Terry W Belke

Mount Allison University, XKV, New Brunswick, Canada

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Publications (47)79.38 Total impact

  • Terry W. Belke · W. David Pierce
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    ABSTRACT: Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel running rates and lever pressing rates increased for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Behavioural processes
  • Terry W. Belke · Sydney Mann · W. David Pierce
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    ABSTRACT: Rats were exposed to a multiple schedule in which they pressed a lever on a variable-ratio schedule for wheel-running reinforcement in one component and pressed a lever or completed wheel revolutions on a fixed-ratio schedule for 15% sucrose solution reinforcement in the changed component. After 20 sessions, sucrose reinforcement was replaced with water (0% sucrose) and operant behavior (lever pressing or wheel running) placed on extinction in the changed component. Extinction markedly reduced lever-pressing rate and lengthened postreinforcement pause (PRP) duration in the changed component, but only modestly reduced wheel-running rate and actually shortened PRP duration. In the unchanged component, when either lever pressing or wheel running were placed on extinction in the changed component, wheel-running rate, lever-pressing rate, and wheel-running reinforcers decreased while PRP duration increased in the changed component. The effect of extinction differed in the changed component as a function of the type of operant, but not in the unchanged component. This ruled out the automatic reinforcement effect of wheel running as a bridge for transferring the extinction effect between components. Arousal, negative induction, and a shift from high to low valued reinforcement were considered as potential accounts for the effects in the unchanged component.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • Terry W. Belke · W. David Pierce
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    ABSTRACT: As a follow up to Belke and Pierce's (2014) study, we assessed the effects of repeated presentation and removal of sucrose solution on the behavior of rats responding on a two-component multiple schedule. Rats completed 15 wheel turns (FR 15) for either 15% or 0% sucrose solution in the manipulated component and lever pressed 10 times on average (VR 10) for an opportunity to complete 15 wheel turns (FR 15) in the other component. In contrast to our earlier study, the components advanced based on time (every 8min) rather than completed responses. Results showed that in the manipulated component wheel-running rates were higher and the latency to initiate running longer when sucrose was present (15%) compared to absent (0% or water); the number of obtained outcomes (sucrose/water), however, did not differ with the presentation and withdrawal of sucrose. For the wheel-running as reinforcement component, rates of wheel turns, overall lever-pressing rates, and obtained wheel-running reinforcements were higher, and postreinforcement pauses shorter, when sucrose was present (15%) than absent (0%) in manipulated component. Overall, our findings suggest that wheel-running rate regardless of its function (operant or reinforcement) is maintained by automatically generated consequences (automatic reinforcement) and is increased as an operant by adding experimentally arranged sucrose reinforcement (extrinsic reinforcement). This additive effect on operant wheel-running generalizes through induction or arousal to the wheel-running as reinforcement component, increasing the rate of responding for opportunities to run and the rate of wheel-running per opportunity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Behavioural processes
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    ABSTRACT: Responding on variable-ratio (VR) schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement was assessed using a within-session procedure. Six female Long Evans rats were exposed to schedules ranging from VR 3 to VR 40 in ascending and descending order within a session with sucrose (0.1 ml of 15 % solution) and wheel-running reinforcement (30 s). Within a session, 10 reinforcers were obtained on each schedule, with a 120 s inter-component interval between schedules. Results showed that local response rates generated by sucrose were higher and that the pattern of local response rates across the schedules differed substantively between reinforcer types. With sucrose, local rates decreased linearly as the ratio requirement increased. With wheel running, local rates did not differ except to decline on the highest ratio. Post-reinforcement pauses were longer with wheel-running reinforcement and longer on the highest ratio when this ratio occurred at the end of a session. In contrast, wheel-running rates were lower on the smallest ratio schedule when this schedule occurred at the beginning of a session. The implications of the marked difference in local response rates across these schedules were discussed.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Psychological record
  • Terry W Belke · W David Pierce
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    ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the effect of motivational manipulations on operant wheel running for sucrose reinforcement and on wheel running as a behavioral consequence for lever pressing, within the same experimental context. Specifically, rats responded on a two-component multiple schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing produced the opportunity to run in a wheel in one component of the schedule (reinforcer component) and wheel running produced the opportunity to consume sucrose solution in the other component (operant component). Motivational manipulations involved removal of sucrose contingent on wheel running and providing 1h of pre-session wheel running. Results showed that, in opposition to a response strengthening view, sucrose did not maintain operant wheel running. The motivational operations of withdrawing sucrose or providing pre-session wheel running, however, resulted in different wheel-running rates in the operant and reinforcer components of the multiple schedule; this rate discrepancy revealed the extrinsic reinforcing effects of sucrose on operant wheel running, but also indicated the intrinsic reinforcement value of wheel running across components. Differences in wheel-running rates between components were discussed in terms of arousal, undermining of intrinsic motivation, and behavioral contrast.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Behavioural processes
  • Terry W. Belke · Danielle N. LeCours
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    ABSTRACT: Cart rats discriminate between short (i.e., 10 s) and long (i.e., 50 s) intervals of opportunity to run in running wheels? Eight female Long-Evans rats were exposed to 50 opportunities to run in a wheel. Following each interval, rats made a response to identify the interval. A correct response produced 0.1 ml of 15% sucrose solution, while an incorrect response caused the chamber lights to flash on and off for 5 s. Five of 8 rats met the criterion of 5 successive sessions with 80% correct responses for both durations. Furthermore, the criterion of 80% correct responses in a session was met more often with the 10-s than with the 50-s duration. Rats can discriminate between opportunities to run for different durations, but the results cast doubt on the assumption that rats are timing the intervals.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · The Psychological record
  • Terry W. Belke
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research showed that sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement of leverpressing generate different response rate asymptotes. To investigate the basis of this difference, the present study assessed the role of inhibitory after-effects and excitatory stimulus effects on measures of responding in rats exposed to fixed-interval schedules that randomly produced either sucrose or wheel-running reinforcers. Different discriminative stimuli were associated with each reinforcer type. Inhibitory aftereffects and excitatory stimulus effects were assessed by the pattern of postreinforcement pauses and local response rates across the four different combinations of previous and upcoming reinforcer types: wheel-wheel, wheel-sucrose, sucrose-wheel, and sucrose-sucrose. Results showed that, regardless of the prior type of reinforcer, response rates were higher and pauses were shorter in the presence of a stimulus signaling sucrose reinforcement. This suggests that differences in response rate asymptotes generated by these qualitatively different reinforcers may have more to do with differences in excitatory stimulus effects than with inhibitory after-effects.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Learning & Behavior
  • Terry W Belke
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    ABSTRACT: Belke (2010) showed that on concurrent ratio schedules, the difference in ratio requirements required to produce near exclusive preference for the lower ratio alternative was substantively greater when the reinforcer was wheel running than when it was sucrose. The current study replicated this finding and showed that this choice behavior can be described by the matching law and the contingency discriminability model. Eight female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent VR schedules of wheel-running reinforcement (30s) and the schedule value of the initially preferred alternative was systematically increased. Two rats rapidly developed exclusive preference for the lower ratio alternative, but the majority did not - even when ratios differed by 20:1. Analysis showed that estimates of slopes from the matching law and the proportion of reinforcers misattributed from the contingency discriminability model were related to the ratios at which near exclusive preference developed. The fit of these models would be consistent with misattribution of reinforcers or poor discrimination between alternatives due to the long duration of wheel running.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Behavioural processes
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    Terry W Belke
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research suggested that allocation of responses on concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement was less sensitive to schedule differences than typically observed with more conventional reinforcers. To assess this possibility, 16 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent FR FR schedules of reinforcement and the schedule value on one alternative was systematically increased. In one condition, the reinforcer on both alternatives was .1 ml of 7.5% sucrose solution; in the other, it was a 30-s opportunity to run in a wheel. Results showed that the average ratio at which greater than 90% of responses were allocated to the unchanged alternative was higher with wheel-running reinforcement. As the ratio requirement was initially increased, responding strongly shifted toward the unchanged alternative with sucrose, but not with wheel running. Instead, responding initially increased on both alternatives, then subsequently shifted toward the unchanged alternative. Furthermore, changeover responses as a percentage of total responses decreased with sucrose, but not wheel-running reinforcement. Finally, for some animals, responding on the increasing ratio alternative decreased as the ratio requirement increased, but then stopped and did not decline with further increments. The implications of these results for theories of choice are discussed.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
  • Terry W Belke · W David Pierce
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    ABSTRACT: Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Behavioural processes
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    ABSTRACT: Do rats run and respond at a higher rate to run during the dark phase when they are typically more active? To answer this question, Long Evans rats were exposed to a response-initiated variable interval 30-s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement during light and dark cycles. Wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased modestly during the dark phase. A second experiment examined the potential role of food-anticipatory activity in this effect by delaying postexperimental session feeding by 6 hr. No increase in wheel-running and lever-pressing rates was observed during the dark phase. This suggests that the effect of light/dark cycle on running and responding for the opportunity to run depended upon food anticipatory activity.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · The Psychological record
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    Terry W Belke · Theodore Garland
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    ABSTRACT: Mice from replicate lines, selectively bred based on high daily wheel-running rates, run more total revolutions and at higher average speeds than do mice from nonselected control lines. Based on this difference it was assumed that selected mice would find the opportunity to run in a wheel a more efficacious consequence. To assess this assumption within an operant paradigm, mice must be trained to make a response to produce the opportunity to run as a consequence. In the present study an autoshaping procedure was used to compare the acquisition of lever pressing reinforced by the opportunity to run for a brief opportunity (i.e., 90 s) between selected and control mice and then, using an operant procedure, the effect of the duration of the opportunity to run on lever pressing was assessed by varying reinforcer duration over values of 90 s, 30 min, and 90 s. The reinforcement schedule was a ratio schedule (FR 1 or VR 3). Results from the autoshaping phase showed that more control mice met a criterion of responses on 50% of trials. During the operant phase, when reinforcer duration was 90 s, almost all control, but few selected mice completed a session of 20 reinforcers; however, when reinforcer duration was increased to 30 min almost all selected and control mice completed a session of 20 reinforcers. Taken together, these results suggest that selective breeding based on wheel-running rates over 24 hr may have altered the motivational system in a way that reduces the reinforcing value of shorter running durations. The implications of this finding for these mice as a model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are discussed. It also is proposed that there may be an inherent trade-off in the motivational system for activities of short versus long duration.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
  • Terry W Belke
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    ABSTRACT: Rats were exposed to a fixed interval 30 s schedule that produced opportunities to run of equal or unequal durations to assess the effect of differences in duration on responding. Each duration was signaled by a different stimulus. Wheel-running reinforcer duration pairs were 30 s 30 s, 50 s 10 s, and 55 s 5 s. An analysis of median postreinforcement pause duration and mean local lever-pressing rates broken down by previous reinforcer duration and duration of signaled upcoming reinforcer showed that postreinforcement pause duration was affected by the duration of the previous reinforcer but not by the stimulus signaling the duration of the upcoming reinforcer. Local lever-pressing rates were not affected by either previous or upcoming reinforcer duration. In general, the results are consistent with indifference between these durations obtained using a concurrent choice procedure.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Behavioural Processes
  • Terry W Belke · Melissa M Christie-Fougere
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    ABSTRACT: Across two experiments, a peak procedure was used to assess the timing of the onset and offset of an opportunity to run as a reinforcer. The first experiment investigated the effect of reinforcer duration on temporal discrimination of the onset of the reinforcement interval. Three male Wistar rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 30-s schedules of wheel-running reinforcement and the duration of the opportunity to run was varied across values of 15, 30, and 60s. Each session consisted of 50 reinforcers and 10 probe trials. Results showed that as reinforcer duration increased, the percentage of postreinforcement pauses longer than the 30-s schedule interval increased. On probe trials, peak response rates occurred near the time of reinforcer delivery and peak times varied with reinforcer duration. In a second experiment, seven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to FI 30-s schedules leading to 30-s opportunities to run. Timing of the onset and offset of the reinforcement period was assessed by probe trials during the schedule interval and during the reinforcement interval in separate conditions. The results provided evidence of timing of the onset, but not the offset of the wheel-running reinforcement period. Further research is required to assess if timing occurs during a wheel-running reinforcement period.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Behavioural Processes
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    Terry W Belke · W David Pierce · Ian D Duncan
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    ABSTRACT: Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior was allocated to sucrose and more reinforcements were obtained from that alternative. Allocation of behavior to wheel running decreased, but obtained wheel-running reinforcement did not change. Overall, the results suggested that food-deprived rats were sensitive to qualitative changes in food supply (sucrose concentration) while continuing to defend a level of physical activity (wheel running). In the second study, 15 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running, wheel-running and wheel-running, and sucrose and sucrose reinforcement. For each pair of reinforcers, substitutability was assessed by the effect of income-compensated price changes on consumption of the two reinforcers. Results showed that, as expected, sucrose substituted for sucrose and wheel running substituted for wheel running. Wheel running, however, did not substitute for sucrose; but sucrose partially substituted for wheel running. We address the implications of the interrelationships of sucrose and wheel running for an understanding of activity anorexia.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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    Terry W Belke
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    ABSTRACT: How do animals choose between opportunities to run of different durations? Are longer durations preferred over shorter durations because they permit a greater number of revolutions? Are shorter durations preferred because they engender higher rates of running? Will longer durations be chosen because running is less constrained? The present study reports on three experiments that attempted to address these questions. In the first experiment, five male Wistar rats chose between 10-sec and 50-sec opportunities to run on modified concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Across conditions, the durations associated with the alternatives were reversed. Response, time, and reinforcer proportions did not vary from indifference. In a second experiment, eight female Long-Evans rats chose between opportunities to run of equal (30 sec) and unequal durations (10 sec and 50 sec) on concurrent variable-ratio (VR) schedules. As in Experiment 1, between presentations of equal duration conditions, 10-sec and 50-sec durations were reversed. Results showed that response, time, and reinforcer proportions on an alternative did not vary with reinforcer duration. In a third experiment, using concurrent VR schedules, durations were systematically varied to decrease the shorter duration toward 0 sec. As the shorter duration decreased, response, time, and reinforcer proportions shifted toward the longer duration. In summary, differences in durations of opportunities to run did not affect choice behavior in a manner consistent with the assumption that a longer reinforcer is a larger reinforcer.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Learning & Behavior
  • Terry W Belke
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    ABSTRACT: Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Behavioural Processes
  • T W Belke · AC Oldford · MY Forgie · JA Beye
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    ABSTRACT: The present study assessed the effect of D-amphetamine on responding maintained by wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 5% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15 s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. Doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine were administered by i.p. injection 20 min prior to a session. As the dose increased, index of curvature values decreased toward zero and rate-dependency plots revealed increases in lower rates early in the interval and decreases in higher rates toward the end of the interval. Effects were similar in the presence of both stimuli. However, an analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local response rates broken down by transitions revealed a differential effect. As the dose increased, local response rates following a wheel-running reinforcer were affected more than those following a sucrose reinforcer.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Behavioural Pharmacology
  • Terry W Belke · Ryan J McLaughlin
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    ABSTRACT: Habituation appears to play a role in the decline in wheel running within an interval. Aoyama and McSweeney [Aoyama, K., McSweeney, F.K., 2001. Habituation contributes to within-session changes in free wheel running. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 76, 289-302] showed that when a novel stimulus was presented during a 30-min interval, wheel-running rates following the stimulus increased to levels approximating those earlier in the interval. The present study sought to assess the role of habituation in the decline in running that occurs over a briefer interval. In two experiments, rats responded on fixed-interval 30-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 45 s. Forty reinforcers were completed in each session. In the first experiment, the brake and chamber lights were repeatedly activated and inactivated after 25 s of a reinforcement interval had elapsed to assess the effect on running within the remaining 20 s. Presentations of the brake/light stimulus occurred during nine randomly determined reinforcement intervals in a session. In the second experiment, a 110 dB tone was emitted after 25 s of the reinforcement interval. In both experiments, presentation of the stimulus produced an immediate decline in running that dissipated over sessions. No increase in running following the stimulus was observed in the first experiment until the stimulus-induced decline dissipated. In the second experiment, increases in running were observed following the tone in the first session as well as when data were averaged over several sessions. In general, the results concur with the assertion that habituation plays a role in the decline in wheel running that occurs within both long and short intervals.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Behavioural Processes
  • Terry W Belke · Jason P Wagner
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    ABSTRACT: Wheel running reinforces the behavior that generates it and produces a preference for the context that follows it. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate both of these effects in the same animals. Twelve male Wistar rats were first exposed to a fixed-interval 30 s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement. The operant was lever-pressing and the reinforcer was the opportunity to run for 45 s. Following this phase, the method of place conditioning was used to test for a rewarding aftereffect following operant sessions. On alternating days, half the rats responded for wheel-running reinforcement while the other half remained in their home cage. Upon completion of the wheel-running reinforcement sessions, rats that ran and rats that remained in their home cages were placed into a chamber of a conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus for 30 min. Each animal received six pairings of a distinctive context with wheel running and six pairings of a different context with their home cage. On the test day, animals were free to move between the chambers for 10 min. Results showed a conditioned place preference for the context associated with wheel running; however, time spent in the context associated with running was not related to wheel-running rate, lever-pressing rate, or post-reinforcement pause duration.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Behavioural Processes

Publication Stats

739 Citations
79.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997-2015
    • Mount Allison University
      • Department of Psychology
      XKV, New Brunswick, Canada
  • 1992-1994
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Psychology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1989-1994
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Psychology
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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