Cheryl Y Hayashi

University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California, United States

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Publications (69)520.16 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gene duplication and positive selection can be important determinants of the evolution of venom, a protein-rich secretion used in prey capture and defense. In a typical model of venom evolution, gene duplicates switch to venom gland expression and change function under the action of positive selection, which together with further duplication, produces large gene families encoding diverse toxins. While these processes have been demonstrated for individual toxin families, high-throughput multi-tissue sequencing of closely related venomous species can provide insight into evolutionary dynamics at the scale of the entire venom gland transcriptome. By assembling and analyzing multi-tissue transcriptomes from the Western black widow spider and two closely related species with distinct venom toxicity phenotypes, we do not find that gene duplication and duplicate retention is greater in gene families with venom gland biased expression in comparison to broadly expressed families. Positive selection has acted on some venom toxin families, but does not appear to be in excess for families with venom gland biased expression. Moreover, we find 309 distinct gene families that have single transcripts with venom gland biased expression, suggesting that the switching of genes to venom gland expression in numerous unrelated gene families has been a dominant mode of evolution. We also find ample variation in protein sequences of venom gland specific transcripts, lineage specific family sizes, and ortholog expression among species. This variation might contribute to the variable venom toxicity of these species.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Genome Biology and Evolution
  • Casey H. Richart · Cheryl Y Hayashi · Marshal Hedin
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    ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic resolution of ancient rapid radiations has remained problematic despite major advances in statistical approaches and DNA sequencing technologies. Here we report on a combined phylogenetic approach utilizing transcriptome data in conjunction with Sanger sequence data to investigate a tandem of ancient divergences in the harvestmen superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Dyspnoi). We rely on Sanger sequences to resolve nodes within and between closely related genera, and use RNA-seq data from a subset of taxa to resolve a short and ancient internal branch. We use several analytical approaches to explore this succession of ancient diversification events, including concatenated and coalescent-based analyses and maximum likelihood gene trees for each locus. We evaluate the robustness of phylogenetic inferences using a randomized locus sub-sampling approach, and find congruence across these methods despite considerable incongruence across gene trees. Incongruent gene trees are not recovered in frequencies expected from a simple multispecies coalescent model, and we reject incomplete lineage sorting as the sole contributor to gene tree conflict. Using these approaches we attain robust support for higher-level phylogenetic relationships within Ischyropsalidoidea.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported inactivated copies of six enamel-related genes (AMBN, AMEL, AMTN, ENAM, KLK4, MMP20) and one dentin-related gene (DSPP) in one or more toothless vertebrates and/or vertebrates with enamelless teeth, thereby providing evidence that these genes are enamel or tooth-specific with respect to their critical functions that are maintained by natural selection. Here, we employ available genome sequences for edentulous and enamelless mammals to evaluate the enamel specificity of four genes (WDR72, SLC24A4, FAM83H, C4orf26) that have been implicated in amelogenesis imperfecta, a condition in which proper enamel formation is abrogated during tooth development. Coding sequences for WDR72, SCL24A4, and FAM83H are intact in four edentulous taxa (Chinese pangolin, three baleen whales) and three taxa (aardvark, nine-banded armadillo, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) with enamelless teeth, suggesting that these genes have critical functions beyond their involvement in tooth development. By contrast, genomic data for C4orf26 reveal inactivating mutations in pangolin and bowhead whale as well as evidence for deletion of this gene in two minke whale species. Hybridization capture of exonic regions and PCR screens provide evidence for inactivation of C4orf26 in eight additional baleen whale species. However, C4orf26 is intact in all three species with enamelless teeth that were surveyed, as well as in 95 additional mammalian species with enamel-capped teeth. Estimates of selection intensity suggest that dN/dS ratios on branches leading to taxa with enamelless teeth are similar to the dN/dS ratio on branches leading to taxa with enamel-capped teeth. Based on these results, we conclude that C4orf26 is tooth-specific, but not enamel-specific, with respect to its essential functions that are maintained by natural selection. A caveat is that an alternative splice site variant, which translates exon 3 in a different reading frame, is putatively functional in Catarrhini and may have evolved an additional role in this primate clade.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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    ABSTRACT: Spider silk research has largely focused on spidroins, proteins that are the primary components of spider silk fibers. Although a number of spidroins have been characterized, other types of proteins associated with silk synthesis are virtually unknown. Previous analyses of tissue-specific RNAseq libraries identified 647 predicted genes that were differentially expressed in silk glands of the Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. Only ~5% of these transcripts encode spidroins, and though the remaining predicted genes presumably encode other proteins associated with silk production, this is mostly unverified. Here, we used proteomic analysis of multiple silk glands and dragline silk fiber to investigate the translation of the differentially expressed genes. We find 48 proteins encoded by the differentially expressed transcripts in L. hesperus major ampullate, minor ampullate, and tubuliform silk glands, and detect 17 SST encoded proteins in major ampullate silk fibers. The observed proteins include known silk-related proteins, but most are uncharacterized, with no annotation. These unannotated proteins likely include novel silk associated proteins. Major ampullate and minor ampullate glands have the highest overlap of identified proteins, consistent with their shared, distinctive ampullate shape and the overlapping functions of major ampullate and minor ampullate silks. Our study substantiates and prioritizes predictions from differential expression analysis of spider silk gland transcriptomes.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Proteome Research
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (Order Scorpionida) and spiders (Order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared to other transcripts. Thus an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae). © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Genome Biology and Evolution
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    ABSTRACT: Animals are complex systems operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales, facing the challenge of how to change in appropriate ways, degrees, and times, in response to the diverse internal and external influences to which they are exposed. Discovering the system-level attributes of organisms that make them resilient or robust—or sensitive or fragile—to change presents a grand challenge for biology. Knowledge of these attributes and the underlying mechanisms controlling them is crucially needed to predict how organisms will respond to short- and long-term changes in internal and external environments, including those driven by climate change. Organismal biologists require novel approaches that extend beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries, especially when they partner with mathematicians and engineers. Pursuing this research enterprise will not only give us a deeper understanding of how organisms will face future challenges, but it will also reveal nature-inspired solutions in complex engineered systems, both of which will benefit science and society.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BioScience
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    ABSTRACT: Animal venoms attract enormous interest given their potential for pharmacological discovery and understanding the evolution of natural chemistries. Next-generation transcriptomics and proteomics provide unparalleled, but underexploited, capabilities for venom characterization. We combined multi-tissue RNA-Seq with mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses to determine venom gland specific transcripts and venom proteins from the Western black widow spider (Latrodectus hesperus) and investigated their evolution. We estimated expression of 97,217 L. hesperus transcripts in venom glands relative to silk and cephalothorax tissues. We identified 695 venom gland specific transcripts (VSTs), many of which BLAST and GO term analyses indicate may function as toxins or their delivery agents. ~38% of VSTs had BLAST hits, including latrotoxins, inhibitor cystine knot toxins, CRISPs, hyaluronidases, chitinase, and proteases, and 59% of VSTs had predicted protein domains. Latrotoxins are venom toxins that cause massive neurotransmitter release from vertebrate or invertebrate neurons. We discovered ≥ 20 divergent latrotoxin paralogs expressed in L. hesperus venom glands, significantly increasing this biomedically important family. Mass spectrometry of L. hesperus venom identified 49 proteins from VSTs, 24 of which BLAST to toxins. Phylogenetic analyses showed venom gland specific gene family expansions and shifts in tissue expression. Quantitative expression analyses comparing multiple tissues are necessary to identify venom gland specific transcripts. We present a black widow venom specific exome that uncovers a trove of diverse toxins and associated proteins, suggesting a dynamic evolutionary history. This justifies a reevaluation of the functional activities of black widow venom in light of its emerging complexity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Genomics
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    ABSTRACT: Background Spiders (Order Araneae) are essential predators in every terrestrial ecosystem largely because they have evolved potent arsenals of silk and venom. Spider silks are high performance materials made almost entirely of proteins, and thus represent an ideal system for investigating genome level evolution of novel protein functions. However, genomic level resources remain limited for spiders. Results We de novo assembled a transcriptome for the Western black widow (Latrodectus hesperus) from deeply sequenced cDNAs of three tissue types. Our multi-tissue assembly contained ~100,000 unique transcripts, of which > 27,000 were annotated by homology. Comparing transcript abundance among the different tissues, we identified 647 silk gland-specific transcripts, including the few known silk fiber components (e.g. six spider fibroins, spidroins). Silk gland specific transcripts are enriched compared to the entire transcriptome in several functions, including protein degradation, inhibition of protein degradation, and oxidation-reduction. Phylogenetic analyses of 37 gene families containing silk gland specific transcripts demonstrated novel gene expansions within silk glands, and multiple co-options of silk specific expression from paralogs expressed in other tissues. Conclusions We propose a transcriptional program for the silk glands that involves regulating gland specific synthesis of silk fiber and glue components followed by protecting and processing these components into functional fibers and glues. Our black widow silk gland gene repertoire provides extensive expansion of resources for biomimetic applications of silk in industry and medicine. Furthermore, our multi-tissue transcriptome facilitates evolutionary analysis of arachnid genomes and adaptive protein systems. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-365) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Genomics
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    Shen Xu · Zaoli Xu · James Starrett · Cheryl Hayashi · Xinwei Wang
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    ABSTRACT: This work reports on the first study of thermal transport capacity in the thickness direction (similar to mu m scale) for spider silk films. Fresh (minimally processed) and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) films of Nephila clavipes and Latrodectus hesperus major ampullate silk are studied. Detailed Raman spectroscopy reveals that the fresh films have more crystalline secondary protein structures such as antiparallel beta-sheets than the HFIP films for N. clavipes. For N. clavipes, the randomly distributed antiparallel beta-sheets in fresh films have nearly no effect in improving thermal conductivity in comparison with HFIP films. For L. hesperus, the films mainly consist of alpha-helices and random coils while the fresh film has a higher concentration of alpha-helices. The higher concentration of alpha-helices in fresh films gives rise to a higher heat capacity than HFIP films, while the thermal conductivity shows little effect from the alpha-helices concentration. Thickened HFIP films are heated at different temperatures to study the effect of heat treatment on structure and thermal transport capacity. These experiments demonstrate that alpha-helices are formed by thermal treatment and that thermal effusivity increases with the appearance of alpha-helices in films.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Polymer
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    ABSTRACT: Spider silks are spectacular examples of phenotypic diversity arising from adaptive molecular evolution. An individual spider can produce an array of specialized silks, with the majority of constituent silk proteins encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. Spidroins are dominated by tandem repeats flanked by short, non-repetitive N- and C-terminal coding regions. The remarkable mechanical properties of spider silks have been largely attributed to the repeat sequences. However, the molecular evolutionary processes acting on spidroin terminal and repetitive regions remain unclear due to a paucity of complete gene sequences and sampling of genetic variation among individuals. To better understand spider silk evolution, we characterize a complete aciniform spidroin gene from an Argiope orb-weaving spider and survey aciniform gene fragments from congeneric individuals. We present the complete aciniform spidroin (AcSp1) gene from the silver garden spider Argiope argentata (Aar_AcSp1), and document multiple AcSp1 loci in individual genomes of A. argentata and the congeneric A. trifasciata and A. aurantia. We find that Aar_AcSp1 repeats have >98% pairwise nucleotide identity. By comparing AcSp1 repeat amino acid sequences between Argiope species and with other genera, we identify regions of conservation over vast amounts of evolutionary time. Through a PCR survey of individual A. argentata, A. trifasciata, and A. aurantia genomes, we ascertain that AcSp1 repeats show limited variation between species whereas terminal regions are more divergent. We also find that average dN/dS across codons in the N-terminal, repetitive, and C-terminal encoding regions indicate purifying selection that is strongest in the N-terminal region. Using the complete A. argentata AcSp1 gene and spidroin genetic variation between individuals, this study clarifies some of the molecular evolutionary processes underlying the spectacular mechanical attributes of aciniform silk. It is likely that intragenic concerted evolution and functional constraints on A. argentata AcSp1 repeats result in extreme repeat homogeneity. The maintenance of multiple AcSp1 encoding loci in Argiope genomes supports the hypothesis that Argiope spiders require rapid and efficient protein production to support their prolific use of aciniform silk for prey-wrapping and web-decorating. In addition, multiple gene copies may represent the early stages of spidroin diversification.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Evolutionary Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Orb-web and cob-web weaving spiders spin dragline silk fibers that are among the strongest materials known. Draglines are primarily composed of MaSp1 and MaSp2, two spidroins (spider fibrous proteins) expressed in the major ampullate (MA) silk glands. Prior genetic studies of dragline silk have focused mostly on determining the sequence of these spidroins, leaving other genetic aspects of silk synthesis largely uncharacterized. Here, we used deep sequencing to profile gene expression patterns in the Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. We sequenced millions of 3[prime]-anchored "tags" of cDNAs derived either from MA glands or control tissue (cephalothorax) mRNAs, then associated the tags with genes by compiling a reference database from our newly constructed normalized L. hesperus cDNA library and published L. hesperus sequences. We were able to determine transcript abundance and alternative polyadenylation of each of three loci encoding MaSp1. The ratio of MaSp1:MaSp2 transcripts varied between individuals, but on average was similar to the estimated ratio of MaSp1:MaSp2 in dragline fibers. We also identified transcription of TuSp1 in MA glands, another spidroin family member that encodes the primary component of egg-sac silk, synthesized in tubuliform glands. In addition to the spidroin paralogs, we identified 30 genes that are more abundantly represented in MA glands than cephalothoraxes and represent new candidates for involvement in spider silk synthesis. Modulating expression rates of MaSp1 variants as well as MaSp2 and TuSp1 could lead to differences in mechanical properties of dragline fibers. Many of the newly identified candidate genes likely encode secreted proteins, suggesting they could be incorporated into dragline fibers or assist in protein processing and fiber assembly. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized transcript complexity in spider silk glands.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · BMC Genomics
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    ABSTRACT: Spider silks combine a significant number of desirable characteristics in one material, including large tensile strength and strain at breaking, biocompatibility, and the possibility of tailoring their properties. Major ampullate gland silk (MAS) is the most studied silk and their properties are explained by a double lattice of hydrogen bonds and elastomeric protein chains linked to polyalanine β-nanocrystals. However, many basic details regarding the relationship between composition, microstructure and properties in silks are still lacking. Here we show that this relationship can be traced in flagelliform silk (Flag) spun by Argiope trifasciata spiders after identifying a phase consisting of polyglycine II nanocrystals. The presence of this phase is consistent with the dominant presence of the -GGX- and -GPG- motifs in its sequence. In contrast to the passive role assigned to polyalanine nanocrystals in MAS, polyglycine II nanocrystals can undergo growing/collapse processes that contribute to increase toughness and justify the ability of Flag to supercontract.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Scientific Reports
  • James Starrett · Marshal Hedin · Nadia Ayoub · Cheryl Y Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Hemocyanins are multimeric copper-containing hemolymph proteins involved in oxygen binding and transport in all major arthropod lineages. Most arachnids have seven primary subunits (encoded by paralogous genes a-g), which combine to form a 24-mer (4 X 6) quaternary structure. Within some spider lineages, however, hemocyanin evolution has been a dynamic process with extensive paralog duplication and loss. We have obtained hemocyanin gene sequences from numerous representatives of the spider infraorders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae in order to infer the evolution of the hemocyanin gene family and estimate spider relationships using these conserved loci. Our hemocyanin gene tree is largely consistent with previous hypotheses of paralog relationships based on immunological studies, but reveals some discrepancies in which paralog types have been lost or duplicated in specific spider lineages. Analyses of concatenated hemocyanin sequences resolved deep nodes in the spider phylogeny and recovered a number of clades that are supported by other molecular studies, particularly for mygalomorph taxa. The concatenated data set is also used to estimate dates of higher-level spider divergences and suggests that the diversification of extant mygalomorphs preceded that of extant araneomorphs. Spiders are diverse in behavior and respiratory morphology, and our results are beneficial for comparative analyses of spider respiration. Lastly, the conserved hemocyanin sequences allow for inference of spider relationships and ancient divergence dates.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Gene
  • James Starrett · Cheryl Y Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Spider silk genes are composed mostly of repetitive sequence that is flanked by non-repetitive terminal regions. Inferences about the evolutionary processes that influenced silk genes have largely been made from analyses using distantly related taxa and ancient silk gene duplicates. These studies have relied on comparisons across the conserved non-repetitive terminal regions to determine orthologous and paralogous relationships, as well as the influence of selection on silk genes. While the repetitive region heavily influences silk fiber mechanical properties, few molecular evolutionary analyses have been conducted on this region due to difficulty in determining homology. Here, we sample internal repetitive and carboxy terminal regions from all extant species of the trapdoor spider genus, Aliatypus. Aliatypus spiders are highly dispersal limited and rely on their silk lined burrow for protection. We determine positional homology across species for the carboxy terminal regions and relative positional homology for the internal repetitive regions. Gene trees based on each of these regions are in good agreement with the Aliatypus species tree, which indicates we sampled single spidroin orthologs in each species. In addition, we find that purifying selection and concerted evolution have acted to conserve Aliatypus spidroin internal repetitive regions. In contrast, selection testing identifies evidence of sites that evolved under positive selection and amino acid replacements that result in radical physicochemical changes in the carboxy terminal region. These findings indicate that comparison of spidroin orthologs across a comprehensive sample of congenerics reveal molecular evolutionary patterns obscured from studies using higher-level sampling of silk encoding genes.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Molecular Evolution
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    Jessica E Garb · Cheryl Y Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Black widow spiders (members of the genus Latrodectus) are widely feared because of their potent neurotoxic venom. α-Latrotoxin is the vertebrate-specific toxin responsible for the dramatic effects of black widow envenomation. The evolution of this toxin is enigmatic because only two α-latrotoxin sequences are known. In this study, ∼4 kb α-latrotoxin sequences and their homologs were characterized from a diversity of Latrodectus species, and representatives of Steatoda and Parasteatoda, establishing the wide distribution of latrotoxins across the mega-diverse spider family Theridiidae. Across black widow species, α-latrotoxin shows ≥94% nucleotide identity and variability consistent with purifying selection. Multiple codon and branch-specific estimates of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratio also suggest a long history of purifying selection has acted on α-latrotoxin across Latrodectus and Steatoda. However, α-latrotoxin is highly divergent in amino acid sequence between these genera, with 68.7% of protein differences involving non-conservative substitutions, evidence for positive selection on its physiochemical properties and particular codons, and an elevated rate of nonsynonymous substitutions along α-latrotoxin’s Latrodectus branch. Such variation likely explains the efficacy of red-back spider, L. hasselti, antivenom in treating bites from other Latrodectus species, and the weaker neurotoxic symptoms associated with Steatoda and Parasteatoda bites. Long-term purifying selection on α-latrotoxin indicates its functional importance in black widow venom, even though vertebrates are a small fraction of their diet. The greater differences between Latrodectus and Steatoda α-latrotoxin, and their relationships to invertebrate-specific latrotoxins, suggest a shift in α-latrotoxin toward increased vertebrate toxicity coincident with the evolution of widow spiders.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Marshal Hedin · James Starrett · Cheryl Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Antrodiaetus riversi is a dispersal-limited, habitat-specialized mygalomorph spider species endemic to mesic woodlands of northern and central California. Here, we build upon prior phylogeographic research using a much larger geographic sample and include additional nuclear genes, providing more detailed biogeographic insights throughout the range of this complex. Of particular interest is the uncovering of unexpected and replicated trans-valley biogeographic patterns, where in two separate genetic clades western haplotypes in the California south Coast Ranges are phylogenetically closely related to eastern haplotypes from central and northern Sierran foothills. In both instances, these trans-valley phylogenetic patterns are strongly supported by multiple genes. These western and eastern populations are currently separated by the Central Valley, a well-recognized modern-day and historical biogeographic barrier in California. For one clade, the directionality is clearly northeast to southwest, and all available evidence is consistent with a jump dispersal event estimated at 1.2-1.3 Ma. During this time period, paleogeographic data indicate that northern Sierran rivers emptied to the ocean in the south Coast Ranges, rather than at the San Francisco Bay. For the other trans-valley clade genetic evidence is less conclusive regarding the mechanism and directionality of biogeographic exchange, although the estimated timeframe is similar (approximately 1.8 Ma). Despite the large number of biogeographic studies previously conducted in central California, to the best of our knowledge no prior studies have discussed or revealed a northern Sierran to south Coast Range biogeographic connection. This uniqueness may reflect the low-dispersal biology of mygalomorph spiders, where 'post-event' gene exchange rarely erases historical biogeographic signal.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Molecular Ecology
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    Nadia A Ayoub · Jessica E Garb · Amanda Kuelbs · Cheryl Y Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Spider silk fibers have impressive mechanical properties and are primarily composed of highly repetitive structural proteins (termed spidroins) encoded by a single gene family. Most characterized spidroin genes are incompletely known because of their extreme size (typically >9 kb) and repetitiveness, limiting understanding of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to their unusual gene architectures. The only complete spidroin genes characterized thus far form the dragline in the Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. Here we describe the first complete gene sequence encoding the aciniform spidroin AcSp1, the primary component of spider prey-wrapping fibers. L. hesperus AcSp1 contains a single enormous (∼19 kb) exon. The AcSp1 repeat sequence is exceptionally conserved between two widow species (∼94% identity) and between widows and distantly related orb-weavers (∼30% identity), consistent with a history of strong purifying selection on its amino acid sequence. Furthermore, the 16 repeats (each 371-375 amino acids long) found in black widow AcSp1 are, on average, >99% identical at the nucleotide level. A combination of stabilizing selection on amino acid sequence, selection on silent sites, and intragenic recombination likely explains the extreme homogenization of AcSp1 repeats. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of spidroin paralogs support a gene duplication event occurring concomitant with specialization of the aciniform glands and the tubuliform glands, which synthesize egg-case silk. With repeats that are dramatically different in length and amino acid composition from dragline spidroins, our L. hesperus AcSp1 expands the knowledge-base for developing silk-based biomimetic technologies.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Cheryl Hayashi

    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: A phylogenetic analysis of the order Embioptera is presented with a revised classification based on results of the analysis. Eighty-two species of Embioptera are included from all families except Paedembiidae Ross and Embonychidae Navás. Monophyly of each of the eight remaining currently recognized families is tested except Andesembiidae Ross, for which only a single species was included. Nine outgroup taxa are included from Blattaria, Grylloblattaria, Mantodea, Mantophasmatodea, Orthoptera, Phasmida and Plecoptera. Ninety-six morphological characters were analysed along with DNA sequence data from the five genes 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase I and histone III. Data were analysed in combined analyses of all data using parsimony and Bayesian optimality criteria, and combined molecular data were analysed using maximum likelihood. Several major conclusions about Embioptera relationships and classification are based on interpretation of these analyses. Of eight families for which monophyly was tested, four were found to be monophyletic under each optimality criterion: Clothodidae Davis, Anisembiidae Davis, Oligotomidae Enderlein and Teratembiidae Krauss. Australembiidae Ross was not recovered as monophyletic in the likelihood analysis in which one Australembia Ross species was recovered in a position distant from other australembiids. This analysis included only molecular data and the topology was not strongly supported. Given this, and because parsimony and the Bayesian analyses recovered a strongly supported clade including all Australembiidae, we regard this family also as monophyletic. Three other families – Notoligotomidae Davis, Archembiidae Ross and Embiidae Burmeister, as historically delimited – were not found to be monophyletic under any optimality criterion. Notoligotomidae is restricted here to include only the genus Notoligotoma Davis with a new family, Ptilocerembiidae Miller and Edgerly, new family, erected to include the genus Ptilocerembia Friederichs. Archembiidae is restricted here to include only the genera Archembia Ross and Calamoclostes Enderlein. The family group name Scelembiidae Ross is resurrected from synonymy with Archembiidae (new status) to include all other genera recently placed in Archembiidae. Embiidae is not demonstrably monophyletic with species currently placed in the family resolved in three separate clades under each optimality criterion. Because taxon sampling is not extensive within this family in this analysis, no changes are made to Embiidae classification. Relationships between families delimited herein are not strongly supported under any optimality criterion with a few exceptions. Either Clothodidae Davis (parsimony) or Australembiidae Ross (Bayesian) is the sister to the remaining Embioptera taxa. The Bayesian analysis includes Australembiidae as the sister to all other Embioptera except Clothididae, suggesting that each of these taxa is a relatively plesiomorphic representatative of the order. Oligotomidae and Teratembiidae are sister groups, and Archembiidae (sensu novum), Ptilocerembiidae, Andesembiidae and Anisembiidae form a monophyletic group under each optimality criterion. Each family is discussed in reference to this analysis, diagnostic combinations and taxon compositions are provided, and a key to families of Embioptera is included.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Systematic Entomology
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    ABSTRACT: Silk spinning is essential to spider ecology and has had a key role in the expansive diversification of spiders. Silk is composed primarily of proteins called spidroins, which are encoded by a multi-gene family. Spidroins have been studied extensively in the derived clade, Orbiculariae (orb-weavers), from the suborder Araneomorphae ('true spiders'). Orbicularians produce a suite of different silks, and underlying this repertoire is a history of duplication and spidroin gene divergence. A second class of silk proteins, Egg Case Proteins (ECPs), is known only from the orbicularian species, Lactrodectus hesperus (Western black widow). In L. hesperus, ECPs bond with tubuliform spidroins to form egg case silk fibers. Because most of the phylogenetic diversity of spiders has not been sampled for their silk genes, there is limited understanding of spidroin gene family history and the prevalence of ECPs. Silk genes have not been reported from the suborder Mesothelae (segmented spiders), which diverged from all other spiders >380 million years ago, and sampling from Mygalomorphae (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders) and basal araneomorph lineages is sparse. In comparison to orbicularians, mesotheles and mygalomorphs have a simpler silk biology and thus are hypothesized to have less diversity of silk genes. Here, we present cDNAs synthesized from the silk glands of six mygalomorph species, a mesothele, and a non-orbicularian araneomorph, and uncover a surprisingly rich silk gene diversity. In particular, we find ECP homologs in the mesothele, suggesting that ECPs were present in the common ancestor of extant spiders, and originally were not specialized to complex with tubuliform spidroins. Furthermore, gene-tree/species-tree reconciliation analysis reveals that numerous spidroin gene duplications occurred after the split between Mesothelae and Opisthothelae (Mygalomorphae plus Araneomorphae). We use the spidroin gene tree to reconstruct the evolution of amino acid compositions of spidroins that perform different ecological functions.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · PLoS ONE

Publication Stats

4k Citations
520.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • University of California, Riverside
      • Department of Biology
      Riverside, California, United States
  • 2006
    • Biomedical Research Institute, Rockville
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • San Diego State University
      • Department of Biology
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1998-2000
    • University of Wyoming
      • Department of Molecular Biology
      Ларами, Wyoming, United States
  • 1994
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States