[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGFR-targeted cancer therapy is a breakthrough in non-small cell carcinoma. miRNAs have been proved to play important roles in cancer. Currently, for the role of miRNAs in EGFR-targeted cancer therapy is unclear. In this study, first we found that erlotinib reduced the expression of miR-9. MiR-9 expression was increased in human lung cancer tissues compared with peripheral normal tissues, and miR-9 promoted the growth of NSCLC cells. Overexpression of miR-9 decreased the growth inhibitory effect of erlotinib. Second, miR-9 decreased FoxO1 expression by directly inhibition of its mRNA translation. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of FoxO1 or siRNA-mediated downregulation of FoxO1 negatively regulated cell growth. And exogenous overexpression FoxO1 reduced the pro-growth effect of miR-9. Finally, we found that erlotinib upregulated FoxO1 protein expression. Moreover, overexpression of miR-9 decreased erlotinib-induced FoxO1 expression, and overexpression of FoxO1 enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib. Additionally, we found that erlotinib downregulates miR-9 expression through suppressing the transcrption of miR-9-1 and enhanced DNA methylation maybe involved. These findings suggest that oncogenic miR-9 targeted FoxO1 to promote cell growth, and downregulation of this axis was involved in erlotiniba's growth inhibitory effects. Clarifying the regulation of miRNAs by erlotinib may indicate novel strategies for enhancing EGFR-targeted cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perifosine, an alkylphospholipid, is an Akt inhibitor which inhibits the growth of diverse cancer cells. We have reported its inhibitory effects on the growth of gastric cancer cells recently, but its molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and regulatory mechanism of perifosine in gastric cancer.
Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine B assay after transiently transfected with AEG-1 specific siRNAs. qRT-PCR and western blot assay were used to determine the mRNA expression and proteins levels of cell signaling molecules examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AEG-1 expression in 87 gastric carcinomas, 60 dysplasia, and 47 normal gastric mucosa.
Perifosine decreased AEG-1 gene expression along with inhibition of Akt/GSK3β/C-MYC signaling pathway. Knockdown of AEG-1 using siRNA led to significant down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression at both mRNA level and protein level, and inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells. AEG-1 expression was elevated in gastric dysplasia and cancer tissues compared to normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.01). AEG-1 over-expression correlated with diffuse type of gastric cancer and advanced tumor stages.
Perifosine inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells possibly through inhibition of the Akt/GSK3β/C-MYC signaling pathway-mediated down-regulation of AEG-1 that subsequently down-regulated cyclin D1. AEG-1 may play an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer and could be a therapeutic target of perifosine.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in various pathobiological processes in cancer. Genistein, as a major isoflavonoid isolated from dietary soybean, possesses a wide variety of biological activities particularly in cancer prevention. However, the molecular mechanisms by which genistein elicits its effects on ovarian cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we reported that expression of miR-27a was higher in human ovarian cancer relative to benign ovarian tissues. Meanwhile, transfection of SKOV3 cells with the inhibitor of miR-27a suppressed growth and migration of tumor cells. Our study also found that treatment of ovarian cancer cells with genistein caused an inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth and migration. Further cellular mechanistic studies revealed that genistein down-regulated miR-27a expression, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of Sprouty2, a putative miR-27a target gene. Taken together, our findings reveal that oncogenic miR-27a plays an important role in ovarian cancer cell growth and metastasis, and genistein, as nontoxic inactivators of miRNA, can block ovarian cancer cell growth and migration, offering novel insights into the mechanisms of genistein therapeutic actions.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: mTORC1 inhibitors, including rapamycin and its analogs, have been actively studied both pre-clinically and clinically. However, the single treatment of mTORC1 inhibitors has been modest in most cancer types. We have previously demonstrated that the activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways attenuates the anticancer efficacy of mTORC1 inhibitors. In this study, we report that mTORC1 inhibition also phosphorylates and inactivates GSK3β, which is a tumor suppressor in lung cancer. Moreover, we show that perifosine, as an Akt inhibitor, decreases rapamycin-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and elevated p-GSK3β levels in rapamycin-resistant cell lines. Combination of perifosine with mTORC1 inhibitors showed enhanced anticancer efficacy both in cell cultures and in a xenograft mouse model. In addition, perifosine inhibits the growth of both rapamycin sensitive and resistant A549 cells. However, inhibition of GSK3β by a selective inhibitor- LiCl, or downregulation of GSK3β expression by siRNA, reverses the growth inhibitory effects of perifosine on rapamycin resistant cells, suggesting the important role of GSK3β activation in enhancing mTORC1 inhibitors efficacy by perifosine. Thus, our results provide a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance mTORC1-targeted cancer therapy by using perifosine or targeting GSK3β.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aggressive course of uveal melanoma is believed to reflect its unusually invasive and metastatic nature, which is associated with the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) pathway. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of various biological and pathological processes in cancer, however, the special role of miR-9 in uveal melanoma metastasis is largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that miR-9 is significantly reduced in highly invasive uveal melanoma cell lines, and suppressed migration and invasion of highly invasive cells. Furthermore, miR-9 negatively modulated NF-κB1 expression by direct targeting at its 3'-UTRs. Additionally, downstream targets of NF-κB1, such as MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGFA, were regulated by miR-9 in the same pattern as NF-κB1. Therefore, miR-9 suppresses uveal melanoma cell migration and invasion partly through downregulation of the NF-κB1 signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymph node metastasis is responsible for the high morbidity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To date, the role of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in tumorigenesis and metastasis of head and neck cancer has not been elucidated. In this study, we found a negative correlation of IRS-1 expression with tumor metastasis both in human tissue samples and in cell lines. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of IRS-1 expression enhanced cell invasive potency and induced EMT in parallel with upregulation of miR-9 expression. We propose that IRS-1 suppresses metastasis of head and neck cancer possibly through miR-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) G1057D polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in a Chinese population.
A case-control study with 197 GC patients and 156 age- and sex- matched control subjects was conducted. The genotypes of polymorphism were assessed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
The genotype frequencies of IRS-2 G1057D polymorphism in cases were obviously different from those in the control group (P = 0.031). Compared with GG genotype carriers, the risk for GC was significantly higher (adjusted odds ratio = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.03-5.23, P = 0.042) in the individuals with the IRS-2 DD genotype. Furthermore, stratified analysis was performed based on age, sex, smoking status and residence, but no significant difference between the two groups was found. In addition, no significant association between genotypes and clinicopathological features was observed either.
This study demonstrates that IRS-2 G1057D is involved in susceptibility to GC, although further large-sample studies are still needed.