Gabriella Captur

Liverpool Heart And Chest Hospital, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (19)111.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new level set method for segmentation of cardiac left and right ventricles. We extend the edge based distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE) model in to a two-level-set formulation, with the 0-level set and k-level set representing the endocardium and epicardium, respectively. The extraction of endocardium and epicardium is obtained as a result of the interactive curve evolution of the 0 and k level sets derived from the proposed variational level set formulation. The initialization of the level set function in the proposed two-level-set DRLSE model is generated from roughly located endocardium, which can be performed by applying the original DRLSE model. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed two-level-set DRLSE model.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Many of the structures and parameters that are detected, measured and reported in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have at least some properties that are fractal, meaning complex and self-similar at different scales. To date however, there has been little use of fractal geometry in CMR; by comparison, many more applications of fractal analysis have been published in MR imaging of the brain. This review explains the fundamental principles of fractal geometry, places the fractal dimension into a meaningful context within the realms of Euclidean and topological space, and defines its role in digital image processing. It summarises the basic mathematics, highlights strengths and potential limitations of its application to biomedical imaging, shows key current examples and suggests a simple route for its successful clinical implementation by the CMR community. By simplifying some of the more abstract concepts of deterministic fractals, this review invites CMR scientists (clinicians, technologists, physicists) to experiment with fractal analysis as a means of developing the next generation of intelligent quantitative cardiac imaging tools.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: Adult and pediatric cardiologists are familiar with variation in cardiac trabeculation. Abnormal trabeculation is a key feature of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), but it is also common in congenital heart diseases and in cardiomyopathies (dilated and hypertrophied). Trabeculae may be a measurable phenotypic marker that will allow insights into how cardiomyopathy and congenital heart disease arise and develop. This will require the linking together of clinical and preclinical information (such as embryology, genetics), with new analysis methods for trabecular quantitation. In adult cardiology several promising quantitative methods have been developed for echocardiography, computed tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and earlier cross-sectional caliper approaches have now been refined to permit more advanced assessment. Adapting these methods for use in developmental biology may inform on better ways to measure and track trabecular morphology in model organisms.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Canadian journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcomeric gene mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In gene mutation carriers without left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (G + LVH-), subclinical imaging biomarkers are recognized as predictors of overt HCM, consisting of anterior mitral valve leaflet elongation, myocardial crypts, hyperdynamic LV ejection fraction, and abnormal apical trabeculation. Reverse curvature of the interventricular septum (into the LV) is characteristic of overt HCM. We aimed to assess LV septal convexity in subclinical HCM. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed on 36 G + LVH- individuals (31 ± 14 years, 33 % males) with a pathogenic sarcomere mutation, and 36 sex and age-matched healthy controls (33 ± 12 years, 33 % males). Septal convexity (SCx) was measured in the apical four chamber view perpendicular to a reference line connecting the mid-septal wall at tricuspid valve insertion level and the apical right ventricular insertion point. Septal convexity was increased in G + LVH- compared to controls (maximal distance of endocardium to reference line: 5.0 ± 2.5 mm vs. 1.6 ± 2.4 mm, p ≤ 0.0001). Expected findings occurred in G + LVH- individuals: longer anterior mitral valve leaflet (23.5 ± 3.0 mm vs. 19.9 ± 3.1 mm, p ≤ 0.0001), higher relative wall thickness (0.31 ± 0.05 vs. 0.29 ± 0.04, p ≤ 0.05), higher LV ejection fraction (70.8 ± 4.3 % vs. 68.3 ± 4.4 %, p ≤ 0.05), and smaller LV end-systolic volume index (21.4 ± 4.4 ml/m(2) vs. 23.7 ± 5.8 ml/m(2), p ≤ 0.05). Other morphologic measurements (LV angles, sphericity index, and eccentricity index) were not different between G + LVH- and controls. Septal convexity is an additional previously undescribed feature of subclinical HCM.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To quantitatively determine the population variation and relationship of left ventricular (LV) trabeculation to LV function, structure, and clinical variables. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant multicenter study was approved by institutional review boards of participating centers. All participants provided written informed consent. Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data were evaluated to quantify LV trabeculation as a fractal dimension (FD). Entire cohort participants free of cardiac disease, hypertrophy, hypertension, and diabetes were stratified by body mass index (BMI) into three reference groups (BMI <25 kg/m(2); BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2); and BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) to explore maximal apical FD (FDMaxApical). Multivariable linear regression models determined the relationship between FD and other parameters. Results Included were 2547 participants (mean age, 68.7 years ± 9.1 [standard deviation]; 1211 men). FDMaxApical are in arbitrary units. FDMaxApical reference ranges for BMI 30 kg/m(2) or greater (n = 163), 25 kg/m(2) or greater to less than 30 kg/m(2) (n = 206), and less than 25 kg/m(2) (n = 235) were 1.203 ± 0.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.194, 1.212), 1.194 ± 0.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.186, 1.202), and 1.169 ± 0.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.162, 1.176), respectively. In the entire cohort, adjusted for anthropometrics, trabeculation was higher in African American participants (standardized β [sβ] = 0.09; P ≤ .001) and Hispanic participants (sβ = 0.05; P = .013) compared with white participants and was also higher in African American participants compared with Chinese American participants (sβ = 0.08; P = .01), and this persisted after adjustment for hypertension and LV size. Hypertension (sβ = 0.07; P < .001), LV mass (sβ = 0.22; P < .001), and wall thickness (sβ = 0.27; P < .001) were positively associated with FDMaxApical even after adjustment. In the group with BMIs less than 25 kg/m(2), Chinese American participants had less trabeculation than white participants (sβ = -0.15; P = .032). Conclusion Fractal analysis of cardiac MR imaging data measures endocardial complexity, which helps to differentiate normal from abnormal trabecular patterns in healthy versus diseased hearts. Trabeculation is influenced by race and/or ethnicity and, more importantly, by cardiac loading conditions and comorbidities. Clinicians who interpret cine MR imaging data should expect slightly less endocardial complexity in Chinese American patients and more in African American patients, Hispanic patients, hypertensive patients, and those with hypertrophy. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the pharmacology and potential clinical utility of splenic switch-off to identify understress in adenosine perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and methods: Splenic switch-off was assessed in perfusion cardiac MR examinations from 100 patients (mean age, 62 years [age range, 18-87 years]) by using three stress agents (adenosine, dobutamine, and regadenoson) in three different institutions, with appropriate ethical permissions. In addition, 100 negative adenosine images from the Clinical Evaluation of MR Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease (CE-MARC) trial (35 false and 65 true negative; mean age, 59 years [age range, 40-73 years]) were assessed to ascertain the clinical utility of the sign to detect likely pharmacologic understress. Differences in splenic perfusion were compared by using Wilcoxon signed rank or Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and true-negative and false-negative findings in CE-MARC groups were compared by using the Fisher exact test. Results: The spleen was visible in 99% (198 of 200) of examinations and interobserver agreement in the visual grading of splenic switch-off was excellent (κ = 0.92). Visually, splenic switch-off occurred in 90% of adenosine studies, but never in dobutamine or regadenoson studies. Semiquantitative assessments supported these observations: peak signal intensity was 78% less with adenosine than at rest (P < .001), but unchanged with regadenoson (4% reduction; P = .08). Calculated peak splenic divided by myocardial signal intensity (peak splenic/myocardial signal intensity) differed between stress agents (adenosine median, 0.34; dobutamine median, 1.34; regadenoson median, 1.13; P < .001). Failed splenic switch-off was significantly more common in CE-MARC patients with false-negative findings than with true-negative findings (34% vs 9%, P < .005). Conclusion: Failed splenic switch-off with adenosine is a new, simple observation that identifies understressed patients who are at risk for false-negative findings on perfusion MR images. These data suggest that almost 10% of all patients may be understressed, and that repeat examination of individuals with failed splenic switch-off may significantly improve test sensitivity.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Radiology
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived native myocardial T1 is decreased in patients with Fabry disease even before left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) occurs and may be the first non-invasive measure of myocyte sphingolipid storage. The relationship of native T1 lowering prior to hypertrophy and other candidate early phenotype markers are unknown. Furthermore, the reproducibility of T1 mapping has never been assessed in Fabry disease. Sixty-three patients, 34 (54%) female, mean age 48 ± 15 years with confirmed (genotyped) Fabry disease underwent CMR, ECG and echocardiographic assessment. LVH was absent in 25 (40%) patients. Native T1 mapping was performed with both Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequences and a shortened version (ShMOLLI) at 1.5 Tesla. Twenty-one patients underwent a second scan within 24 hours to assess inter-study reproducibility. Results were compared with 63 healthy age and gender-matched volunteers. Mean native T1 in Fabry disease (LVH positive), (LVH negative) and healthy volunteers was 853 ± 50 ms, 904 ± 46 ms and 968 ± 32 ms (for all p < 0.0001) by ShMOLLI sequences. Native T1 showed high inter-study, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.99, 0.98, 0.97 (ShMOLLI) and 0.98, 0.98, 0.98 (MOLLI). In Fabry disease LVH negative individuals, low native T1 was associated with reduced echocardiographic-based global longitudinal speckle tracking strain (-18 ± 2% vs -22 ± 2%, p = 0.001) and early diastolic function impairment (E/E' = 7 [6-8] vs 5 [5-6], p = 0.028). Native T1 mapping in Fabry disease is a reproducible technique. T1 reduction prior to the onset of LVH is associated with early diastolic and systolic changes measured by echocardiography.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prognostic value of myocardial pre-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) in systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping. One hundred patients underwent CMR and T1 mapping pre- and post-contrast. Myocardial ECV was calculated at contrast equilibrium (ECVi) and 15 min post-bolus (ECVb). Fifty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 23 months and survival analyses were performed. Mean ECVi was raised in amyloid (0.44 ± 0.12) as was ECVb (mean 0.44 ± 0.12) compared with healthy volunteers (0.25 ± 0.02), P < 0.001. Native pre-contrast T1 was raised in amyloid (mean 1080 ± 87 ms vs. 954 ± 34 ms, P < 0.001). All three correlated with pre-test probability of cardiac involvement, cardiac biomarkers, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction. During follow-up, 25 deaths occurred. An ECVi of >0.45 carried a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 3.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53-9.61], P = 0.004 and pre-contrast T1 of >1044 ms = HR 5.39 (95% CI: 1.24-23.4), P = 0.02. Extracellular volume after primed infusion and ECVb performed similarly. Isolated post-contrast T1 was non-predictive. In Cox regression models, ECVi was independently predictive of mortality (HR = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.35-14.4) after adjusting for E:E', ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction grade, and NT-proBNP. Myocardial ECV (bolus or infusion technique) and pre-contrast T1 are biomarkers for cardiac AL amyloid and they predict mortality in systemic amyloidosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · European Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation is highly variable among individuals and is increased in some diseases (e.g., congenital heart disease or cardiomyopathies), but its significance in population-representative individuals is unknown. OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to determine if excessive LV trabeculation in population-representative individuals is associated with preceding changes in cardiac volumes and function. METHODS For technical reasons, the extent of trabeculation, which is expressed as the ratio of noncompacted to compacted (NC/C) myocardium, was measured on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) long-axis cine images in 2,742 participants in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) (mean age 68.7 years; 52.3% women; 56.4% with hypertension; 16.8% with diabetes) at examination 5. These were considered in quintiles of trabeculation extent; the NC/ C ratio of quintile 5 was 2.46 to 5.41. We determined the relationship between the maximal NC/C ratio and the preceding change (9.5 years between examinations 1 and 5) in end-systolic volume indexed (ESVi) to body surface area. Secondary analyses assessed the associations between the maximal NC/C ratio and preceding changes in end-diastolic volume indexed (EDVi) to body surface area and the ejection fraction (EF). RESULTS Over 9.5 years, the ESVi decreased by 1.3 ml/m2, the EDVi decreased by 5.1 ml/m2, and the EF decreased by 0.6% (p < 0.0001). Even in subjects with excessive trabeculation, there were no clinically relevant differences in LV volumes and systolic function changes among the quintiles of trabeculation extent. CONCLUSIONS Greater extent of, and even excessive, LV trabeculation measured in end-diastole in asymptomatic population-representative individuals appeared benign and was not associated with deterioration in LV volumes or function during an almost 10-year period. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:1971–80) © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background—Sarcomere protein mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) induce subtle cardiac structural changes prior to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We have proposed that myocardial crypts are part of this phenotype and independently associated with the presence of sarcomere gene mutations. We tested this hypothesis in genetic HCM pre-LVH (G+LVH−). Methods and Results—A multi-centre case-control study investigated crypts and 22 other cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters in subclinical HCM to determine their strength of association with sarcomere gene mutation carriage. The G+LVH− sample (n=73) was 29±13 years old and 51% male. Crypts were related to the presence of sarcomere mutations (for ≥1 crypt, β=2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-4.4, p=0.014; for ≥2 crypts, β=3.0, 95%CI 0.8-7.9, p=0.004). In combination with 3 other parameters: anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL) elongation (β=2.1, 95%CI 1.7-3.1, p<0.001), abnormal LV apical trabeculae (β=1.6, 95%CI 0.8-2.5, p<0.001), and smaller LV end-systolic volumes (β=1.4, 95%CI 0.5-2.3, p=0.001), multiple crypts indicated the presence of sarcomere gene mutations with 80% accuracy and an area under the curve of 0.85 (95%CI 0.8-0.9). In this G+LVH− population cardiac myosin-binding protein C mutation carriers had twice the prevalence of crypts when compared to the other combined mutations (47 vs. 23%; odds ratio, 2.9; 95%CI 1.1-7.9; p=0.045). Conclusions—The subclinical HCM phenotype measured by CMR in a multi-center environment and consisting of crypts (particularly multiple), AMVL elongation, abnormal trabeculae and smaller LV systolic cavity, is indicative of the presence of sarcomere gene mutations and highlights the need for further study.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is characterised by prominent ventricular myocardial trabeculations, composed of sheets of cardiomyocytes. They form early during cardiogenesis but their development is complex. Measuring trabecular complexity in animal models of cardiac disease is important as abnormal trabecular patterns are increasingly been recognised to coexist with several other cardiac conditions, not just LVNC. We describe an innovative approach that utilises fractal algorithms and high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) to study the developmental timing of myocardial trabeculation in mouse and we validate it using a recently described LVNC mouse model (NOTCH pathway regulator Mib1 mutant). Methods HREM (2–3 μm resolution) analysis was performed prospectively on 123 embryonic mouse hearts consisting of wild-type (WT) NIMR:Parkes, WT C57BL/6 and Mib1 flox; cTnT-cre mutant and WT littermates. HREM permits the 2D/3D imaging of tissue samples as they are physically sectioned. Datasets underwent fractal analysis using a box-counting approach (Figure 1). Results LV trabecular complexity showed a significant drop between E14.5 and E18.5 (Figure 2). Across all embryonic stages, the apical half of the LV retained the highest fractal dimensions (FD) when compared to the base. By E18.5 the myocardium was almost fully compacted registering the lowest FD. For the first time, we demonstrate that strain-specific differences in LV trabecular patterning exist in mouse because NIMR:Parkes compacts earlier than C57BL/6 (Figure 3). Reslicing experiments (Figure 4) and separate validation tests on Mib1 mutants and WT littermates (Fig.5) confirmed how the proposed methodology is a reliable and effective tool for the detection of mutagenesis-related differences in trabeculation. Conclusion Reported here is a method in which sequential, 2D sections of mouse embryo hearts may be analysed using a fractal algorithm to calculate ventricular trabecular complexity – a technique so sensitive, that small inter-strain differences in somitogenesis are detectable in mouse pups. Precise knowledge of the trabecular architecture as it presents itself in WT, is a prerequisite for the correct identification of pathological trabecular phenotypes in mouse models of cardiac disease, explaining the need for a quantitative fractal atlas of trabecular development. Fractal mathematics in combination with HREM has the potential to answer to many developmental biology questions in the heart, with future applicability to other organ systems and to other species.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: -Mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Subtle abnormalities of the myocardium may be present in mutation carriers without hypertrophy (G+LVH-) but are difficult to quantify. Fractal analysis has been used to define trabeculae in LV noncompaction and to identify normal racial variations. We hypothesized that trabeculae measured by fractal analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images are abnormal in G+LVH- patients providing a preclinical marker of disease in HCM. -CMR was performed on 40 G+LVH- patients (33±15yrs, 38% men), 67 patients with a clinical diagnosis of HCM (53±15yrs, 76% men; 31 with a pathogenic mutation (G+LVH+)) and 69 matched healthy volunteers (44±15yrs, 57% men). Trabeculae were quantified by fractal analysis of cine slices to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) - a unitless index of endocardial complexity calculated from endocardial contours after segmentation. In G+LVH- patients apical LV trabeculation was increased compared to controls (maximal apical FD, 1.249±0.07 vs 1.199±0.05, P=0.001). In G+LVH+ and G-LVH+ cohorts, maximal apical FD was greater than in controls (P<0.0001) irrespective of gene status (G+LVH+: 1.370±0.08; G-LVH+: 1.380±0.09). Compared to controls, G+LVH- patients also had a higher frequency of clefts (28 vs 8%, P=0.02), longer anterior mitral valve leaflets (23.5±3.0 vs 19.7±3.1mm, P<0.0001), greater septal systolic wall thickness (12.6±3.2 vs 11.2±2.1mm, P=0.03), higher ejection fraction (71±4 vs 69±4 %, P=0.03) and smaller end-systolic volumes (38±9 vs 43±12mls, P=0.03). -Increased myocardial trabecular complexity is one of several preclinical abnormalities in HCM sarcomere gene mutation carriers without LVH.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a myocardial disorder characterized by excessive left ventricular (LV) trabeculae. Current methods for quantification of LV trabeculae have limitations. The aim of this study is to describe a novel technique for quantifying LV trabeculation using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and fractal geometry. Observing that trabeculae appear complex and irregular, we hypothesize that measuring the fractal dimension (FD) of the endocardial border provides a quantitative parameter that can be used to distinguish normal from abnormal trabecular patterns. Fractal analysis is a method of quantifying complex geometric patterns in biological structures. The resulting FD is a unitless measure index of how completely the object fills space. FD increases with increased structural complexity. LV FD was measured using a box-counting method on CMR short-axis cine stacks. Three groups were studied: LVNC (defined by Jenni criteria), n=30(age 41±13; men, 16); healthy whites, n=75(age, 46±16; men, 36); healthy blacks, n=30(age, 40±11; men, 15). In healthy volunteers FD varied in a characteristic pattern from base to apex along the LV. This pattern was altered in LVNC where apical FD were abnormally elevated. In healthy volunteers, blacks had higher FD than whites in the apical third of the LV (maximal apical FD: 1.253±0.005 vs. 1.235±0.004, p<0.01) (mean±s.e.m.). Comparing LVNC with healthy volunteers, maximal apical FD was higher in LVNC (1.392±0.010, p<0.00001). The fractal method was more accurate and reproducible (ICC, 0.97 and 0.96 for intra and inter-observer readings) than two other CMR criteria for LVNC (Petersen and Jacquier). FD is higher in LVNC patients compared to healthy volunteers and is higher in healthy blacks than in whites. Fractal analysis provides a quantitative measure of trabeculation and has high reproducibility and accuracy for LVNC diagnosis when compared to current CMR criteria.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare but underdiagnosed intracellular lipid disorder that can cause left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Lipid is known to shorten the magnetic resonance imaging parameter T1. We hypothesized that noncontrast T1 mapping by cardiovascular magnetic resonance would provide a novel and useful measure in this disease with potential to detect early cardiac involvement and distinguish AFD LVH from other causes. Methods and results: Two hundred twenty-seven subjects were studied: patients with AFD (n=44; 55% with LVH), healthy volunteers (n=67; 0% with LVH), patients with hypertension (n=41; 24% with LVH), patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=34; 100% with LVH), those with severe aortic stenosis (n=21; 81% with LVH), and patients with definite amyloid light-chain (AL) cardiac amyloidosis (n=20; 100% with LVH). T1 mapping was performed using the shortened modified Look-Locker inversion sequence on a 1.5-T magnet before gadolinium administration with primary results derived from the basal and midseptum. Compared with health volunteers, septal T1 was lower in AFD and higher in other diseases (AFD versus healthy volunteers versus other patients, 882±47, 968±32, 1018±74 milliseconds; P<0.0001). In patients with LVH (n=105), T1 discriminated completely between AFD and other diseases with no overlap. In AFD, T1 correlated inversely with wall thickness (r=-0.51; P=0.0004) and was abnormal in 40% of subjects who did not have LVH. Segmentally, AFD showed pseudonormalization or elevation of T1 in the left ventricular inferolateral wall, correlating with the presence or absence of late gadolinium enhancement (1001±82 versus 891±38 milliseconds; P<0.0001). Conclusions: Noncontrast T1 mapping shows potential as a unique and powerful measurement in the imaging assessment of LVH and AFD.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging
  • Gabriella Captur · Andrew S Flett · Daniel L Jacoby · James C Moon
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    ABSTRACT: A spongiform epidemic is upon us - myocardial trabeculae are everywhere as left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) ingratiates itself into modern day cardiology. Current understanding of the condition is evolving but remains incomplete, and brings to mind the chronicles of another great cardiac story: mitral valve prolapse. Anecdote suggests that many individuals with prominent trabeculae may be being falsely labelled with a disease - LVNC - using poor echocardiographic and cardiovascular magnetic resonance criteria. Until we have robust diagnostic criteria, aetiology, clinicopathological significance and prognosis, the risk of casualties from ascertainment bias will remain. We should look to history and learn from past mistakes - specifically from the mitral valve prolapse story to show the way forward for LVNC. Meanwhile, clinicians (and patients) should be wary, bearing in mind the possibility that they might be seeing LVNNC - left ventricular non-noncompaction.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · International journal of cardiology
  • Gabriella Captur · Petros Nihoyannopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: In reply to the letter by Finsterer and Stöllberger entitled "Consensus on unsolved issues of hypertrabeculation/noncompaction is warranted," the authors reaffirm the need for a concordant opinion on the unsolved issues which still loom over the diagnostic and clinical facets of left ventricular non-compaction. Subjects known to have ventricular hypertrabeculation and who subsequently experience a thromboembolic event should still be meticulously screened for other commoner and possibly co-existent embolic sources. In the absence of systolic dysfunction left ventricular non-compaction alone is not an indication for oral anticoagulation in so far as the primary prevention for thromboembolism is concerned. There exists no exact proof that the degree of inotropic dysfunction in hypertrabeculated hearts is directly and solely related to the extent of the non-compaction. Subendocardial perfusion deficits; diminished coronary blood flow reserve; trabecular fibrosis and aberrations at the cellular level may also be responsible for affecting ventricular systolic function. Early neurological referral is indicated following the diagnosis of non-compaction with the aim of screening for the many disorders known to be associated with this condition and genetic screening tests are best resorted to only if clinical examination fails to expose a relevant syndrome. The current cardiac magnetic resonance diagnostic criteria for non-compaction still have some important limitations which beckon a unifying consensus.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · International journal of cardiology
  • Gabriella Captur · Petros Nihoyannopoulos
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a rare disorder that results in multiple deep trabeculations within the left ventricular myocardium. It is thought to be due in part, to an arrest of myocardial development but more recent evidence suggests that some cases may actually be acquired while other isolated cases have regressed with time. Transthoracic echocardiography remains the imaging modality of choice for LVNC where diagnosis is based on the identification of multiple prominent ventricular trabeculations with intertrabecular spaces communicating with the ventricular cavity. There is a broad and potentially confusing spectrum of clinical symptomatology in patients with ventricular non-compaction meaning that the primary diagnosis is often missed. Complications such as potentially malignant arrhythmias, left ventricular failure, and cardioembolic events arising as a result of non-compaction must be treated in an attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality from this disorder. The ultimate outcome for patients remains unclear with some boasting a prolonged asymptomatic course, to others displaying a rapid deterioration of left ventricular systolic function, leading to heart transplantation or death. In conclusion, LVNC while remaining a rare cardiomyopathy, shall probably be diagnosed with increasing frequency in the coming years because of heightened awareness about its natural history and clinical manifestations and because of the improved modalities available for cardiac imaging.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · International journal of cardiology

Publication Stats

224 Citations
111.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Liverpool Heart And Chest Hospital
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013-2015
    • University College London
      • Institute of Cardiovascular Science
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Heart Research Institute (UK)
      Norwich, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Hospital Mater Dei
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil