[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background: Otitis media is a common and costly disease that peaks in early childhood. Recent reviews concluded that the relationship between otitis media and atopy is not well understood, and that further research is warranted.
Methods: Logistic regression was used to analyze data from a German Birth Cohort (n = 1690; born 1997–1999). Parental questionnaires were used to assess children for physician-diagnosed otitis media throughout the first 2 years of life and for incident atopic disease (asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema) during the sixth year of life. Odds ratios were adjusted for gender, older siblings, city, parental education, breast-feeding, and daycare. Parallel analyses were completed for the full birth cohort and for a population subset with atopic mothers.
Results: The adjusted odds of asthma were elevated for children with early-life otitis media, but were statistically significant only for those children with at least 3 episodes (adjusted odds ratio: 4.26 [95% confidence interval: 1.34–13.6]). Associations between early-life otitis media and allergic rhinitis were largely inconsistent. There was a positive association between early-life otitis media and late-onset allergic eczema (≥2 episodes: 2.68 [1.35–5.33], ≥3 episodes: 3.84 [1.80–8.18]). Similar results were found for the maternal atopy subgroup but with greater effect estimates.
Conclusions: Children diagnosed with otitis media during infancy were at greater risk for developing late-onset allergic eczema and asthma during school age, and associations were stronger for frequent otitis. These results indicate that frequent otitis media during infancy may predispose children to atopic disease in later life.
Article · Dec 2010 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aim:
To describe day care attendance in Germany today (in former East and former West Germany). To investigate longitudinally whether children attending day care centres have an increased risk of acquiring common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis media or diarrhea.
Questionnaire information was collected when the children in the cohort were 6, 12, 18, 24 months, and 4 and 6 years old. Day care within the first and first 2 years of life was investigated longitudinally with GEE (generalised estimating equations) methods in relation to common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis media and diarrhea within the first 6 years of life.
Day care centre attendance is more common in former East than in former West Germany; this difference is evident even 10-12 years after German reunification. Children attending a day care centre were more likely to have common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis media and diarrhea within the first 2-3 years of life. With the exception of common cold, from year 4 onwards these associations were not statistically significant anymore and even reversed for some of the infections.
Children attending day care centres were at an increased risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections within the first years of life. However, around school age these differences disappeared or even partly reversed.