[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sol-gel method has shown several advantages for oxide synthesis, such as lower cost production, coating large areas, lower processing temperatures and ease insertion of dopingmaterials. Therefore, it is attractive for production of intermediate and electrode modifying layers in organic optoelectronic devices. Herein, spin-coated aluminum-doped titanium dioxide (AlTiO2) thin films were produced by sol-gel method onto glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates, using different Al-dopant concentrations and post-done annealing temperatures. Electrical measurements were performed in order to investigate the improvement of the TiO2 resistivity. Additionally, structural, compositional, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the optimal AlTiO2 modifying layers onto FTO substrates were probed by different techniques, and compared with those obtained from the undoped thin films produced under similar conditions. Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with the structure FTO/AlTiO2(30 nm)/C-60(50 nm)/CuPc(50 nm)/Al with an Al concentration of 0.03 M in AlTiO2 layer were produced. The insertion of AlTiO2 thin films improved the short-circuit current density (J(sc)) as well as the open circuit voltage (V-oc) in comparison with non-modified electrode FTO based devices. This behavior is discussed in terms of induced interface phenomena as dipole formation induced by Al.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, a study of resonance effects in the Raman spectra of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) is presented. The analysis takes into account the effect of the mismatch angle θ between the two layers, and also of the excitation laser energy on the frequency, linewidth, and intensity of the main Raman features, namely the rotationally induced R band, the G band, and the second-order G′ (or 2D) band. The resonance effects are explained based on the θ dependence of the tBLG electronic structure, as calculated by ab initio methodologies. The twist angle θ also defines the observation of a “D-like” band which obeys the double-resonance process, but relies on the superlattice along with long-range defects in order to fulfill momentum conservation. The study was possible due to the development of a route to produce and identify rotationally stacked bilayer graphene by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Physical Review B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This manuscript presents an experimental study on the optical visualization of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Optical micrographs of single-nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes sitting on SiO2/Si substrates are presented. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy analysis provide morphological and structural characterization of the carbon nanotubes. Measurements taking into account different substrates, and also different values of wavelength of the incoming light, show that the optical contrast between the nanotubes and the SiO2 surface strongly depends on these two factors. A model based on interference effects explains the experimental results and establishes a route for substrate engineering that allows direct and fast observation of carbon nanotubes, as well as the measurement of their refractive indexes. Analysis on the polarization properties of the reflected light confirms the strong anisotropy on the optical absorption of carbon nanotubes.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Applied Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, we clarify the features of the lateral damage of line defects in single layer graphene. The line defects were produced through well-controlled etching of graphene using a Ga(+) focused ion beam. The lateral damage length was obtained from both the integrated intensity of the disorder induced Raman D band and the minimum ion fluence. Also, the line defects were characterized by polarized Raman spectroscopy. It was found that graphene is resilient under the etching conditions since the intensity of the defect induced Raman D peak exhibits a dependence on the direction of the lines relative to the crystalline lattice and also on the direction of the laser polarization relative to the lines. In addition, electrical measurements of the modified graphene were performed. Different ion fluences were used in order to obtain a completely insulating defect line in graphene, which was determined experimentally by means of charge injection and electric force microscopy measurements. These studies demonstrate that a Ga+ ion column combined with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique to produce and understand well-defined periodic arrays of defects in graphene, opening possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modification of samples using focused ion beam (FIB) is a very powerful technique in many areas of material science, especially on modification and construction of nanodevices. The aim of this work is the creation of defects, fabrication of ordered patterns and direct deposition of Pt contacts on graphitic structures (from few layers graphene to many layers graphite) by using a Ga+ FIB source together with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) in a dual beam platform. Using this platform, FIB capabilities for fabrication of nanodevices for scientific and technological development are investigated. Micro- Raman Spectroscopy was used to track the changes caused by these fabrication processes by analyzing the ratio between the defect induced Raman D band and the structural G band. This approach provides information about the performance and the damages caused by dual beam techniques when used on graphene samples for device applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When two identical two-dimensional periodic structures are superposed, a mismatch rotation angle between the structures generates a superlattice. This effect is commonly observed in graphite, where the rotation between graphene layers generates Moiré patterns in scanning tunneling microscopy images. Here, a study of intravalley and intervalley double-resonance Raman processes mediated by static potentials in rotationally stacked bilayer graphene is presented. The peak properties depend on the mismatch rotation angle and can be used as an optical signature for superlattices in bilayer graphene. An atomic force microscopy system is used to produce and identify specific rotationally stacked bilayer graphenes that demonstrate the validity of our model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The direct determination of the crystallographic orientation of graphene sheets was performed using lattice resolution atomic force microscopy images. A graphene sample, micromechanically exfoliated onto a SiO2 substrate showing well defined crystal edges, was imaged in lateral force mode. The lateral force images reveal the periodicity of the graphene hexagonal structure allowing the visualization of the lattice symmetries and determination of the crystal orientation. Crystal edges predominantly formed by zigzag or armchair directions were identified. The nature of the edges was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Applied Physics