[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the lymphatic vascular microvessel density (LVD) and the blood vascular microvessel density (MVD) and their distribution in excised leaking blebs after mitomycin C trabeculectomy and normal conjunctiva specimens.
LVD and MVD in normal human conjunctiva (n=8) and excised blebs in the hypocellular stroma and peribleb tissue (conjunctiva adjacent to hypocellular bleb tissue) (n=8) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies raised against Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor 1 (D2-40, lymphatic endothelium) and CD34 (vascular endothelium). LVD and MVD counts were performed by light microscopyin 5 fields at ×20 magnification by 3 observers. Differences were determined using Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05 was considered significant).
The leaking blebs showed typical epithelial-stromal domes with areas of acellular stroma covered by attenuated epithelium and surrounded by normal conjunctival epithelium and a dense scar-like matrix replacing the substantia propria. The LVD and MVD were significantly reduced to nil in the hypocellular conjunctival stroma of the excised blebs compared with normal conjunctiva (21.42 vs. 1.16, P<0.002 and 24.28 vs. 1, P<0.008, respectively). The LVD and MVD was also reduced (2- to 2.5-fold) in the peribleb stroma when compared with normal conjunctiva specimens.
In this study we show reduced LCD and MVD in the hypocellular and peribleb stroma. These results may suggest a role of these vessels in an altered immune response in leaking blebs leading to an increased risk for blebitis.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Glaucoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To compare the proteomic profile of a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) obtained from an infected cornea of a contact lens wearer and the laboratory strain P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145.
Antibiotic sensitivity, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence tests were performed using standard methods. Whole protein lysates were analyzed with liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in triplicate, and relative protein abundances were determined with spectral counting. The G test followed by a post hoc Holm-Sidak adjustment was used for the statistical analyses to determine significance in the differential expression of proteins between the two strains.
A total of 687 proteins were detected. One-hundred thirty-three (133) proteins were significantly different between the two strains. Among these, 13 were upregulated, and 16 were downregulated in the clinical strain compared to ATCC 10145, whereas 57 were detected only in the clinical strain. The upregulated proteins are associated with virulence and pathogenicity.
Proteins detected at higher levels in the clinical strain of P. aeruginosa were proteins known to be virulence factors. These results confirm that the keratitis-associated P. aeruginosa strain is pathogenic and expresses a higher number of virulence factors compared to the laboratory strain ATCC 10145. Identification of the protein profile of the corneal strain of P. aeruginosa in this study will aid in elucidating novel intervention strategies for reducing the burden of P. aeruginosa infection in keratitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To evaluate iris involvement in Blau syndrome using histology and immunohistochemistry.
Iridectomy specimen of a patient with treated Blau syndrome and a normal control were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD4(+), CD8(+), HLA-DR, CD68(+), NF-κB and IL-17.
Blau iris tissue demonstrated increased numbers of CD4(+) lymphocytes and CD68 negative, HLA-DR positive spindle shaped cells compared to normal iris tissue. Blau iris tissue also demonstrated elevated CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and IL-17 and NF-κB immunolabeling. No macrophages, epithelioid cells, or granulomas were noted in the Blau specimen.
The persistent immunolocalization of inflammatory markers in an iris specimen from an aggresively treated patient with proven Blau syndrome suggests that further pathologic and immunohistochemical investigation of Blau ocular tissue is necessary to better understand the complexities of NOD2 activating mutations in the eye.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Ocular immunology and inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules with regulatory function and marked tissue specificity that can modulate multiple gene targets. They have been detected in body fluids and are associated with various physiologic and pathologic processes. We analyzed aqueous humor (AH) from human subjects undergoing cataract surgery to establish the presence and relative quantities of known miRNAs. AH was collected from patients without known ocular diseases other than cataract and a normal systemic history. Quantitative real time PCR in an array platform was used to detect known miRNAs present in the AH. Among the 264 miRNAs tested, 110 were present in the AH. The top 5 abundant miRNAs identified were miR-202, miR-193b, miR-135a, miR-365, and miR-376a. The presence of miRNAs in AH suggests that they may have functional roles in regulating target genes in tissues lining the anterior chamber. Further analysis of the AH miRNA population may identify potential gene targets and provide insights regarding their roles in AH regulation, glaucoma and anterior segment disease processes.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Experimental Eye Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of disorders that progressively lead to blindness due to loss of retinal ganglion cells and damage to the optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Although research in the field of glaucoma is substantial, the pathophysiologic mechanisms causing the disease are not completely understood. A wide variety of animal models have been used to study glaucoma. These include monkeys, dogs, cats, rodents, and several other species. Although these models have provided valuable information about the disease, there is still no ideal model for studying glaucoma due to its complexity. In this paper we present a summary of most of the animal models that have been developed and used for the study of the different types of glaucoma, the strengths and limitations associated with each species use, and some potential criteria to develop a suitable model.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal injuries that affect the photoreceptors and/or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) may result in the leakage of retinal proteins into the systemic circulation. This study was designed to determine whether an immune response is elicited after an acute retinal injury resulting in circulating anti-retinal antibodies in the serum.
Fifty laser burns of different grades (minimally visible lesion [MVL], grade II [GII], or grade III [GIII] lesions) were created in the retinas of Dutch Belted rabbits. The degree of laser burns was confirmed by fundus imaging and histology. Serum samples were collected from the animals 3 months after the retinal injury. Candidate autoantigens were identified by two-dimensional (2-D) Western blots of rabbit retinal lysate probed with sera from either control or laser-treated animals. Candidate autoantigens were further characterized by immunostaining to confirm their retinal localization.
Seven and 11 protein spots were selected from the MVL and GII laser-treated samples, respectively, for autoantigen identification. No protein spots were detected in the GIII laser-treated samples. Four candidate autoantigens were common to both MVL and GII lesions: dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, chaperonin-containing T-complex polypeptide 1 subunit zeta, and pyruvate kinase isozyme.
Laser-induced retinal injuries resulted in circulating anti-retinal antibodies that were detectable 3 months after the injury. The response appeared to vary with the severity of the laser retinal damage. The identification of the candidate antigens in this study suggest that this approach may permit future development of new diagnostic methods for retinal injuries.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify candidate protein biomarkers in sera indicative of acute retinal injury.
We used laser photocoagulation as a model of acute retinal injury in Rhesus macaques. In a paired-control study design, we collected serum from each animal (n=6) at 4 h, 1 day, and 3 days following a mock procedure and then again following retinal laser treatment that produced mild lesions. Samples were fractionated by isoelectric focusing, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Spectral counting was used to determine relative protein abundances and identify proteins with statistically significant differences between control and treated sera.
Mild retinal injury was confirmed by fundus photography and histological examination. The average number of total proteins detected by LC-MS/MS was 908±82 among samples from all three time points. Following statistical analysis and employing stringent filtering criteria, a total of 19 proteins were identified as being significantly more abundant in sera following laser-induced retinal injury, relative to control sera. Many of the proteins detected were unique to one time point. However, four proteins (phosphoglycerate kinase 1, keratin 18, Lewis alpha-3-fucosyltransferase, and ephrin receptor A2) showed differences that were significant at both 4 h and 1 day after laser treatment, followed by a decrease to baseline levels by day 3.
A serum biomarker response to mild retinal laser injury was demonstrated in a primate model. Among the proteins detected with highest significant differences, most are upregulated within 24 h, and their appearance in the serum is transient. It is conceivable that a panel of these proteins could provide a means for detecting the acute-phase response to retinal injury. Further investigation of these candidate biomarkers and their correlation to retinal damage is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity has been implicated in subconjunctival scarring in eyes following glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). The purpose of this study is to determine whether an inhibitor for activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 5 (also known as TGF-β receptor type I) could suppress TGF-β activity and thereby promote filtering bleb survival after GFS in a rabbit model.
An ALK-5 inhibitor, SB-505124, was used. A docking study was performed to investigate the interaction between the inhibitor and the receptor. Immunofluorescence for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was performed in cultured rabbit subconjunctival fibroblasts. Immunoblotting for phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2), CTGF, and α-SMA was also performed. In an in vivo rabbit GFS model, SB-505124 was delivered in a lactose tablet during surgery. Eyes were examined by slit-lamp and intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured until the time of bleb failure or up to 28 days after surgery. Tissue sections on day 5 after surgery were histologically evaluated after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The sections were also immunostained for CTGF and α-SMA. In addition, cell outgrowth from dissected subconjunctival tissues placed in a cell culture flask with media was investigated.
The docking study indicated hydrogen bond interactions between SB-505124 and amino acids His-283 and Ser-280 of ALK-5. Suppression of pSmad2, CTGF, and α-SMA by SB-505124 was observed in cultured fibroblasts. Filtering blebs in the GFS with SB-505124 group were maintained for more than 10 days, and the period of bleb survival was significantly longer than that in controls. IOP levels after surgery seemed to be related to bleb survival. Histologically, subconjunctival cell infiltration and scarring at the surgical site in the GFS with SB-505124 and mitomycin C (MMC) groups were much subsided compared to controls. Suppression of CTGF and α-SMA by SB-505124 was also observed by immunofluorescence. Cell outgrowth from explants dissected from eyes to which SB-505124 was applied during GFS was robust while outgrowth was poor from those treated with MMC.
The ALK-5 inhibitor SB-505124 was efficacious both in vitro and in vivo in suppressing the TGF-β action. The inhibitor may provide a novel therapy for preventing ocular inflammation and scarring.