare the results from the different techniques used by the nodes of our group to determine these parameters and discuss some of the problems encountered. We present preliminary results for NGC 6705, NGC 3293, and Trumpler 14. We study microturbulence in A-type stars, we use the repeat observation to investigate binarity, and we determine cluster membership from the radial velocity information. The large number of massive-star spectra obtained by the Gaia-ESO Survey will allow us to critically test stellar evolution modelling.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of <10^3.5 d and mass ratios >0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars in 30 Dor. We obtain a present-day binary fraction f_B(true) = 0.58 +/- 0.11, with a flat period distribution. Within the uncertainties, the multiplicity properties of the B-type stars agree with those for the O stars in 30 Dor from the VFTS.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report on both high-precision photometry from the MOST space telescope and ground-based spectroscopy of the triple system delta Ori A consisting of a binary O9.5II+early-B (Aa1 and Aa2) with P = 5.7d, and a more distant tertiary (O9 IV P > 400 yrs). This data was collected in concert with X-ray spectroscopy from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Thanks to continuous coverage for 3 weeks, the MOST light curve reveals clear eclipses between Aa1 and Aa2 for the ?first time in non-phased data. From the spectroscopy we have a well constrained radial velocity curve of Aa1. While we are unable to recover radial velocity variations of the secondary star, we are able to constrain several fundamental parameters of this system and determine an approximate mass of the primary using apsidal motion. We also detected second order modulations at 12 separate frequencies with spacings indicative of tidally influenced oscillations. These spacings have never been seen in a massive binary, making this system one of only a handful of such binaries which show evidence for tidally induced pulsations.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Context: It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find due to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. AIMS: We want to study: [a] LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; [b] another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and [c] the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high-S/N optical spectra though we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with devoted pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very-early-O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 12 and derive minimum masses of 38.80$\pm$0.83 M_Sol and 35.60$\pm$0.77 M_Sol for its two stars. We measure the extinction to both stars, estimate the distance, search for optical companions, and study the surrounding cluster. In doing so, a variable extinction is found as well as discrepant results for the distance. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that LS III +46 12 may be a hidden binary system, where the companion is currently undetected.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The IACOB project is an ambitious long-term project which is contributing to step forward in our knowledge about the physical properties and evolution of Galactic massive stars. The project aims at building a large database of high-resolution, multi-epoch, spectra of Galactic OB stars, and the scientific exploitation of the database using state-of-the-art models and techniques. In this proceeding, we summarize the latest updates of the IACOB spectroscopic database and highlight some of the first scientific results from the IACOB project; we also announce the first data release and the first public version of the iacob-broad tool for the line-broadening characterization of OB-type spectra.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Eclipsing systems of massive stars allow one to explore the properties of their components in great detail. We perform a multi-wavelength, non-LTE analysis of the three components of the massive multiple system $\delta$ Ori A, focusing on the fundamental stellar properties, stellar winds, and X-ray characteristics of the system. The primary's distance-independent parameters turn out to be characteristic for its spectral type (O9.5 II), but usage of the ${\rm \it Hipparcos}$ parallax yields surprisingly low values for the mass, radius, and luminosity. Consistent values follow only if $\delta$ Ori lies at about twice the ${\rm \it Hipparcos}$ distance, in the vicinity of the $\sigma$-Orionis cluster. The primary and tertiary dominate the spectrum and leave the secondary only marginally detectable. We estimate the V-band magnitude difference between primary and secondary to be $\Delta V \approx 2.\!\!^{\rm m}8$. The inferred parameters suggest the secondary is an early B-type dwarf ($\approx$ B1 V), while the tertiary is an early B-type subgiant ($\approx$ B0 IV). We find evidence for rapid turbulent velocities ($\sim 200$ km ${\rm s}^{-1}$) and wind inhomogeneities, partially optically thick, in the primary's wind. The bulk of the X-ray emission likely emerges from the primary's stellar wind ($\log L_{\text{X}} / L_{\text{Bol}} \approx -6.85$), initiating close to the stellar surface at $R_0 \sim 1.1\,R_*$. Accounting for clumping, the mass-loss rate of the primary is found to be $\log \dot{M} \approx -6.4\,[M_\odot\,{\rm yr}^{-1}]$, which agrees with hydrodynamic predictions, and provides a consistent picture along the X-ray, UV, optical and radio spectral domains.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The stellar population of the 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains a subset of apparently single, rapidly rotating O-type stars. The physical processes leading to the formation of this cohort are currently uncertain. Aims. One member of this group, the late O-type star VFTS 399, is found to be unexpectedly X-ray bright for its bolometric luminosity − in this study we aim to determine its physical nature and the cause of this behaviour. Methods. To accomplish this we performed a time-resolved analysis of optical, infrared and X-ray observations. Results. We found VFTS 399 to be an aperiodic photometric variable with an apparent near-IR excess. Its optical spectrum demonstrates complex emission profiles in the lower Balmer series and select He i lines − taken together these suggest an OeBe classification. The highly variable X-ray luminosity is too great to be produced by a single star, while the hard, non-thermal nature suggests the presence of an accreting relativistic companion. Finally, the detection of periodic modulation of the X-ray lightcurve is most naturally explained under the assumption that the accretor is a neutron star. Conclusions. VFTS 399 appears to be the first high-mass X-ray binary identified within 30 Dor, sharing many observational characteristics with classical Be X-ray binaries. Comparison of the current properties of VFTS 399 to binary-evolution models suggests a progenitor mass ≳25 M_⊙ for the putative neutron star, which may host a magnetic field comparable in strength to those of magnetars. VFTS 399 is now the second member of the cohort of rapidly rotating “single” O-type stars in 30 Dor to show evidence of binary interaction resulting in spin-up, suggesting that this may be a viable evolutionary pathway for the formation of a subset of this stellar population.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B hierarchical triple system, and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic dataset comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filh\'es method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the {$\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B} system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that $\sigma$ Ori B is a fast rotating early-B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa,Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while $\sigma$ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the $\sigma$ Orionis cluster, at 3$\pm$1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the $\sigma$ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for $\sigma$ Ori Aa,Ab,B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 +/- 12.2 km/s from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3-sigma criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (>345 km/s) or small (<65 km/s) rotational velocities. Of the candidate runaways, VFTS 358 (classified B0.5: V) has the largest differential radial velocity (-106.9 +/- 16.2 km/s), and a preliminary atmospheric analysis finds a significantly enriched nitrogen abundance of 12+log(N/H) > ~8.5. Combined with a large rotational velocity (vsini = 345 +/- 22 km/s), this is suggestive of past binary interaction for this star.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: CAFÉ-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAFÉ-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Model atmosphere analyses have been previously undertaken for both Galactic and extragalactic B-type supergiants. By contrast, little attention has been given to a comparison of the properties of single supergiants and those that are members of multiple systems. Aims. Atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances have been estimated for all the B-type supergiants identified in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey. These include both single targets and binary candidates. The results have been analysed to investigate the role of binarity in the evolutionary history of supergiants. Methods. tlusty non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances for 34 single and 18 binary supergiants. Effective temperatures were deduced using the silicon balance technique, complemented by the helium ionisation in the hotter spectra. Surface gravities were estimated using Balmer line profiles and microturbulent velocities deduced using the silicon spectrum. Nitrogen abundances or upper limits were estimated from the N ii spectrum. The effects of a flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. Results. We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of B-type supergiants across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the B-type supergiants it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is also consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities and nitrogen abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post-red supergiant objects. For all the supergiants in the Tarantula and in a previous FLAMES survey, the majority have small projected rotational velocities. The distribution peaks at about 50 km s^(-1) with 65% in the range 30 km s^(-1) ≤ v_e sin i ≤ 60 km s^(-1). About ten per cent have larger v_e sin i (≥100 km s^(-1)), but surprisingly these show little or no nitrogen enhancement. All the cooler supergiants have low projected rotational velocities of ≤70 km s^(-1) and high nitrogen abundance estimates, implying that either bi-stability braking or evolution on a blue loop may be important. Additionally, there is a lack of cooler binaries, possibly reflecting the small sample sizes. Single-star evolutionary models, which include rotation, can account for all of the nitrogen enhancement in both the single and binary samples. The detailed distribution of nitrogen abundances in the single and binary samples may be different, possibly reflecting differences in their evolutionary history. Conclusions. The first comparative study of single and binary B-type supergiants has revealed that the main sequence may be significantly wider than previously assumed, extending to T_(eff) = 20 000 K. Some marginal differences in single and binary atmospheric parameters and abundances have been identified, possibly implying non-standard evolution for some of the sample. This sample as a whole has implications for several aspects of our understanding of the evolutionary status of blue supergiants.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Massive stars are extremely important for the chemical evolution of the galaxies; however there are large gaps in our understanding of their properties and formation, mainly because they evolve rapidly, are rare and distant. Recent findings suggest that most O-stars belong to multiple systems. It may well be that almost all massive stars are born as triples or higher multiples, but their large distances require very high angular resolution for a direct detection of the companions at milliarcsecond scales. Aims: Herschel 36 is a young massive system located at 1.3 kpc. It has a combined minimum predicted mass of 45.2 M_sun. Multi-epoch spectroscopic data suggest the existence of three components gravitationally bound. Two of them, system B, are tightly bound in a spectroscopic binary and the third one, component A, orbiting in a wide orbit. Our aim was to image and obtain astrometric and photometric measurements of the component A using, for the first time, long-baseline optical interferometry to further constrain its nature. Methods: We observed Herschel 36 with the near-infrared instrument AMBER attached to the ESO VLT Interferometer, which pro- vides an angular resolution of 2 mas. To perform the interferometric image reconstruction, we used BSMEM. The model fitting to the interferometric observables was done via proprietary routines and LitPro. Results: We imaged the A+B components of Herschel 36 in H and K filters. Component A is located at a projected distance of 1.81 mas, at a position angle of 222 deg. East of North, the flux ratio between components A and B is close to one. The small measured angular separation indicates that the tertiary may be approaching the periastron of its orbit. These results, only achievable with long-baseline near-infrared interferometry, constitute the first step toward a thorough understanding of this massive triple system.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publication Stats

1k Citations
274.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Surrey
      • Department of Physics
      Guilford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Alicante
      • Physics, Systems Engineering and Theory of Signal
      Alicante, Valencia, Spain
    • Armagh Observatory
      Armagh, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Centro de Astrobiología
      Torrejon de Ardos, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006-2014
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2005-2012
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Faculty of Science
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain