Lu Chen

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (22)222.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the oncologic efficacy, cardioprotective effectiveness, and safety of dexrazoxane added to chemotherapy that included a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 360 mg/m(2) to treat children and adolescents with newly diagnosed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (L-NHL). Patients and methods: Patients were treated on Pediatric Oncology Group Protocol POG 9404, which included random assignment to treatment with or without dexrazoxane given as a bolus infusion immediately before every dose of doxorubicin. Cardiac effects were assessed by echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function and structure. Results: Of 573 enrolled patients, 537 were eligible, evaluable, and randomly assigned to an arm with or without dexrazoxane. The 5-year event-free survival (with standard error) did not differ between groups: 76.7% (2.7%) for the dexrazoxane group versus 76.0% (2.7%) for the doxorubicin-only group (P = .9). The frequencies of severe grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity, infection, CNS events, and toxic deaths were similar in both groups (P ranged from .26 to .64). Of 11 second malignancies, eight occurred in patients who received dexrazoxane (P = .17). The mean left ventricular fractional shortening, wall thickness, and thickness-to-dimension ratio z scores measured 3 years after diagnosis were worse in the doxorubicin-alone group (n = 55 per group; P ≤ .01 for all comparisons). Mean fractional shortening z scores measured 3.5 to 6.4 years after diagnosis remained diminished and were lower in the 21 patients who received doxorubicin alone than in the 31 patients who received dexrazoxane (-2.03 v -0.24; P ≤ .001). Conclusion: Dexrazoxane was cardioprotective and did not compromise antitumor efficacy, did not increase the frequencies of toxicities, and was not associated with a significant increase in second malignancies with this doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimen. We recommend dexrazoxane as a cardioprotectant for children and adolescents who have malignancies treated with anthracyclines.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A Children's Oncology Group clinical trial aimed to determine if bortezomib (B) increased the efficacy of ifosfamide and vinorelbine (IV) in paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). This study enrolled 26 relapsed HL patients (<30 years) treated with two to four cycles of IVB. The primary endpoint was anatomic complete response (CR) after two cycles. Secondary endpoints included overall response (OR: CR + partial response) at study completion compared to historical controls [72%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 59-83%]. Although few patients achieved the primary objective, OR with IVB improved to 83% (95% CI: 61-95%; p = 0·32). Although not statistically different, results suggest IVB may be a promising combination. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · British Journal of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: A phase 3 trial assessing response-based therapy in intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma mandated real-time central review of involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) and imaging records by a centralized review center to maximize protocol compliance. We report the impact of centralized radiation therapy review on protocol compliance. Review of simulation films, port films, and dosimetry records was required before and after treatment. Records were reviewed by study-affiliated or review center-affiliated radiation oncologists. A deviation of 6% to 10% from protocol-specified dose was scored as "minor"; a deviation of >10% was "major." A volume deviation was scored as "minor" if margins were less than specified or "major" if fields transected disease-bearing areas. Interventional review and final compliance review scores were assigned to each radiation therapy case and compared. Of 1712 patients enrolled, 1173 underwent IFRT at 256 institutions in 7 countries. An interventional review was performed in 88% of patients and a final review in 98%. Overall, minor and major deviations were found in 12% and 6% of patients, respectively. Among the cases for which ≥1 pre-IFRT modification was requested by the Quality Assurance Review Center and subsequently made by the treating institution, 100% were made compliant on final review. By contrast, among the cases for which ≥1 modification was requested but not made by the treating institution, 10% were deemed compliant on final review. In a large trial with complex treatment pathways and heterogeneous radiation therapy fields, central review was performed in a large percentage of cases before IFRT and identified frequent potential deviations in a timely manner. When suggested modifications were performed by the institutions, deviations were almost eliminated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to determine whether response-based therapy improves outcomes in intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma. We examined patterns of first relapse in the study. From September 2002 to July 2010, 1712 patients <22 years old with stage I-IIA with bulk, I-IIAE, I-IIB, and IIIA-IVA with or without doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide were enrolled. Patients were categorized as rapid (RER) or slow early responders (SER) after 2 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide (ABVE-PC). The SER patients were randomized to 2 additional ABVE-PC cycles or augmented chemotherapy with 21 Gy involved field radiation therapy (IFRT). RER patients were stipulated to undergo 2 additional ABVE-PC cycles and were then randomized to 21 Gy IFRT or no further treatment if complete response (CR) was achieved. RER without CR patients were non-randomly assigned to 21 Gy IFRT. Relapses were characterized without respect to site (initial, new, or both; and initial bulk or initial nonbulk), and involved field radiation therapy field (in-field, out-of-field, or both). Patients were grouped by treatment assignment (SER; RER/no CR; RER/CR/IFRT; and RER/CR/no IFRT). Summary statistics were reported. At 4-year median follow-up, 244 patients had experienced relapse, 198 of whom were fully evaluable for review. Those who progressed during treatment (n=30) or lacked relapse imaging (n=16) were excluded. The median time to relapse was 12.8 months. Of the 198 evaluable patients, 30% were RER/no CR, 26% were SER, 26% were RER/CR/no IFRT, 16% were RER/CR/IFRT, and 2% remained uncategorized. The 74% and 75% relapses involved initially bulky and nonbulky sites, respectively. First relapses rarely occurred at exclusively new or out-of-field sites. By contrast, relapses usually occurred at nodal sites of initial bulky and nonbulky disease. Although response-based therapy has helped define treatment for selected RER patients, it has not improved outcome for SER patients or facilitated refinement of IFRT volumes or doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The Children's Oncology Group study AHOD0031, a randomized phase III study, was designed to evaluate the role of early chemotherapy response in tailoring subsequent therapy in pediatric intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma. To avoid treatment-associated risks that compromise long-term health and to maintain high cure rates, dose-intensive chemotherapy with limited cumulative doses was used. Patients and methods: Patients received two cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone (ABVE-PC) followed by response evaluation. Rapid early responders (RERs) received two additional ABVE-PC cycles, followed by complete response (CR) evaluation. RERs with CR were randomly assigned to involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) or no additional therapy; RERs with less than CR were nonrandomly assigned to IFRT. Slow early responders (SERs) were randomly assigned to receive two additional ABVE-PC cycles with or without two cycles of dexamethasone, etoposide, cisplatin, and cytarabine (DECA). All SERs were assigned to receive IFRT. Results: Among 1,712 eligible patients, 4-year event-free survival (EFS) was 85.0%: 86.9% for RERs and 77.4% for SERs (P < .001). Four-year overall survival was 97.8%: 98.5% for RERs and 95.3% for SERs (P < .001). Four-year EFS was 87.9% versus 84.3% (P = .11) for RERs with CR who were randomly assigned to IFRT versus no IFRT, and 86.7% versus 87.3% (P = .87) for RERs with positron emission tomography (PET) -negative results at response assessment. Four-year EFS was 79.3% versus 75.2% (P = .11) for SERs who were randomly assigned to DECA versus no DECA, and 70.7% versus 54.6% (P = .05) for SERs with PET-positive results at response assessment. Conclusion: This trial demonstrated that early response assessment supported therapeutic titration (omitting radiotherapy in RERs with CR; augmenting chemotherapy in SERs with PET-positive disease). Strategies directed toward improved response assessment and risk stratification may enhance tailoring of treatment to patient characteristics and response.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Background We assessed the safety and efficacy of ifosfamide and vinorelbine (IV) as a less toxic and effective reinduction regimen for pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma.ProcedureThis multi-center Children's Oncology Group phase II pilot study enrolled patients <30 years of age with biopsy-proven Hodgkin Lymphoma in relapse or refractory disease after front-line therapy. Treatment consisted of ifosfamide 3,000 mg/m2 intravenous infusion over 24 hr on Days 1–4 and vinorelbine 25 mg/m2/dose intravenous push on Days 1 and 5 of each 21 day cycle with cytokine support. The study endpoints included estimation of key toxicities (cardiac, hepatic, or renal toxicity or toxic death), the rate of successful peripheral stem cell harvesting, and response after two cycles of therapy.ResultsSixty-six patients received a median of two cycles of IV. Sixty-four of 66 were heavily pretreated, 4 had refractory disease, 55% were male and 79% had nodular sclerosis HL. The primary toxicities were hematologic. Harvested peripheral stem cells were sufficient for autologous transplantation in 46 of 54 patients for whom stem cell collection was attempted. The overall response rate (72%; 95% CI 59–83%) permitted the majority of patients to undergo subsequent stem cell transplantation.ConclusionsIV is a safe and effective re-induction regimen for salvage of pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma with an excellent response rate and success of post chemotherapy stem cell harvest. It avoids the use of etoposide, an agent associated with secondary malignancy after stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy for childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has historically included chemotherapy with or without autologous bone marrow transplant (autoBMT) or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloBMT). We sought to compare health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes between these treatment groups. Five-year survivors of AML diagnosed before age 21 and enrolled and treated from 1979 to 1995 on one of 4 national protocols were interviewed. These survivors or proxy caregivers completed a health questionnaire and an HRQOL measure. Of 180 survivors, 100 were treated with chemotherapy only, 26 with chemotherapy followed by autoBMT, and 54 with chemotherapy followed by alloBMT. Median age at interview was 20 years (range 8-39). Twenty-one percent reported a severe or life-threatening chronic health condition (chemotherapy-only 16% vs. autoBMT 21% vs. alloBMT 33%; P = 0.02 for chemotherapy-only vs. alloBMT). Nearly all (95%) reported excellent, very good or good health. Reports of cancer-related pain and anxiety did not vary between groups. HRQOL scores among 136 participants ≥14 years of age were similar among groups and to the normative population, though alloBMT survivors had a lower physical mean summary score (49.1 alloBMT vs. 52.2 chemotherapy-only; P = 0.03). Multivariate analyses showed the presence of severe chronic health conditions to be a strong predictor of physical but not mental mean summary scores. Overall HRQOL scores were similar among treatment groups, although survivors reporting more health conditions or cancer-related pain had diminished HRQOL. Attention to chronic health conditions and management of cancer-related pain may improve QOL. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Klinische Pädiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: The strong dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and cardiomyopathy is further exacerbated by the co-occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes and hypertension). The high morbidity associated with cardiomyopathy necessitates an understanding of the underlying pathogenesis so that targeted interventions can be developed. By using a two-stage design, we investigated host susceptibility to anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy by using the ITMAT/Broad CARe cardiovascular single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to profile common SNPs in 2,100 genes considered relevant to de novo cardiovascular disease. By using a matched case-control design (93 cases, 194 controls), we identified a common SNP, rs2232228, in the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) gene that exerts a modifying effect on anthracycline dose-dependent cardiomyopathy risk (P = 5.3 × 10(-7)). Among individuals with rs2232228 GG genotype, cardiomyopathy was infrequent and not dose related. However, in individuals exposed to high-dose (> 250 mg/m(2)) anthracyclines, the rs2232228 AA genotype conferred an 8.9-fold (95% CI, 2.1- to 37.5-fold; P = .003) increased cardiomyopathy risk compared with the GG genotype. This gene-environment interaction was successfully replicated in an independent set of 76 patients with anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy. Relative HAS3 mRNA levels measured in healthy hearts tended to be lower among individuals with AA compared with GA genotypes (P = .09). Hyaluronan (HA) produced by HAS3 is a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix and plays an active role in tissue remodeling. In addition, HA is known to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) -induced cardiac injury. The high cardiomyopathy risk associated with AA genotype could be due to inadequate remodeling and/or inadequate protection of the heart from ROS-mediated injury on high anthracycline exposure.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Platinum-based therapy is the mainstay for management of high-risk neuroblastoma. Prevalence of platinum-related ototoxicity has ranged from 13% to 95% in previous reports; variability is attributable to small samples and disparate grading scales. There is no consensus regarding optimal ototoxicity grading. Furthermore, prevalence and predictors of hearing loss in a large uniformly treated high-risk neuroblastoma population are unknown. We address these gaps in our study. Audiologic testing was completed after administration of cisplatin alone (< 400 mg/m(2); exposure one) or after cisplatin (400 mg/m(2)) plus carboplatin (1,700 mg/m(2); exposure two). Hearing loss was graded using four scales (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association; Brock; Chang; and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3 [CTCAEv3]). Of 489 eligible patients, 333 had evaluable audiologic data. Median age at diagnosis was 3.3 years. Prevalence of severe hearing loss differed by scale. For those in the exposure-one group, prevalence ranged from 8% per Brock to 47% per CTCAEv3 (Brock v CTCAEv3 and Chang, P < .01; CTCAEv3 v Chang, P = .16); for those in the exposure-two group, prevalence ranged from 30% per Brock to 71% per CTCAEv3 (all pair-wise comparisons, P < .01). In patients requiring hearing aids, hearing loss was graded as severe in 49% (Brock), 91% (Chang), and 100% (CTCAEv3). Risk factors for severe hearing loss included exposure to cisplatin and carboplatin compared with cisplatin alone and hospitalization for infection. Severe hearing loss is prevalent among children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Exposure to cisplatin combined with myeloablative carboplatin significantly increases risk. The Brock scale underestimates severe hearing loss and should be used with caution in this setting.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns about long-term methotrexate (MTX) neurotoxicity in the 1990s led to modifications in intrathecal (IT) therapy, leucovorin rescue, and frequency of systemic MTX administration in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this study, neurocognitive outcomes and neuroradiologic evidence of leukoencephalopathy were compared in children treated with intense central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy (P9605) versus those receiving fewer CNS-directed treatment days during intensive consolidation (P9201). A total of 66 children from 16 Pediatric Oncology Group institutions with "standard-risk" acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1.00 to 9.99 years at diagnosis, without evidence of CNS leukemia at diagnosis were enrolled on ACCL0131: 28 from P9201 and 38 from P9605. Magnetic resonance imaging scans and standard neuropsychological tests were performed ≥2.6 years after the end of treatment. Significantly more P9605 patients developed leukoencephalopathy compared with P9201 patients (68%, 95% confidence interval 49%-83% vs. 22%, 95% confidence interval 5%-44%; P=0.001) identified as late as 7.7 years after the end of treatment. Overall, 40% of patients scored <85 on either Verbal or Performance IQ. Children on both studies had significant attention problems, but P9605 children scored below average on more neurocognitive measures than those treated on P9201 (82%, 14/17 measures vs. 24%, 4/17 measures). This supports ongoing concerns about intensive MTX exposure as a major contributor to CNS late effects.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: In childhood Hodgkin lymphoma, estimated 5 years survival rates exceed 90%. Long-term survival continues to decline from delayed toxicities. Key findings from recent Children's Oncology Group trials include: (1) Radiotherapy selection may be based on early chemotherapy response assessed by both FDG-PET and CT imaging, (2) A new prognostic factor score stratifies patients into risk categories; and (3) novel retrieval regimens were identified. A phase I/II trial is investigating Brentuximab vedotin (Bv) with gemcitabine in relapsed patients. A phase 3 trial will modify conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy approaches through the addition of Bv, while incorporating translational biology to identify molecular targets. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of pediatric lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (LPHL) is controversial but has typically consisted of both chemotherapy and radiation. Radiation therapy is associated with potential late effects in children and adolescents. We examined the impact of radiation therapy on long-term outcome of patients with LPHL treated on CCG-5942, a large pediatric cooperative group study of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Eighty-two patients with LPHL were registered on CCG-5942. Fifty-two patients (63%) received chemotherapy alone; 29 patients (35%) received chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). The median follow-up of the LPHL patients is 7.7 years; 63 patients (77%) have >5 years of follow-up. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 97% and 100%. Two relapses occurred, both in patients who did not receive IFRT. There were no significant differences in EFS or OS between patients who received or did not receive IFRT. This subset analysis demonstrates the chemosensitivity of pediatric LPHL. Patients who had a complete response to chemotherapy had an excellent EFS and OS without the addition of radiotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 59: 1284-1289. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Children with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) routinely undergo surveillance computed tomography (CT) imaging for up to 5 years after therapy, resulting in cost and radiation exposure, without clear benefit. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of surveillance CT, as compared with clinical findings, to detection of disease recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred sixteen patients, age ≤ 21 years old, were treated on the multicenter Pediatric Oncology Group 9425 trial. Data for patients who experienced relapse were retrospectively reviewed to determine whether imaging or clinical events prompted suspicion of disease recurrence. Correlation was made to disease stage, time to recurrence, relapse site, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS With a median follow-up time of 7.4 years, 25 (11.6%) of 216 patients had experienced a relapse, of whom 23 experienced local relapse. Median time to relapse was 7.6 months (range, 0.2 to 48.9 months). Nineteen relapses (76%) were detected based on symptoms, laboratory or physical examination findings, and two relapses (8%) were detected by imaging within the first year after therapy. Only four patients (16%) had their recurrence detected exclusively by surveillance imaging after the first year. Six deaths occurred, all in patients who experienced relapse within the first year after therapy. No patient with a recurrence after 1 year off treatment has died, regardless of how the recurrence was detected. CONCLUSION The majority of pediatric HL relapses occurred within the first year after therapy or were detected based on change in clinical status. Detecting late relapse, whether by imaging or clinical change, did not affect OS. These findings indicate that CT is overused for routine surveillance of patients with HL.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE In 1995, the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) opened a trial for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma evaluating whether low-dose involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) improved event-free survival (EFS) for patients achieving a complete response after chemotherapy. We present the long-term study outcome using final data through March 2007. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between January 1995 and December 1998, 826 eligible patients were enrolled onto CCG 5942. Four hundred ninety-eight patients achieving an initial complete response to chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive IFRT or no further therapy. EFS and overall survival (OS) were assessed from the date of study entry or random assignment, as appropriate. Results Ten-year EFS and OS rates for the entire cohort were 83.5% and 92.5%, respectively. In an as-treated analysis for randomly assigned patients, the 10-year EFS and OS rates were 91.2% and 97.1%, respectively, for IFRT and 82.9% and 95.9%, respectively, for no further therapy. For EFS and OS comparisons, P = .004 and P = .50, respectively. Bulk disease, "B" symptoms, and nodular sclerosis histology were risk factors for inferior EFS. CONCLUSION With a median follow-up of 7.7 years, IFRT produced a statistically significant improvement in EFS but no improvement in OS. For individual patients, the relative risks of relapse versus late effects of IFRT must be considered. Patient and disease characteristics and early response assessment will aid in deciding which patients are most likely to benefit from IFRT.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Carbonyl reductases (CBRs) catalyze reduction of anthracyclines to cardiotoxic alcohol metabolites. Polymorphisms in CBR1 and CBR3 influence synthesis of these metabolites. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in CBR1 (CBR1 1096G>A) and/or CBR3 (CBR3 V244M) modified the dose-dependent risk of anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy in childhood cancer survivors. One hundred seventy survivors with cardiomyopathy (patient cases) were compared with 317 survivors with no cardiomyopathy (controls; matched on cancer diagnosis, year of diagnosis, length of follow-up, and race/ethnicity) using conditional logistic regression techniques. A dose-dependent association was observed between cumulative anthracycline exposure and cardiomyopathy risk (0 mg/m(2): reference; 1 to 100 mg/m(2): odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 101 to 150 mg/m(2): OR, 3.85; 151 to 200 mg/m(2): OR, 3.69; 201 to 250 mg/m(2): OR, 7.23; 251 to 300 mg/m(2): OR, 23.47; > 300 mg/m(2): OR, 27.59; P(trend) < .001). Among individuals carrying the variant A allele (CBR1:GA/AA and/or CBR3:GA/AA), exposure to low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines (1 to 250 mg/m(2)) did not increase the risk of cardiomyopathy. Among individuals with CBR3 V244M homozygous G genotypes (CBR3:GG), exposure to low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines increased cardiomyopathy risk when compared with individuals with CBR3:GA/AA genotypes unexposed to anthracyclines (OR, 5.48; P = .003), as well as exposed to low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines (OR, 3.30; P = .006). High-dose anthracyclines (> 250 mg/m(2)) were associated with increased cardiomyopathy risk, irrespective of CBR genotype status. This study demonstrates increased anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy risk at doses as low as 101 to 150 mg/m(2). Homozygosis for G allele in CBR3 contributes to increased cardiomyopathy risk associated with low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines, such that there seems to be no safe dose for patients homozygous for the CBR3 V244M G allele. These results suggest a need for targeted intervention for those at increased risk of cardiomyopathy.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The International Harmonization Project defined complete response (CR) after treatment for Hodgkin disease (HD) by absence of fluorodeoxyglucose avidity, regardless of the size of residual masses. Residual avidity after initial treatment is known to predict inferior survival. In the setting of retrieval therapy, early positron emission tomography (PET) scans may improve assessment of treatment efficacy. Retrospective analysis after 2 cycles of gemcitabine and vinorelbine for refractory HD revealed 6 CR among 13 patients by PET and 1 CR in 13 by computed tomography (CT). No relationship between PET response and event-free or overall survival could be discerned, presumably because of the heterogeneity of subsequent therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face increased risks of chronic disease and secondary malignancies. Substance exposure may compound these risks. Participants were diagnosed with AML at <21 years of age and survived > or =5 years following diagnosis. All underwent chemotherapy alone or followed by autologous BMT (chemo +/- autoBMT) or underwent allogeneic BMT (alloBMT) if an HLA-matched related donor was available. Survivors completed a health questionnaire and a Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Of eligible survivors, 117 were > or =18 years of age and completed a YRBS. Survivors were a mean age of 10 years at diagnosis and 24 years at interview. Of the substance exposures assessed by YRBS, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana were most common. Twenty-two percent (22%) had smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. One-quarter (25%) reported binge drinking in the last month. None of these exposures varied by treatment group. Less than 10% of survivors reported cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine use. Men were more likely to report high substance exposure (P = 0.004). Sadness/suicidality score was associated with cancer-related anxiety (P = 0.006) and multiple health conditions (P = 0.006). This analysis reveals exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana in young adults with few differences based on treatment received. Survivors with cancer-related anxiety or multiple health conditions were more likely to report sadness/hopelessness.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: For the majority of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), CNS prophylaxis consists of either intrathecal (IT) methotrexate or triple IT therapy (ie, methotrexate with both cytarabine and hydrocortisone). The long-term neurotoxicities of these two IT strategies have not yet been directly compared. In this multisite study, 171 children with standard-risk ALL, age 1 to 9.99 years at diagnosis, previously randomly assigned to IT methotrexate (n = 82) or to triple IT therapy (n = 89) on CCG 1952, underwent neurocognitive evaluation by a licensed psychologist at a mean of 5.9 years after random assignment. Patients who received IT methotrexate had a mean Processing Speed Index that was 3.6 points lower, about one fourth of a standard deviation, than those who received triple IT therapy (P = .04) after analysis was adjusted for age, sex, and time since diagnosis. Likewise, 19.5% of children in the IT methotrexate group had a Processing Speed Index score in the below-average range compared with 6.9% in the triple IT therapy group (P = .02). Otherwise, the groups performed similarly on tests of full-scale intelligence quotient, academic achievement, attention/concentration, memory, and visual motor integration. The association of treatment with measures of cognitive functioning was not modified by sex or age at diagnosis. In the post-therapy period, there were no group differences in special education services, neurologic events, or use of psychotropic medications. This study did not show any clinically meaningful differences in neurocognitive functioning between patients previously randomly assigned to IT methotrexate or triple IT therapy except for a small difference in processing speed in the IT methotrexate group.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Clinical Oncology

Publication Stats

357 Citations
222.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009-2015
    • Children's Oncology Group
      Монровия, California, United States
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Rochester
      Rochester, New York, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Medicine
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2010-2014
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States