Magnus Björkholm

Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (460)2396.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated temporal trends in survival of Swedish acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 using relative survival ratios (RSRs) and a measure called the loss in expectation of life (LEL). RSRs increased most for patients <60 years at diagnosis during the first calendar periods, but between 1997-2005 and 2006-2011 the most pronounced increase was for those aged 61-70 years at diagnosis; RSR changed from 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.19) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.23-0.33), respectively. The LEL for males aged 35 years at diagnosis was 41.0 (95% CI: 40.1-41.8) years in 1975 and 19.5 (95% CI: 16.4-22.5) years in 2011. For males aged 65 years, the corresponding figures were 13.8 (95% CI: 13.7-14.0) and 12.0 (95% CI: 11.3-12.8). Conditional LEL estimates suggested that patients who survive 5 years postdiagnosis have shorter remaining lifespan than the general population. The proportion of expected life lost (PELL) suggested that male 65-year-old patients lost 75% of their life expectancy in 2005 and 66% if they were diagnosed in 2011. Survival continued to increase to 2011, with larger improvements in those aged 61-70 years at diagnosis. The LEL and PELL are intuitive measures that may be useful in communicating survival statistics to patients, clinicians and health-care providers.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Blood Cancer Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It has been suggested that blood donors could have an increased risk of polycythemia vera (PV). However, no study has assessed whether frequent donors have a higher PV risk than less frequent donors. Study design and methods: From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database, we established a cohort of blood donors who had donated whole blood at least once between 1980 and 2012. Within this cohort we first assessed the risk of PV, comparing the donors to the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). To assess the association between frequency of blood donation and risk of PV we then conducted a case-control study nested within the cohort, where we compared prior donation activity among donors who were diagnosed with PV and matched controls. Here odds ratios (ORs) were used as measures of relative risk comparing donors with different donation frequency. Results: Among 1.4 million donors in the cohort a total of 271 donors developed PV, yielding a SIR of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.13) compared to the general population. The nested case-control study showed no association between donation frequency and risk of PV. The OR of PV comparing donors who had made at least 33 donations in the period from 3 to 22 years before diagnosis of the case, to donors with one to eight donations in the same period was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.51-1.97). Conclusions: We find no evidence of excess risk of PV among blood donors or of an association between donation frequency and PV risk.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Transfusion
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical outcome for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has improved dramatically following the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. An improved survival, combined with a constant incidence, is expected to increase the prevalence of CML. However, data on the prevalence of CML remain scarce. We examined the overall and relative (age and gender matched) survival and assessed the past, present and projected future prevalence of CML in Sweden. Data on all patients diagnosed with CML between 1970 and 2012 were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. The five-year overall survival increased from 0.18 to 0.82, during the observed time period. Between 2006-2012 the five-year relative survival was close to normal for 40-year-old, but considerably lower for 80-year-old CML patients (0.95 and 0.63, respectively). The observed prevalence tripled from 1985 to 2012: from 3.9 to 11.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. Assuming no further improvements in relative survival, the prevalence is projected to further increase by 2060 to 22.0 per 100,000 inhabitants (2,597 persons in Sweden). The projected dramatic increase in CML prevalence has major medical and health economic implications and needs to be considered in planning how to organize future care of CML patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Haematologica
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) are at high risk of brain cancer. This study describes the spectrum of brain neoplasms in DM patients. Methods: Data from 1119 DM patients identified from the National Swedish Patient Register between 1987 and 2007 were linked to the National Cancer and the Cause of Death Registers. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and cumulative incidence to quantify the relative and absolute risks of brain neoplasms were calculated and the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used for survival analysis. Patient follow-up started at birth or the age at the start of Swedish cancer registration (1 January 1958) and ended at the age of brain neoplasm diagnosis, death or on 31 December 2007. Results: Twenty patients developed brain neoplasm during follow-up {median age 53, range 2-76 years, accounting for a five-fold excess risk of brain tumors during the patient lifetime [SIR = 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-8.1, P = 1 × 10(-5) ]}. Astrocytoma was the most common histological subtype (n = 16, 80%), and almost all cases (n = 19) developed after age 20. No statistically significant differences in gender-specific risks (SIR in men 6.3 and in women 3.8, P-heterogeneity 0.46) were observed. After accounting for competing mortality related to DM, the cumulative incidence of brain neoplasms reached 2.9% (95% CI 1.8%-4.7%) by age 70. Five-year survival after brain tumor diagnosis was 52% (95%CI 29%-75%) overall (number at risk 8) and 34% (95% CI 26%-47%) for malignant neoplasms (number at risk 5). Conclusion: Despite the high relative risk of DM-related brain tumors, the absolute risk is modest. Nonetheless, careful evaluation of DM patients with new central nervous system symptoms is warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Neurology
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    Xinyu Ci · Bingnan Li · Xueping Ma · Feng Kong · Chengyun Zheng · Magnus Björkholm · Jihui Jia · Dawei Xu
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    ABSTRACT: Bortezomib inhibits the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway to achieve its anti-cancer effect and its well characterized activity is the NF-κB inhibition through which the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 expression is down-regulated and apoptosis is subsequently induced. However, the downstream molecular targets of bortezomib are still incompletely defined. Because telomere stabilization via activation of telomerase, induction of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and appropriate expression of shelterin proteins is essential to cancer development and progression, we investigated the effect of bortezomib on telomere homeostasis/function in malignant cells. The bortezomib treatment of leukemic (HEL) and gastric cancer cells (BGC-823) led to significant inhibition of hTERT and telomerase expression, widespread dysregulation of shelterin protein expression, and telomere shortening, thereby triggering telomere dysfunction and DNA damage. hTERT over-expression attenuated bortezomib-induced telomere shortening, abnormal shelterin expression and telomere dysfunction. Importantly, bortezomib-mediated apoptosis of malignant cells was partially prevented by hTERT over-expression. Mechanistically, hTERT first robustly enhances bcl2 expression and maintains significantly high residual levels of bcl2 even in bortezomib-treated HEL cells. Second, hTERT protects against bortezomib-induced DNA damage. Our findings collectively reveal a profound impact of bortezomib on telomere homeostasis/function. Down-regulation of hTERT expression and telomere dysfunction induced by bortezomib both contribute to its cancer cell killing actions. It is evident from the present study that hTERT can confer resistance of malignant cells to bortezomib-based target cancer therapy, which may have important clinical implications.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Trends in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survival among patients treated outside of clinical trials provide real-world benchmark estimates of prognosis and help identify patient subgroups for targeted trials. In a Swedish population-based cohort of 1947 HL patients diagnosed 1992-2009 at ages 18-59 years, we estimated relative survival (RS), cure proportions (CP) and median survival times using flexible parametric cure models. Overall, the CP was 89% (95%CI:0.87-0.91) and median survival of the uncured was 4.6 years (95%CI:3.0-6.3). For patients aged 18-50 years diagnosed after the year 2000, CP was high and stable, whereas for patients 50-59 years cure was not reached. The survival of relapse-free patients was similar to that of the general population (RS5-year:0.99; 95%CI:0.98-0.99, RS15-year:0.95; 95%CI:0.92-0.97). The excess mortality of relapsing patients was 19 times (95%CI:12-31) that of relapse-free patients. Despite modern treatments, patients with adverse prognostic factors (e.g., advanced stage) still had markedly worse outcomes [CPstage:IIIB 0.82 (95%CI:0.73-0.89); CPstage:IVB 0.72, (95%CI:0.60-0.81)] and patients with international prognostic score (IPS) ≥3 had 2.7 times higher excess mortality (95%CI:1.0-7.0, p=0.04) than patients with IPS <3. High-risk patients selected for 6-8 courses of BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclofosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone)-chemotherapy had a 15-year relative survival of 87%, (95%CI:0.80-0.92), whereas the corresponding estimate for patients selected for 6-8 courses of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) was 93% (95%CI:0.88-0.97). These population-based results indicate limited fatal side-effects in the 15-year perspective with contemporary treatments, while the unmet need of effective relapse treatment remains of concern. BEACOPP-chemotherapy was still not sufficient in high-risk HL patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · American Journal of Hematology
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Haematologica
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    ABSTRACT: The key enzyme in leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis is 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), which is expressed in myeloid cells and in B lymphocytes. There are three phosphorylation sites on 5-LO (Ser271, Ser523 and Ser663). Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates 5-LO on Ser523. In this report, we demonstrate by immunoblotting that native 5-LO in mantle B cell lymphoma (MCL) cells (Granta519, JEKO1, and Rec1) and in primary chronic B lymphocytic leukemia cells (B-CLL) is phosphorylated on Ser523. In contrast, we could not detect phosphorylation of 5-LO on Ser523 in human granulocytes or monocytes. Phosphorylated 5-LO was purified from Rec1 cells, using an ATP-agarose column, and the partially purified enzyme could be dephosphorylated with alkaline phosphatase. Incubation of Rec1 cells with 8-Br-cAMP or prostaglandin E2 stimulated phosphorylation at Ser523. Furthermore, FLAG-5LO was expressed in Rec1 cells, and the cells were cultivated in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP. The 5-LO protein from these cells was immunoprecipitated, first with anti-FLAG, followed by anti-pSer523-5-LO. The presence of 5-LO protein in the final precipitate further supported the finding that the protein recognized by the pSer523 antibody was 5-LO. Taken together, this study shows that 5-LO in B cells is phosphorylated on Ser523 and demonstrates for the first time a chemical difference between 5-LO in myeloid cells and B cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
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    ABSTRACT: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has a unique pathological feature characterized by a minority of malignant Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells surrounded by numerous inflammatory cells. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs) are produced by eosinophils, macrophages and mast cells in the HL tumor microenvironment. In the present study we have explored the signal transduction pathways leading to leukotriene (LT) D4 induced expression of cytokines in the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L1236 and KM-H2. Stimulation of L1236 and KM-H2 cells with LTD4 led to a concentration- and time-dependent increase at the transcriptional level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and CCL4. The expression of several transcription factors was induced upon stimulation of Hodgkin cell lines with LTD4. Among these, EGR-1 was required for cytokine production. Inhibition of EGR-1 expression using shEGR-1 transduced by lentivirus led to suppression of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. The effect of LTD4 on the expression of transcription factors and cytokines were also blocked by the specific CysLT1 receptor antagonist zafirlukast. These results demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in LTD4-induced cytokine transcription in Hodgkin cell lines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are associated with a shortened life expectancy. We assessed causes of death in patients with MPN and matched controls using both relative risks and absolute probabilities in the presence of competing risks. From Swedish registries, we identified 9,285 patients with MPN and 35,769 matched controls. A flexible parametric model was used to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of death and cumulative incidence functions, each with 95% CIs. In patients with MPN, the HRs of death from hematologic malignancies and infections were 92.8 (95% CI, 70.0 to 123.1) and 2.7 (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.1), respectively. In patients age 70 to 79 years at diagnosis (the largest patient group), the HRs of death from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease were 1.5 (95% CI, 1.4 to 1.7) and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3 to 1.8), respectively; all were statistically significantly elevated compared with those of controls. In the same age group, no difference was observed in the 10-year probability of death resulting from cardiovascular disease in patients with MPN versus controls (16.8% v 15.2%) or cerebrovascular disease (5.6% v 5.2%). In patients age 50 to 59 years at diagnosis, the 10-year probability of death resulting from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease was elevated, 4.2% versus 2.1% and 1.9% versus 0.4%, respectively. Survival in patients with MPN increased over time, mainly because of decreased probabilities of dying as a result of hematologic malignancies, infections, and, in young patients, cardiovascular disease. Patients with MPN had an overall higher mortality rate than that of matched controls, primarily because of hematologic malignancy, infections, and vascular events in younger patients. Evidently, there is still a need for effective disease-modifying agents to improve patient outcomes. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is consistently preceded by the precursor state, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). The average annual risk of progression from MGUS to multiple myeloma is 0.5% to 1.0%. Current guidelines suggest life-long clinical follow-up of individuals diagnosed as having MGUS depending on risk stratification. The impact of diagnosing and conducting clinical follow-up of MGUS on MM survival is unclear. To estimate the impact of prior knowledge of MGUS diagnosis and comorbidities on MM survival. We conducted a population-based study including all patients with MM (MM patients) diagnosed in Sweden (n = 14 798) from 1976 to 2005 (with follow-up until 2007); 394 (2.7%) had previously been diagnosed as having MGUS. Information on comorbidities was gathered for all patients. We calculated survival rates from the time of MM diagnosis, comparing patients with vs those without prior knowledge of MGUS. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for risk factors for death. χ2 Tests were used to evaluate differences in comorbidities. Prior knowledge of MGUS among MM patients. In a subanalysis, monoclonal (M)-protein concentration and type were used as exposure. Risk of death and comorbidities. Patients with MM with prior knowledge of MGUS had significantly (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96; P < .01) better overall survival (median survival, 2.8 years) than MM patients without prior knowledge of MGUS (median survival, 2.1 years), although MM patients with (vs without) prior knowledge of MGUS had more comorbidities (P < .001). Among MM patients with prior knowledge of MGUS, low M-protein concentration (<0.5 g/dL) at MGUS diagnosis was associated with poorer MM survival (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.13-3.04; P = .01). Patients with MM with prior knowledge of MGUS had better MM survival, suggesting that earlier treatment of MM leads to better survival. The observation that a low M-protein concentration at MGUS diagnosis was associated with poorer MM survival may reflect less frequent clinical follow-up. Our observations stress the importance of clinical follow-up in patients with MGUS, regardless of risk stratification.
    No preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Posaconazole prophylaxis during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has been shown to significantly decrease the incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) and increase overall survival in a trial setting, but only small real-life studies have been published. This was a retrospective cohort study including consecutive AML/MDS patients treated with intensive induction chemotherapy; 176 patients received fluconazole prophylaxis 2008-2011 and 107 patients received posaconazole prophylaxis 2011-2013. Only proven and probable IFD according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria were included in the analysis. The two cohorts were well matched without significant differences in patient characteristics. At day 100, patients receiving posaconazole had a significantly lower incidence of total IFD (0.9% vs. 10.8%, p < 0.01), invasive aspergillosis (0% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.02), and invasive candidiasis (0% vs. 4.0%, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in overall survival, neither at day 100 (87% in the posaconazole group vs. 85% in the fluconazole group) nor at end of follow-up (78% vs. 7%). Posaconazole prophylaxis decreased the incidence of IFD but did not improve short-term overall survival. Improved treatment efficacy of manifest IFD is likely to explain the lack of survival benefit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Journal Of Haematology

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have a well-characterized immune deficiency of T cell function, originally identified by increased susceptibility to certain infections. Epidemiological evidence has long pointed to infectious etiologies in younger HL patients. With the aim of expanding our knowledge on the potential role of pre-existing immune deficiency in HL and an infectious/inflammatory etiology, we conducted a comprehensive population-based case-control study in HL patients diagnosed in Sweden in the period 1965-2004, and their matched controls. In a large population-based study including 7,414 HL patients and 29,240 matched controls, we evaluated the subsequent risk of HL in relation to a broad range of infectious and inflammatory conditions, using unconditional logistic regression. A previous history of any reported infection was associated with an 11 % increased risk of HL (P < 0.05). More specifically, we found sinusitis (odds ratio = 1.81; 95 % confidence interval = 1.06-3.07), tuberculosis (1.76; 1.01-3.07), encephalitis (7.88; 1.97-31.5), and herpes zoster (2.20; 1.11-4.35) to be associated with excess HL risk. A personal prior history of chronic inflammatory condition was not associated with an increased risk of HL (0.94; 0.71-1.14). Our results suggest that underlying immune deficiency is a primary phenomenon in HL. Alternatively, certain infectious agents may be potential HL triggers.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · International Journal of Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Given that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have dramatically improved the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), we were interested in examining the possible risk of long-term adverse events, such as the emergence of other neoplasms. Therefore, we studied the development of second malignancies in 868 patients diagnosed with CML between 2002 and 2011 using the Swedish CML register, cross-linked to the Swedish Cancer register. With a median follow-up of 3·7 (range 0-9·9) years, 65 (7·5%) patients developed 75 second malignancies (non-haematological), 52 of which were of the invasive type. Compared to expected rates in the background population, the risk of second malignancies was higher in the CML cohort, with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 1·52 (95% CI 1·13-1·99). The SIR before and after the second year following diagnosis of CML was 1·58 and 1·47, respectively. Among specific cancer types, gastrointestinal and nose and throat cancer were significantly increased. Founded on a population-based material, our results indicate that CML patients treated in the TKI era are at an increased risk of developing a second malignancy, with indications that this risk may more likely be linked to CML itself rather than to the TKI treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · British Journal of Haematology
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    Xiaolu Zhang · Bingnan Li · Nick de Jonge · Magnus Björkholm · Dawei Xu
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) such as 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) have been used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. Although inhibiting global/gene-specific DNA methylation is widely accepted as a key mechanism behind DNMTI anti-tumor activity, other mechanisms are likely involved in DNMTI's action. Because telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays key roles in cancer through telomere elongation and telomere lengthening-independent activities, and TERT has been shown to confer chemo- or radio-resistance to cancer cells, we determine whether DNMTIs affect telomere function and whether TERT/telomerase interferes with their anti-cancer efficacy. We showed that 5-AZA induced DNA damage and telomere dysfunction in AML cell lines by demonstrating the presence of 53-BP1 foci and the co-localization of 53-BP1 foci with telomere signals, respectively. Telomere dysfunction was coupled with diminished TERT expression, shorter telomere and apoptosis in 5-AZA-treated cells. However, 5-AZA treatment did not lead to changes in the methylation status of subtelomere regions. Down-regulation of TERT expression similarly occurred in primary leukemic cells derived from AML patients exposed to 5-AZA. TERT over-expression significantly attenuated 5-AZA-mediated DNA damage, telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of AML cells. Collectively, 5-AZA mediates the down-regulation of TERT expression, and induces telomere dysfunction, which consequently exerts an anti-tumor activity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: TERT promoter C228T and C250T mutations occur in various malignancies including bladder cancer (BC) and may serve as urinary tumor markers. However, the mutation association with clinical variables in upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) is unclear. There is also a lack of sensitive tools to detect the minor mutant TERT promoter in bulk urinary DNA. Here we analyzed 220 UTUC patients [98 with renal pelvic carcinoma (RPC) and 122 with ureter carcinoma (UC)] and developed a Competitive Allele-Specific TaqMan PCR (castPCR) for urinary assay. We identified C228T or C250T mutations in 42 of 98 (43%) RPC and 23 of 122 (19%) UC tumors. Distant metastases were significantly correlated with UTUC patients harboring TERT promoter mutations (P = 0.001). C228T were detected in 6/10 and 9/10 of urine samples from patients with mutation-carrying tumors using Sanger sequencing and castPCR, respectively. When urine samples from 70 BC patients were analyzed together, the sensitivity of urinary C228T assay was 89% and 50% for castPCR and Sanger sequencing, respectively (P < 0.001). Collectively, TERT promoter mutations occur in UTUCs with a high frequency in RPCs and predict distant metastasis. castPCR assays of the mutation are a useful tool for urine-based diagnostics of urological malignancies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Oncotarget

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,396.84 Total Impact Points


  • 1977-2015
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • • Department of Hematology
      • • Department of Medicine, Huddinge
      • • Omvårdnad
      • • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics
      • • Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC)
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1976-2015
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      • • Department of Hematology
      • • Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM)
      • • Department of Clinical Pharmacology
      • • Department of Hematology, Immunology, and HIV
      • • Department of Oncology
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2010
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Center for Cancer Research
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1985-2009
    • Uppsala University Hospital
      • • Department of Hematology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2003
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2001
    • Kochi Medical School
      Kôti, Kōchi, Japan
  • 2000
    • Lund University
      • Department of Clinical Genetics
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 1997
    • Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1994
    • Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden
      Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
  • 1988
    • Örebro University Hospital
      Örebro, Örebro, Sweden
  • 1981-1982
    • Danderyds Sjukhus AB
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1975
    • Södersjukhuset
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden