J-P Girardet

UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (28)11.72 Total impact

  • J-P Girardet
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    ABSTRACT: In the different types of children's hypercholesterolemia, some severe inherited monogenic forms, transmitted as a dominant trait, carry a high risk of early cardiovascular events in young adults and a decrease in life expectancy, warranting the initiation of a preventive cholesterol-lowering treatment early in childhood. As in adult patients, statins are the first-line drugs. The purpose of this article is to review the existing recommendations for their indications in children, their benefits, their tolerance, as well as their prescription and monitoring modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Archives de Pédiatrie

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past few years, we have observed increasing consumption of inappropriate plant milks as an alternative to infant milk formula. Some families believe that foods labeled as natural are the most healthy and an appropriate nutritional choice. However, their composition does not respect European recommendations. They are always hypocaloric and protein, vitamin, and mineral concentrations are inadequate. The aim of this study was to report severe nutritional complications after inappropriate plant milk consumption. Between 2008 and 2011, we studied severe nutritional deficiencies caused by consumption of plant milks bought in health food stores or online shops. Infants were identified in our centers and examined through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Nine cases of infants aged from 4 to 14months were observed. In all cases, these milks were used as an alternative to milk formulas for supposed cow's milk allergy. At diagnosis, four patients were aged 6months or less. They had received plant milk exclusively for 1-3months. The beverages consumed were rice, soya, almond and sweet chestnut milks. In three cases, infants presented severe protein-calorie malnutrition with substantial hypoalbuminemia (<20g/L) and diffuse edema. In the other cases, the nutritional disorders were revealed by a refractory status epilepticus related to severe hypocalcemia (one case), growth arrest of both height and weight secondary to insufficient caloric intake (five cases), and severe cutaneous involvement (one case). Five children had severe iron deficiency anemia (<70g/L), three children had a very low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level (nutritional rickets), and two had severe hyponatremia (<130mmoL/L). Milk alternative beverages expose infants to severe nutritional deficiencies. Serious complications can occur. Early, exclusive, and extended use is riskier. These diseases are preventable, and parental education should be provided. Statutory measures forbidding their use in young infants should be organized to slow down the progress of this social trend.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: Lipids are an important source of energy for young children and play a major role in the development and functioning of nervous tissue. Essential fatty acids and their long-chain derivatives also fulfill multiple metabolic functions and play a role in the regulation of numerous genes. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail [ANSES]) have recently recommended a minimum daily intake in preformed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs): arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mother's milk remains the only reference, but the large variability in its DHA content does not guarantee that breastfed children receive an optimal DHA intake if the mother's intake is insufficient. For children fed with infant formulas, ARA and DHA intake is often below the recommended intake because only one-third of infant formulas available on the market in France are enriched in LC-PUFAs. For all children, linoleic acid (LA) intake is on average higher than the minimal recommended values. The consequences of these differences between intake and recommended values are uncertain. A cautious attitude is to come close to the current recommendations and to advise sufficient consumption of DHA in breastfeeding women. For bottle-fed children, infant formulas enriched in LC-PUFAs and with moderate levels of LA should be preferred. LC-PUFA-rich fish should be consumed during breastfeeding, and adapted vegetable oils when complementary foods are introduced.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the premenopausal period, and of osteoporosis in the postmenopausal period.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Archives de Pédiatrie
  • R Assathiany · R Guedj · A Bocquet · G Thiebault · C Salinier · J-P Girardet
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    ABSTRACT: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a very common reason for pediatric consultations. Various expert committees have issued guidelines for its management, based on systematic use of an oral rehydration solution (ORS), early appropriate nutrition (most recent previous diet), and avoiding routine treatment with medication. The aim of the study was to assess the application of these guidelines by pediatricians in outpatient practice for mild to moderate AGE. A secondary objective was to question pediatricians about their practices for vaccination against rotavirus. In June 2012, e-mail requests were sent to 1187 pediatricians in private practice, asking them to complete an anonymous questionnaire online at the website of the French Association of Pediatricians in Outpatient Practice. A total of 641 (54%) responses could be analyzed. Nearly all the pediatricians recommended early resumption of nutrition after administration of ORS. Depending on the child's age, 16 to 23% reported they would recommend resuming feeding with lactose-free milk, and 80% would advise an antidiarrhea diet for children older than 6months. The drugs prescribed most often were, in decreasing order, racecadotril (acetorphan), diosmectite, and probiotics. Although 90% of the pediatricians prescribed vaccination against rotavirus, 65% estimated that it was performed in more than half of all children. This study of the management of moderate acute gastroenteritis shows variable adhesion to guidelines by pediatricians treating outpatients. Although ORS, maintenance of breastfeeding, and early nutrition after ORS are now widely applied, the type of nutrition recommended often failed to meet guidelines. Drug prescription is still too frequent. Anti-rotavirus vaccine is prescribed often but is administered much less frequently.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: Processed baby foods designed for infants (4-12months) and toddlers (12-36months) (excluding infant formula, follow-on formula, the so-called growing-up milks, and cereal-based foods for infants), which are referred to as baby foods, are specific products defined by a European regulation (Directive 2006/125/CE). According to this Directive, such foods have a composition adapted to the nutritional needs of children of this age and should comply with specifications related to food safety in terms of ingredients, production processes, and prevention of infectious and toxicological hazards. Hence, they differ from ordinary foods and from non-specific processed foods. This market segment includes the full range of foods that can be part of children's diet: dairy products (dairy desserts, yoghurts, and fresh cheese), sweet products (nondairy desserts, fruit, and drinks), and salty products (soups, vegetable-based foods, meat, fish, and full dishes). This market amounted to 89,666 MT in France in 2011 and 83,055 MT in 2010 (a total of 325,524 MT in the 27 countries of the European Union in 2010, including 90,438 MT in Germany, 49,144 MT in Spain, and 40,438 MT in Italy). The consumption of baby foods in France varies with infant age and parental choice. Baby foods account for 7 % of total energy intake at 4-5months, 28 % at 6-7months, 27 % at 8-11months, 17 % at 1-17months, and 11 % at 18-24months. Among parents, 24 % never offer their children any baby foods, 13 % do so 1-3 days/week and 63 % 4-7days/week. Among consumers, 55 % of children eat more than 250g/day of baby foods. As baby foods only account for a minor fraction of overall food intake, their impact on the quality of young children's diet is much less than that of growing-up milks, particularly for preventing insufficient iron and vitamin D intake. Their consumption, however, has an indirect benefit on the nutritional quality of the diet and on food safety, particularly regarding toxicological hazards, as it postpones the introduction of non-specific processed foods, which are inadequate for this age group owing to both their nutritional composition and lower food safety control. Baby foods represent a family of products meeting parents' expectations and adapted to infants and young children. They are clearly beneficial in terms of food safety, but the nutritional benefit to be expected from their consumption is minimal: their main advantage is postponing or decreasing the consumption of non-specific industrially processed foods.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy in terms of growth and tolerance of an infant formula based on hydrolyzed rice proteins. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Healthy infants, born at term, less than 1month old, and exclusively fed an infant formula based on hydrolyzed rice proteins until their diet was diversified, were included in this open-label, multicenter study. The main outcome measure was daily weight gain during the study period. The infant's weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and the data concerning tolerance (digestive disorders, allergy manifestations) were collected at inclusion in the study, at 2 and 4months, and before diversifying the infant's diet between 4 and 6months. The growth parameters were compared to the WHO standards by calculating the Z-score. RESULTS: Seventy-eight infants were included. The mean daily weight gain over 5months was 23.2±4.3g/day, identical to the WHO standards (22.2±1.8g/day, P=0.09). During the study period, the Z-scores for weight, height, and BMI varied between +1.1 and -0.5SD according to the WHO standards. Formula acceptance and tolerance were both good. CONCLUSION: The infant formula studied, based on hydrolyzed rice proteins, was well tolerated and led to normal growth over the first few months of life, comparable to the WHO standards.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) occurs when energy and protein intake do not meet requirements. It has a functional and structural impact and increases both morbidity and mortality of a given disease. The Nutrition Committee of the French Pediatric Society recommends weighing and measuring any child when hospitalized or seen in consultation. The body mass index (BMI) must be calculated and analyzed according to references any time growth kinetics cannot be analyzed. Any child with a BMI below the third centile or -2 standard deviations for age and sex needs to be examined looking for clinical signs of malnutrition and signs orienting toward an etiology and requires having his BMI and height dynamics plotted on a chart. PEM warrants drawing up a nutritional strategy along with the overall care plan. A target weight needs to be determined as well as the quantitative and qualitative nutritional care including its implementation. This plan must be evaluated afterwards in order to adapt the nutritional therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Archives de Pédiatrie
  • J-P Girardet · V Fournier · P Bakhache · L Beck · C Kempf · E Lachambre
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    ABSTRACT: Lactose has beneficial nutritional effects in infancy, particularly on calcium retention and on Bifidobacterium colon microflora development. The objective of this controlled, prospective, randomized double-blind study was to assess the adequacy and safety of an infant formula containing only lactose as carbohydrate, as compared to a usual formula. Healthy non-breast-fed infants aged under 7 days were randomized to be fed exclusively with a conventional formula containing lactose (9.6 g/100 kcal) and maltodextrin (1.6 g/100 kcal) or the isocaloric-isoprotein study formula containing 100% lactose (11.2 g/100 kcal) for 120 days. Primary outcome was daily weight gain at D0 and D120. Weight, length, body mass index, formula consumption, tolerance, and safety were assessed monthly. The non-inferiority of the study formula was rejected if the difference in weight gain was higher than 2.5 g/day in the control group. One hundred and seventy-eight infants were enrolled. Mean daily weight gain in the study group differed by 0.71 g/day (95% CI: -2.23; 0.82) indicating the non-inferiority of the study formula. Growth was normal and similar in the two groups, but formula intake was decreased in the study group, leading to a decrease in energy and protein intakes. Tolerance was good and adverse events did not differ between the two groups. The 100% lactose study infant formula was safe and non-inferior to a conventional formula in ensuring normal growth during the first 4 months of life.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics were to summarize the recently published data on vitamin D in infants, children and adolescents, i.e., on metabolism, physiological effects, and requirements and to make recommendations on supplementation after careful review of the evidence. Scientific evidence indicates that calcium and vitamin D play key roles in bone health. The current evidence, limited to observational studies, however, does not support other benefits for vitamin D. More targeted research should continue, especially interventional studies. In the absence of any underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency, the recommendations are as follows: pregnant women: a single dose of 80,000 to 100,000 IU at the beginning of the 7th month of pregnancy; breastfed infants: 1000 to 1200 IU/day; children less than 18 months of age, receiving milk supplemented with vitamin D: an additional daily dose of 600 to 800 IU; children less than 18 months of age receiving milk not supplemented with vitamin D: daily dose of 1000 to 1200 IU; children from 18 months to 5 years of age: 2 doses of 80,000 to 100,000 IU every winter (November and February). In the presence of an underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency (dark skin; lack of exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B [UVB] radiation from sunshine in summer; skin disease responsible for decreased exposure of the skin to UVB radiation from sunshine in summer; wearing skin-covering clothes in summer; intestinal malabsorption or maldigestion; cholestasis; renal insufficiency; nephrotic syndrome; drugs [rifampicin; antiepileptic treatment: phenobarbital, phenytoin]; obesity; vegan diet), it may be justified to start vitamin D supplementation in winter in children 5 to 10 years of age as well as to maintain supplementation of vitamin D every 3 months all year long in children 1 to 10 years of age and in adolescents. In some pathological conditions, doses of vitamin D can be increased. If necessary, the determination of 25(OH) vitamin D serum concentration will help determine the level of vitamin D supplementation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Archives de Pédiatrie

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Archives de Pédiatrie
  • J-P Girardet · G Luc · D Rieu · E Bruckert · D Darmaun · M Farnier
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    ABSTRACT: Some cases of hypercholesterolemia observed in childhood present a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease, such as in monogenic dominantly inherited hypercholesterolemia, particularly familial hypercholesterolemia due to mutations on the LDL receptor gene. This article, jointly written by the Société Française de Pédiatrie Nutrition Committee and the Nouvelle Société Française d'Athérosclérose, proposes recommendations for a screening strategy and management of childhood hypercholesterolemia. A practical approach to high-risk cases of inherited hypercholesterolemia is detailed and the dietary management, indications, and supervision of lipid-lowering drug therapy in children are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: New data on food allergy has recently changed the management of children with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). The diagnosis of CMPA first requires the elimination of cow's milk proteins and then an oral provocation test following a standard diagnostic procedure for food allergy, without which the elimination diet is unjustified and sometimes harmful. Once the diagnosis is made, the elimination diet is strict, at least until the age of 9-12 months. If the child is not breastfed or the mother cannot or no longer wishes to breastfeed, the first choice is a formula based on extensive hydrolyzate of cow's milk (eHF), provided that its effectiveness has been demonstrated. When eHF fails, a formula based on amino acids is warranted. eHF based on rice protein hydrolysates is an alternative to cow's milk eHF. Infant formulas based on soy protein can be used after the age of 6 months, after verification of good clinical tolerance to soy. Most commonly, CMPA disappears within 2 or 3 years of life. However, the age of recovery varies depending on the child and the type of CMPA, and whether or not it is IgE-mediated, the first being more sustainable. When the child grows, a hospital oral provocation test evaluates the development of tolerance and, if possible, authorizes continuing the reintroduction of milk proteins at home. Some children with CMPA will tolerate only a limited daily amount of cow's milk proteins. The current therapeutic options are designed to accelerate the acquisition of tolerance, which seems facilitated by regular exposure to cow's milk proteins.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI) curves are very useful tools to supervise corpulence during growth and to detect children at risk of overweight and obesity early. In 2009, the French National Nutrition Health Program decided to update the BMI curves used in France. A working group was then created, coordinated by the committee on nutrition of the société française de pédiatrie and by the association pour la prevention de l'obésité en pédiatrie. This article discusses the criteria adopted in elaborating the new curves among the existing references and curves (French references, the International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], the World Health Organization [WHO] standards). It presents recommendations for using the new curves and the BMI values used to define weight insufficiency, overweight, and obesity according to the references utilized.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Archives de Pédiatrie
  • M-A Lebars · D Rieu · J-P Girardet
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary recommendations are the first step of children hypercholesterolemia's management, whatever its level and its mechanism. The authors review the scientific justifications for these recommendations, and particularly the effects on plasma LDL-cholesterol of the different dietary fatty acids, of fibers and plant sterols. They point out the diet's aim and principles and they give consumption indicators and practical advice.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Archives de Pédiatrie
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis begins during childhood. From childhood, a strong relation has been shown between the prevalence and extent of the asymptomatic atherosclerosis lesions and cardiovascular risk factors such as elevation in body mass index, blood pressure and plasma lipid concentrations. These risk factors depend not only on the subjects' genetic predisposition, but also on environmental parameters, particularly diet. The Committee on Nutrition reviewed the scientific basis of dietary recommendations for children that could reduce the risk factors and thereby, reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in later life: the effects of prenatal nutrition; the beneficial consequences of breast-feeding on later levels of cholesterolemia, blood pressure and corpulence; the role of dietary lipids on plasma lipid concentration, of salt and potassium on blood pressure, and of lifestyle on corpulence.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Archives de Pédiatrie
  • J-P Girardet

    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Archives de Pédiatrie

Publication Stats

115 Citations
11.72 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009-2015
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011-2013
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008-2009
    • Hôpital Armand-Trousseau (Hôpitaux Universitaires Est Parisien)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy
      Nancy, Lorraine, France
  • 2006
    • Université Montpellier
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France