[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic analyses using two chloroplast DNA data sets, derived from variation of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase
gene (rbcL) and restriction sites, were performed to examine relationships among 13 taxa in subtribe Dendrobiinae, one of the most
taxonomically complicated groups in Orchidaceae, and its putative sister groups. Owing to a limited number of informative
substitutions, therbcL data set did not provide conclusive evidence in itself. The data set combiningrbcL and restriction site mutations, however, provided the following insights: (1)Pseuderia belongs with tribe Podochileae rather than tribe Dendrobieae. (2) Subtribe Dendrobiinae is monophyletic ifPseuderia is excluded. (3) ExcludingPseuderia, Dendrobiinae comprises three major clades: Clade 1 (Dendrobium sectionSpatulata, Cadetia, Diplocaulobium, andFlickingeria); Clade 2 (Dendrobium sectionsDendrobium andCallista); and Clade 3 (Epigeneium). (4)Epigeneium diverged early from the lineage including Clades 1 and 2. (5) Relative toCadetia, Diplocaulobium, andFlickingeria, Dendrobium is shown to be para-/polyphyletic. (6)Diplocaulobium andFlickingeria constitute a monophyletic clade, from which cladeDendrobium sectionSpatulata andCadetia form succesive sister groups. Among these results, (1) and (5) are especially stable in view of the congruence between the
separate and combined analyses as well as robust internal support.
No preview · Article · Jun 1996 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Floral morphology in all ten species ofCrossostylis, one of the inland genera of Rhizophoraceae and is distributed in the South Pacific Islands, was studied to increase our
knowledge on floral features of individual species as well as on relationships among the species. Flowers ofCrossostylis, unlike those of the other Rhizophoraceae, always have semi-inferior ovaries and entire petals, but are diversified concerning
the number and arrangement of stamens and carpels, the presence or absence of staminodia, sexuality and the structure of nectaries.
Despite some doubt of the presence of apomorphies restricted to the whole genus, we tentatively definedCrossostylis by a combination of the presence of the semi-inferior ovary, entire petals, and arillate seeds, and then performed cladistic
analysis on the basis of 24 floral and other morphological characters and withCarallia andGynotroches as outgroups. Our phylogenetic analysis suggested that the species ofCrossostylis are divided into two monophyletic groups: one comprising six species distributed in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and the
Fiji Islands, and the other comprising four species distributed in New Caledonia and Polynesia.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic relationships among the nine species ofCrossostylis (Rhizophoraceae) were elucidated using cladistic analysis of restriction site variations of chloroplast DNA. As a result,
this genus was found to comprise two pronounced monophyletic groups as follows:C. biflora, C. grandiflora, C. multiflora andC. sebertii; andC. cominsii, C. pachyantha, C. parksii, C. richii andC. seemannii. Moreover, the monophyly ofC. biflora, C. grandiflora andC. sebertii in the former group and the monophyly ofC. pachyantha, C. parksii, C. richii andC. seemannii in the latter group were also suggested. The molecular tree corresponded well with that inferred from morphological data
and no discrepancy was recognized. Many of the floral morphological characters reflected lineage, but all seed coat characters
were homoplasious. Evolutionary trends in some morphological characters were optimized on the cpDNA tree obtained. Species
from New Caledonia and Polynesia were monophyletic, as were those from the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and the Fiji Islands.
All species endemic to the Fiji Islands made a cluster, and this suggests that speciation occurred from a single ancestral
species on the Islands.
No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of climate change induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 on the flora and vegetation of Japan is discussed. Nineteen small sized restricted plant-communities are evaluated as communities
with a considerable number of species threatened under present scenarios of global climate change.
No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey of the structure and mineral composition of leaf idioblasts in the Cecropiaceae was conducted. In all six genera
of the family, idioblasts usually occur as trichomes or enlarged epidermal cells and nearly always accumulate Si, in marked
contrast to the idioblasts of other members of the Urticales, which mostly possess cystoliths containing abundant Ca and Si.
The horizontally elongate, mineralized structures ofPoikilospermum, reported formerly as “cystoliths” also contain mainly Si and little Ca. Six genera of Cecropiaceae share a common character
in accumulating abundant Si in idioblasts of the leaf epidermis, while lacking cystoliths composed of abundant Ca and Si.
No preview · Article · Jan 1993 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first report on somatic chromosome numbers and morphology in eight of 13 recorded species ofCrossostylis, one of inland genera of Rhizophoraceae. The chromosome number ofCrossostylis is 2n=28 in all species examined; therefore, the genus hasx=14, a number which is the smallest and unknown elsewhere in the family. Based onCrossostylis raiateensis, we further present that 24 of 28 chromosomes at metaphase have centromeres at median position, and the remaining four at
submedian or subterminal position. The chromosome morphology seems to imply thatCrossostylis might be a tetraploid with the original base numberx=7, but an extensive study in the other inland genera is needed to find such a small chromosome number.
No preview · Article · Dec 1992 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The seed coat structure of all 13 species ofCrossostylis was studied to contribute to an understanding of species delimitation and relationships within the genus. The mature seed
coat is relatively uniform and consistently constructed mainly by a well-developed exotesta and a well-developed fibrous exotegmen.
The species differ in the thickness of the exotesta and exotegmen, the anatomy of exotestal cells, the presence and absence
of persistent mesotesta, and so forth. On the basis of comparisons of these characters, close relationships are suggested
in the species groups such as:Crossostylis banksiana andC. cominsii; C. biflora, C. raiateensis andC. multiflora; C. gandiflora, C. sebertii andC. imera; and five species in the Fiji Islands. These relationships except for those of Fijian five species are also supported by
cladistics as their common characters are evaluated as synapomorphy. Species-level separation ofC. banksiana, C. pedunculata andC. raiateensis each from the closest species is doubted based on the results of seed coat structure.
No preview · Article · Nov 1992 · Journal of Plant Research