[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. High concentration of glucose has been thought to exert its action solely through its metabolism. In this regard, we have recently reported that glucose also activates a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and facilitates its own metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor and elicits receptor-mediated rapid actions. In MIN6 cells and isolated mouse β-cells, glucose induced triphasic changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c); glucose evoked an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]c, which was followed by a decrease in [Ca2+]c, and after a certain lag period it induced large oscillatory elevations of [Ca2+]c. Initial rapid peak and subsequent reduction of [Ca2+]c were independent of glucose metabolism and reproduced by a nonmetabolizable glucose analogue. These signals were also blocked by an inhibitor of T1R3, a subunit of the glucose-sensing receptor, and by deletion of the T1R3 gene. Besides Ca2+, glucose also induced an immediate and sustained elevation of intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]c). The elevation of [cAMP]c was blocked by transduction of the dominant-negative Gs, and deletion of the T1R3 gene. These results indicate that glucose induces rapid changes in [Ca2+]c and [cAMP]c by activating the cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor. Hence, glucose generates rapid intracellular signals by activating the cell-surface receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Subunits of the sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Compared with T1R3, mRNA expression of T1R2 is considerably lower. At the protein level, expression of T1R2 is undetectable in β-cells. Accordingly, a major component of the sweet taste-sensing receptor in β-cells may be a homodimer of T1R3 rather than a heterodimer of T1R2/T1R3. Inhibition of this receptor by gurmarin or deletion of the T1R3 gene attenuates glucose-induced insulin secretion from β-cells. Hence the T1R3 homodimer functions as a glucose-sensing receptor (GSR) in pancreatic β-cells. When GSR is activated by the T1R3 agonist sucralose, elevation of intracellular ATP concentration ([ATP]i) is observed. Sucralose increases [ATP]i even in the absence of ambient glucose, indicating that sucralose increases [ATP]i not simply by activating glucokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. In addition, sucralose augments elevation of [ATP]i induced by methylsuccinate, suggesting that sucralose activates mitochondrial metabolism. Nonmetabolizable 3-O-methylglucose also increases [ATP]i and knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]i induced by high concentration of glucose. Collectively, these results indicate that the T1R3 homodimer functions as a GSR; this receptor is involved in glucose-induced insulin secretion by activating glucose metabolism probably in mitochondria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Subunits of the sweet taste receptor namely T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed in mouse pancreatic islets. Quantitatively, the expression of messenger RNA for T1R2 is much lower than that of T1R3, and immunoreactive T1R2 is in fact undetectable. Presumably, a homodimer of T1R3 may function as a signaling receptor. Activation of this receptor by adding an artificial sweetener sucralose leads to an increase in intracellular ATP ([ATP]c). This increase in [ATP]c is observed in the absence of ambient glucose. Sucralose also augments elevation of [ATP]c induced by methylsuccinate, a substrate for mitochondria. Consequently, activation of T1R3 promotes metabolism in mitochondria and increases [ATP]c. 3-O-Methylglucose, a nonmetabolizable analogue of glucose, also increases [ATP]c. Conversely, knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]c induced by glucose. Hence, glucose promotes its own metabolism by activating T1R3 and augments ATP production. Collectively, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and participates in the action of glucose on insulin secretion. The glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 may be the putative glucoreceptor proposed decades ago by Niki and colleagues. The glucose-sensing receptor is involved in the action of glucose and modulates glucose metabolism in pancreatic β-cells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sweet taste receptor regulates GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L-cells. We investigated the signaling system activated by this receptor using Hutu-80 cells. We stimulated them with sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin. These sweeteners stimulated GLP-1 secretion, which was attenuated by lactisole. All these sweeteners elevated cytoplasmic cyclic AMP ([cAMP]c) whereas only sucralose and saccharin induced a monophasic increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c). Removal of extracellular calcium or sodium and addition of a Gq/11 inhibitor greatly reduced the [Ca2+]c responses to two sweeteners. In contrast, acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained reduction of [Ca2+]c. In addition, glycyrrhizin first reduced [Ca2+]c which was followed by an elevation of [Ca2+]c. Reductions of [Ca2+]c induced by acesulfame K and glycyrrhizin were attenuated by a calmodulin inhibitor or by knockdown of the plasma membrane calcium pump. These results indicate that various sweet molecules act as biased agonists and evoke strikingly different patterns of intracellular signals.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2, TRPV2, is a calcium-permeable cation channel belonging to the TRPV channel family. This channel is activated by heat (>52 °C), various ligands, and mechanical stresses. In most of the cells, a large portion of TRPV2 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum under unstimulated conditions. Upon stimulation of the cells with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-activating ligands, TRPV2 is translocated to the plasma membrane and functions as a cation channel. Mechanical stress may also induce translocation of TRPV2 to the plasma membrane. The expression of TRPV2 is high in some types of cells including neurons, neuroendocrine cells, immune cells involved in innate immunity, and certain types of cancer cells. TRPV2 may modulate various cellular functions in these cells.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Handbook of experimental pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs). Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP). Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin), distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A homodimer of taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) functions as a sweet taste-sensing receptor in pancreatic β-cells. This receptor is activated by various sweet molecules including sugars such as glucose. To determine the role of this receptor in glucose-induced insulin secretion, we addressed whether or not this receptor modulates glucose metabolism in MIN6 cells. We measured changes in intracellular ATP ([ATP]i) in MIN6 cells expressing luciferase. Sucralose, an agonist of T1R3, induced immediate and sustained elevation of [ATP]i in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. The effect of sucralose was dose-dependent and, at 5 mM, was greater than that induced by 25 mM glucose. In contrast, carbachol, GLP-1 or high concentration of potassium did not reproduce the sucralose action. Sucralose facilitated the increase in [ATP]i induced by a mitochondrial fuel methylsuccinate, and potentiated glucose-induced elevation of [ATP]i. Administration of a non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 3-O-methylglucose, which acts as an agonist of T1R3, induced a small and transient increase in [ATP]i. 3-O-Methylglucose augmented elevation of [ATP]i induced by methylsuccinate, and also enhanced glucose-induced increase in [ATP]i. Knock down of T1R3 by using shRNA attenuated [ATP]i-response to high concentration of glucose and also reduced the glucose-induced insulin secretion. These results indicate that activation of the homodimer of T1R3 facilitates the metabolic pathway in mitochondria and augments ATP production. The results obtained by using 3-O-methylglucose suggest that glucose, by acting on the homodimer of T1R3, promotes its own metabolism.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Conophylline (CnP) is a vinca alkaloid purified from a tropical plant and inhibits activation of pancreatic stellate cells. We investigated the effect of CnP on hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro. We also examined whether CnP attenuates hepatic fibrosis in vivo.
We examined the effect of CnP on the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen-1, DNA synthesis and apoptosis in rat HSC and Lx-2 cells. We also examined the effect of CnP on hepatic fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA).
In rat HSC and Lx-2 cells, CnP reduced the expression of α-SMA and collagen-1. CnP inhibited DNA synthesis induced by serum. CnP also promoted activation of caspase-3 and induced apoptosis as assessed by DNA ladder formation and TUNEL assay. In contrast, CnP did not induce apoptosis in AML12 cells. We then examined the effect of CnP on TAA-induced cirrhosis. In TAA-treated rats, the surface of the liver was irregular and multiple nodules were observed. Histologically, formation of pseudolobules surrounded by massive fibrous tissues was observed. When CnP was administered together with TAA, the surface of the liver was smooth and liver fibrosis was markedly inhibited. Collagen content was significantly reduced in CnP-treated liver.
Conophylline suppresses HSC and induces apoptosis in vitro. CnP also attenuates formation of the liver fibrosis induced by TAA in vivo.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste bud and is activated by numerous sweet molecules with diverse chemical structures. It is, however, not known whether these sweet agonists induce a similar cellular response in target cells. Using MIN6 cells, a pancreatic β-cell line expressing endogenous sweet taste receptor, we addressed this question by monitoring changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and cAMP ([cAMP]i) induced by four sweet taste receptor agonists. Glycyrrhizin evoked sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)]i but [cAMP]i was not affected. Conversely, an artificial sweetener saccharin induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]i but did not increase [Ca(2+)]i. In contrast, sucralose and acesulfame K induced rapid and sustained increases in both [Ca(2+)]i and [cAMP]i. Although the latter two sweeteners increased [Ca(2+)]i and [cAMP]i, their actions were not identical: [Ca(2+)]i response to sucralose but not acesulfame K was inhibited by gurmarin, an antagonist of the sweet taste receptor which blocks the gustducin-dependent pathway. In addition, [Ca(2+)]i response to acesulfame K but not to sucralose was resistant to a Gq inhibitor. These results indicate that four types of sweeteners activate the sweet taste receptor differently and generate distinct patterns of intracellular signals. The sweet taste receptor has amazing multimodal functions producing multiple patterns of intracellular signals.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate localization and function of TRPV2 channel in a mouse macrophage cell line, TtT/M87. We infected an adenovirus vector encoding TRPV2 tagged with c-Myc in the extracellular domain. Immunoreactivity of c-Myc epitope exposed to the cell surface formed a ring structure, which was colocalized with markers of the podosome, namely β-integrin, paxillin and Pyk2. The ring structure was also observed in TRPV2-GFP-expressing cells using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. Addition of formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) increased the number of podosome and increased the intensity of the TRPV2 signal associated with the podosome. Measurement of subplasmalenmal free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](pm)) revealed that [Ca(2+)](pm) was elevated around the podosome. fMLP further increased [Ca(2+)](pm) in this region, which was abolished by a TRPV2 inhibitor ruthenium red. Phosphorylated Pyk2 was detected in fMLP-treated cells, and knockdown of TRPV2 reduced the expression of phospho-Pyk2. Introduction of dominant-negative Pyk2 or knockdown of TRPV2 increased the number of podosome. Conversely, elevation of [Ca(2+)](pm) by the addition of ionomycin reduced the number of podosome. These results indicate that TRPV2 is localized abundantly in the podosome and increases [Ca(2+)](pm) by the podosome. The elevation of [Ca(2+)](pm) is critical to regulate assembly of the podosome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets.
The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](c)) and cAMP ([cAMP](c)) were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca(2+)](c). The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5)-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca(2+)](c) response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca(2+)](c) was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a G(q) inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP](c), which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion.
Sweet taste receptor is expressed in beta-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca(2+) and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: While the physiological role for calcium in the insulin action on glucose transport has been disputed, it was reassessed in a recent study by using a calcum chelator, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA-AM). Although BAPTA has been widely used to study the role for calcium in a variety of cell functions, it has also been suggested to have properties unrelated to the calcium chelating activity. Here, we investigated the effects of BAPTA and dimethyl BAPTA on the cytoskeletons in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both calcium chelators were successfully loaded in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited endothelin-1-induced cytosolic calcium elevation. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that BAPTA and dimethyl BAPTA caused profound depolymerization of the microtubules without affecting the cortical actin filaments in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochemical quantification also showed that BAPTA and dimethyl BAPTA significantly decreased the amount of polymerized tubulin but had little effect on filamentous actin. Consistent with these results, GLUT4-positive perinuclear compartments were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm in BAPTA- or dimethyl BAPTA-loaded adipocytes. Intriguingly, these calcium chelators did not disrupt the microtubules in undifferentiated preadipocytes. The microtubule-depolymerizing property of BAPTA and dimethyl BAPTA is unrelated to calcium chelation, since the microtubules were resistant to depletion of cytosolic calcium by using a calcium ionophore A23187. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was not affected by cytosolic calcium depletion with A23187, but significantly inhibited with BAPTA and dimethyl BAPTA to the extent similar to that with nocodazole. BAPTA and its derivatives should be used with caution in studies of cytoskeleton-related cell functions.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Calcium-permeable cation channel TRPV2 is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. We investigated regulation and function of TRPV2 in beta-cells.
Translocation of TRPV2 was assessed in MIN6 cells and cultured mouse beta-cells by transfecting TRPV2 fused to green fluorescent protein or TRPV2 containing c-Myc tag in the extracellular domain. Calcium entry was assessed by monitoring fura-2 fluorescence.
In MIN6 cells, TRPV2 was observed mainly in cytoplasm in an unstimulated condition. Addition of exogenous insulin induced translocation and insertion of TRPV2 to the plasma membrane. Consistent with these observations, insulin increased calcium entry, which was inhibited by tranilast, an inhibitor of TRPV2, or by knockdown of TRPV2 using shRNA. A high concentration of glucose also induced translocation of TRPV2, which was blocked by nefedipine, diazoxide, and somatostatin, agents blocking glucose-induced insulin secretion. Knockdown of the insulin receptor attenuated insulin-induced translocation of TRPV2. Similarly, the effect of insulin on TRPV2 translocation was not observed in a beta-cell line derived from islets obtained from a beta-cell-specific insulin receptor knockout mouse. Knockdown of TRPV2 or addition of tranilast significantly inhibited insulin secretion induced by a high concentration of glucose. Likewise, cell growth induced by serum and glucose was inhibited by tranilast or by knockdown of TRPV2. Finally, insulin-induced translocation of TRPV2 was observed in cultured mouse beta-cells, and knockdown of TRPV2 reduced insulin secretion induced by glucose.
TRPV2 is regulated by insulin and is involved in the autocrine action of this hormone on beta-cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) is a signal molecule that induces stalk cell formation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, while DIF-1 and its analogs have been shown to possess antiproliferative activity in vitro in mammalian tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DIF-1 and its analogs on normal (nontransformed) mammalian cells. Without affecting the cell morphology and cell number, DIF-1 at micromolar levels dose-dependently promoted the glucose uptake in confluent 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, which was not inhibited with wortmannin or LY294002 (inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase). DIF-1 affected neither the expression level of glucose transporter 1 nor the activities of four key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, such as hexokinase, fluctose 6-phosphate kinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Most importantly, stimulation with DIF-1 was found to induce the translocation of glucose transporter 1 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membranes in the cells. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DIF-1 induced the translocation of glucose trasporter 1 (but not of glucose transporter 4) and promoted glucose uptake, which was not inhibited with wortmannin. These results indicate that DIF-1 induces glucose transporter 1 translocation and thereby promotes glucose uptake, at least in part, via a inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-independent pathway in mammalian cells. Furthermore, analogs of DIF-1 that possess stronger antitumor activity than DIF-1 were less effective in promoting glucose consumption, suggesting that the mechanism of the action of DIF-1 for stimulating glucose uptake should be different from that for suppressing tumor cell growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to characterize the regulation and function of TRPV2 in macrophages. Among six members of the TRPV family channels, only the expression of TRPV2 was detected in macrophages. We then determined localization of TRPV2 using TtT/M87 macrophages transfected with TRPV2-EGFP. In serum-free condition, most of the TRPV2 signal was located in the cytoplasm and colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum marker. Treatment with serum induced translocation of some of the TRPV2-EGFP to the plasma membrane. Serum-induced translocation was blocked by transfection of short-form TRPV2 (s-TRPV2) lacking a pore-forming region and the sixth transmembrane domain. Addition of a chemotactic peptide formyl Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) also induced translocation of TRPV2-EGFP to the plasma membrane. The fMLP-induced translocation was blocked by an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, LY294002, and pertussis toxin. Whole-cell patch clamp analysis showed a Cs+ current in the TtT/M87 cell, which was blocked by an addition of ruthenium red and transfection of either s-TRPV2 or siRNA for TRPV2. fMLP increased the Cs+ current. fMLP induced a rapid and sustained elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]C), the sustained phase of which was abolished by removal of extracellular calcium. The sustained elevation of [Ca2+]C was also blocked by ruthenium red, and transfection of either s-TRPV2 or siRNA. Finally, fMLP-induced migration of macrophage was blocked by ruthenium red or transfection of s-TRPV2. These results suggest that fMLP induces translocation of TRPV2 from intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane, and this translocation is critical for fMLP-induced calcium entry.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Actions of growth factors are essential for mammalian cells to proliferate. For example, fibroblasts continue to grow in the presence of growth factors in serum, and the removal of serum attenuates proliferation. Serum-deprived cells eventually leave the cell cycle, fall into the G0 state, and become quiescent. Quiescent cells reenter the cell cycle when exposed to serum and progress toward the S phase. Two classes of growth factors exist in serum: the competence factor and the progression factor . The competence factor activates the quiescent cells, forces them to enter the cell cycle again, and renders them competent to progress through the G1 phase. Then the progression factor acts and brings the competent cells toward the S phase. Hence, it is the progression factor that promotes the cells to progress through the G1 phase to the S phase. A major competence factor in serum is platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), while a major progression factor in serum is insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) . The competence factor exerts its action by acting transiently, whereas the progression factor should act continuously: when the progression factor is removed during the G1 phase, the cell-cycle progression is blocked immediately. When the progression factor is restored within three hours, cells again progress to the S phase upon readdition of the factor. In contrast, when cells are deprived of the factor for more than three hours, they eventually return to the quiescent state . An interesting aspect of the action of the progression factor is that extracellular calcium is absolutely necessary to promote cell-cycle progression . When extracellular calcium concentration is reduced to less than 0.3 mM, IGF-I is not able to exert its action as a progression factor . An inorganic calcium channel blocker—for example, cobalt or nickel—also blocks the action of IGF-I on cell-cycle progression. Interestingly, when calcium entry is blocked for more than three hours during the G1 phase, cells return to the quiescent state even in the presence of IGF-I. Attenuation of calcium entry is equivalent to the removal of the growth factor. These observations suggest that IGF-I stimulates calcium entry, which is the prerequisite for cell-cycle progression. In accordance with this notion, IGF-I increases the calcium influx rate in competent fibroblasts, and this effect lasts as long as IGF-I is present . It is well known that the IGF-I receptor resembles the insulin receptor and has an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Binding of IGF-I to the receptor leads to phosphorylation of many substrates including insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). Phosphorylated IRSs act as docking proteins and eventually activate the Ras and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase pathways . In addition to the activation of the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade, the IGF-I receptor also continuously activates the calcium entry pathway. Tyrosine phosphorylation of IRSs and subsequent activation of the Ras and PI 3-kinase pathway are not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or an addition of cobalt or nickel. In this regard, activation of PI 3-kinase and the Ras pathway is independent of the calcium influx pathway. Transfection of the dominant negative Ras does not affect the IGF-induced calcium entry, whereas inhibitors of PI 3-kinase inhibit calcium entry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of pancreatic duodenal homeobox transcription factor PDX-1, especially its super-active version (PDX-1/VP16), induces the expression of pancreatic hormones in murine liver and reverses streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia. Histological analyses suggest that hepatocytes are the major source of insulin-producing cells by PDX-1 gene transfer, although the conversion of cultured hepatocytes into insulin-producing cells remains to be elucidated. The present study was conducted to address this issue. Hepatocytes were isolated from adult rats. Then, PDX-1 or PDX-1/VP16 gene was introduced by using adenovirus vector. Two days later, the expression of insulin was detected at mRNA and protein levels. Transfection of PDX-1/VP16 was more efficient in converting hepatocytes to insulin-producing cells. Immunoreactivity of albumin was downregulated in transdifferentiated cells and some of them almost completely lost albumin expression. During the course of transdifferentiation, upregulation of mRNA for CK19 and alpha-fetoprotein was observed. When cultured in collagen-1 gel sandwich configuration, hepatocytes maintained their mature phenotype and did not proliferate. In this condition, transfer of PDX-1/VP16 also induced the expression of insulin. These results clearly indicate that hepatocytes possess a potential to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells in vitro.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of conventional protein kinase C (PKC) in calcium-evoked insulin secretion. In rat beta cells transfected with green fluorescent protein-tagged PKC-alpha (PKC-alpha-EGFP), a depolarizing concentration of potassium induced transient elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca(2)(+)](c)), which was accompanied by transient translocation of PKC-alpha-EGFP from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Potassium also induced transient translocation of PKC-theta-EGFP, the C1 domain of PKC-gamma and PKC-epsilon-GFP. A high concentration of glucose induced repetitive elevation of [Ca(2)(+)](c) and repetitive translocation of PKC-alpha-EGFP. Diazoxide completely blocked both elevation of [Ca(2)(+)](c) and translocation of PKC-alpha-EGFP. We then studied the role of conventional PKC in calcium-evoked insulin secretion using rat islets. When islets were incubated for 10 min with high potassium, Go-6976, an inhibitor of conventional PKC, and PKC-alpha pseudosubstrate fused to antennapedia peptide (Antp-PKC(19-31)) increased potassium induced secretion. Similarly, insulin release induced by high glucose for 10 min was enhanced by Gö-6976 and Antp-PKC(19-31). However, when islets were stimulated for 60 min with high glucose, both Gö-6976 and Antp-PKC(19-31) reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion. Similar results were obtained by transfection of dominant-negative PKC-alpha using adenovirus vector. Taken together, PKC-alpha is activated when cells are depolarized by a high concentration of potassium or glucose. Conventional PKC is inhibitory on depolarization-induced insulin secretion per se, but it also augments glucose-induced secretion.
Preview · Article · Dec 2004 · The Journal of Physiology