Publications (16)29.69 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The mechanism of the neural injury caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) that characterizes obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is not clearly known. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is responsible for the CIH-induced neural injury and the possible pathway it involves. Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were used. For each exposure time point, eight mice divided in room air (RA) and IH group were assigned to the study of P2X7R expression. Whereas in the 21 days-Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a selective P2X7R antagonist) study, 48 mice were randomly divided into CIH group, BBG-treated CIH group, RA group and BBG-treated RA group. The hippocampus P2X7R expression was determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spatial learning was analyzed by Morris water maze. The nuclear factor kappa B (NFβB) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-β), IL-18, and IL-6 were measured by real-time PCR. The malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were detected by colorimetric method. Cell damage was evaluated by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and Terminal Transferase dUTP Nick-end Labeling method. Results: The P2X7R mRNA was elevated and sustained after 3-day IH exposure and the P2X7R protein was elevated and sustained after 7-day IH exposure. In the BBG study, the CIH mice showed severer neuronal cell damage and poorer performance in the behavior test. The increased NFκB and NOX2 expressions along with the inflammation injury and oxidative stress were also observed in the CIH group. BBG alleviated CIH-induced neural injury and consequent functional deficits. Conclusions: The P2X7R antagonism attenuates the CIH-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and spatial deficits, demonstrating that the P2X7R is an important therapeutic target in the cognition deficits accompanied OSAS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction induced by intermittent hypoxia (IH) participates in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)-associated cardiovascular disorders. Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) regulate numerous downstream adaptors like mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. This study aimed to characterize the role of MyD88/TRAF6 in IH-treated cell function and its associated signaling. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were randomly exposed to IH or normoxia for 0, 2, 4 and 6 h. Western blotting was used to detect the expression pattern of target gene proteins [angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R), p-ERK1/2, p-p38MAPK, MyD88 and TRAF6], and the relationships among these target genes down-regulated by the corresponding inhibitors were studied. Finally, the influence of these target genes on proliferation of HUVECs was also assessed by EdU analysis. Protein levels of AT1R, TRAF6 and p-ERK1/2 were increased after IH exposure, with a slight rise in MyD88 and a dynamic change in p-p38MAPK. The down-regulation of TRAF6 by siRNA reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation during IH without any effects on AT1R. Blockade of AT1R with valsartan decreased TRAF6 and p-ERK1/2 protein expression after IH exposure. ERK1/2 inhibition with PD98059 suppressed only AT1R expression. IH promoted HUVECs proliferation, which was significantly suppressed by the inhibition of TRAF6, AT1R and ERK1/2. The findings demonstrate that TRAF6 regulates the proliferation of HUVECs exposed to short-term IH by modulating cell signaling involving ERK1/2 downstream of AT1R. Targeting the AT1R-TRAF6-p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway might be helpful in restoring endothelial function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is usually associated with multiple cardiovascular disorders, including myocardial hypertrophy. Melatonin protects the heart from damaging conditions. However, whether melatonin alleviates heart damage induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is unknown. We investigated the melatonin-induced protective role of AMPK-regulated autophagy in the myocardium by exposing rats to CIH and treating them with melatonin or saline daily for six weeks. In vivo, CIH induced significant myocardial hypertrophy; this trend was strikingly reversed by melatonin. Moreover, AMPK activation and autophagy was enhanced, and the number of autophagosomes increased. CIH induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes; this was significantly mitigated by melatonin. In vitro, CIH induced hypertrophic changes in cardiomyocytes; this effect was significantly reversed by melatonin. Autophagy decreased after AMPK inhibition, and we found that autophagy was required for the protective function of melatonin. Our results suggest that melatonin ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy caused by CIH by inducing autophagy via the AMPK pathway and by autophagy-regulated apoptosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea, characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoxia [intermittent hypoxia (IH)], has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins has important regulatory implications on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we examined the role of O-GlcNAcylation in cardiac architecture and left ventricular function following IH. Rats were randomly assigned to a normoxia and IH group (2 min 21% O2; 2 min 6-8% O2). Left ventricular function, myocardial morphology and the levels of signaling molecules were then measured. IH induced a significant increase in blood pressure, associated with a gradually abnormal myocardial architecture. The rats exposed to 2 or 3 weeks of IH presented with augmented left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, which declined at week 4. Consistently, the O-GlcNAc protein and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels in the left ventricular tissues steadily increased following IH, reaching peak levels at week 3. The O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) phosphorylation levels were affected in an opposite manner. The phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) remained unaltered. In parallel, compared with exposure to normoxia, 4 weeks of IH augmented the O-GlcNAc protein, OGT, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK levels, accompanied by a decrease in OGA levels and an increase in the levels of myocardial nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inflammatory cytokines, caspase-3 and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Taken together, our suggest a possible involvement of O-GlcNAc protein and MAPK signaling in the alterations of left ventricular function and cardiac injury following IH.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-33, belonging to the IL-1 family, is a novel cytokine that plays an important role in several chronic inflammatory diseases. Its role in chronic airway inflammation that develops into COPD is widely unknown. To determine this, we identified the expression of IL-33 in human bronchial epithelial layer and detected the inflammatory effects of IL-33 stimulation and the relative signaling pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), respectively. In this study, the expression of IL-33 in human bronchial epithelial layer was upregulated in COPD patients compared with normal controls. The expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 were also increased in both HBE cells and PBMCs, stimulated by IL-33 alone or combining the cigarette smoke extract (CSE). And the increased expressions could be partially blocked by ST2-Fc and IL-1RacP-Fc in both HBE cells and PBMCs. The p42/p44 ERK inhibitor in HBE cells and the p38 MAPK inhibitor in PBMCs exerted similar effects. Our data showed that IL-33 could induce and enhance the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HBE cells and PBMCs of COPD patients via ST2/IL-1RacP pathway and MAPKs pathway. Thus, the IL-33 is a promoter of chronic airway inflammation that contributes to COPD development.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify COPD associated gene susceptibility and lung function in a longitudinal cohort including COPD and subjects who were at risk for developing COPD, and to replicate this in two cross-sectional and longitudinal populations in Chinese Han population. Three cohorts were recruited in this study, including an 18-year follow-up population (306 COPD and 743 control subjects) in one village in 1992 and it changed to 409 COPD and 611 controls in 2010, a 2 year follow-up study in another village (374 COPD and 377 controls) and another 2 year follow-up one in a city (541 COPD and 560 controls) in 2010. Sixteen candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for genotyping. Among them, 5SNPs in or near HHIP, 1SNP in IREB2 and 1SNP in FAM13A were previously reported to be associated with COPD susceptibility or lung function decline. And another 9SNPs were selected from HapMap website as HHIP tags. In 2010, totaling 1,324 COPD patients and 1,548 healthy controls were finally included in our genetic susceptibility analyses. We identified two new regions showing an association with COPD susceptibility in the Human Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) rs11100865 and rs7654947, and we confirmed that the family with sequence similarity 13 member A gene (FAM13A) rs7671167 was associated with the development of COPD in Chinese Han population. And the HHIP rs7654947 and FAM13A rs7671167 were associated with lung function decline, and this result was replicated in other two populations. These results suggest an important role of the HHIP and FAM13A regions as genetic risk factors for COPD development and lung function decline in Chinese Han population. Future research on these genes should focus on the molecular mechanisms of these genes on developing COPD and creating therapies to alleviate reduced lung function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease characterized by inflammatory cell activation and the release of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) plays a critical role in various inflammatory and immunological pathologies, but evidence for its role in COPD is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the expression of IL-33 in COPD and to determine whether IL-33 participates in the initiation and progression of COPD. Levels of serum IL-33 and its receptors were measured by ELISA, and serum levels of IL-33, ST2 and interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) were elevated in patients with COPD compared to control subjects. Flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated an increase in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) expressing IL-33 in COPD patients rather than neutrophil. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the main cellular source of IL-33 in lung tissue was bronchial epithelial cells (HBEs). Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could enhance the ability of PBLs and HBE to express IL-33. Furthermore, PBLs from patients with COPD showed greater IL-33 release in response to the stimulus. Collectively, these findings suggest that IL-33 expression levels are increased in COPD and related to airway and systemic inflammation. Therefore, IL-33 might contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of this disease. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), but little is known about the precise mechanism of OSAS-induced AD. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play key roles in the development of AD. Several studies have confirmed that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, beneficially regulates NOS and NO. Here, we examined the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan against hippocampal apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the most characteristic pathophysiological change of OSAS. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 8 h of intermittent hypoxia per day with or without telmisartan for eight weeks. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region, NOS activity, NO content, and the presence of inflammatory agents and radical oxygen species in the hippocampus were determined. The results showed that CIH activated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), increased NO content, and enhanced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in the hippocampus. Treatment with telmisartan inhibited excessive iNOS and NO generation and reduced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses. In addition, telmisartan significantly ameliorated the hippocampal apoptosis induced by CIH. In conclusion, Pre-CIH telmisartan administration attenuated CIH-induced hippocampal apoptosis partly by regulating NOS activity, inhibiting excessive NO generation, and reducing lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NO and NO synthase (NOS) are known to play key roles in the development of myocardial apoptosis induced by ischemia/hypoxia. Current evidence suggests that angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, such as telmisartan, lower blood pressure and produce beneficial regulatory effects on NO and NOS. Here, we examined the protective role of telmisartan in myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8 h of intermittent hypoxia/day, with/without telmisartan for 8 weeks. Myocardial apoptosis, NO and NOS activity, and levels of inflammatory mediators and radical oxygen species were determined. Treatment with telmisartan preserved endothelial NOS expression and inhibited inducible NOS and excessive NO generation, while reducing oxidation/nitration stress and inflammatory responses. Administration of telmisartan before CIH significantly ameliorated the CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis. This study show that pre-CIH telmisartan administration ameliorated myocardial injury following CIH by attenuating CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis via regulation of NOS activity and inhibition of excessive NO generation, oxidation/nitration stress, and inflammatory responses.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress are known to play a key role in the development of cardiovascular complications such as cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the most characteristic pathophysiological change of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Current evidence suggests that competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA coenzyme A reductase, such as atorvastatin, not only reduce blood lipids but also have anti-inflammatory and inhibit oxidative stress benefits. This study examined the protective role of atorvastatin in CIH- induced cardiac hypertrophy. Adult male wistar rats were subjected to 8 hours of intermittent hypoxia/day, with/without atorvastatin for 6 weeks. Ventricular remodeling, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88), inflammatory agents and radical oxygen species were determined. As a result, we found that treatment with atorvastatin markedly inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4, MYD88 and the downstream inflammatory agents and radical oxygen species. Administration of atorvastatin following CIH significantly ameliorated the myocardial injury, such as cardiac hypertrophy. In conclusion, Pre-CIH atorvastatin administration may attenuate TLR-4/MYD88 mediated inflammatory processes and oxidative stress in the injured rat myocardium, and this may be one mechanism by which atorvastatin ameliorated myocardial injury following CIH.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulated evidence shows that hypoxia can induce endothelial apoptosis, however the mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesized whether intermittent or persistent hypoxia could induce endoplasmic reticular stress, leading to endothelial apoptosis. Twenty-four 8-week male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: normoxia (NC) group, intermittent hypoxia (IH) group and persistent hypoxia (PH) group. TUNEL staining was performed to detect aortic arch endotheliar apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry for BIP, CHOP and caspase12 to test protein expression; human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the line ECV304 were cultured (with or without taurodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) 10 mmol/L, 100 mmol/L) and divided into four groups: NC group (20.8% O2 for 4 hours), PH1 group (5% O2 for 4 hours), PH2 group (5% O2 for 12 hours) and IH group (20.8% O2 and 5% O2 alternatively for 8 hours). Annexin V-fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis in each group. The expressions of GRP78, CHOP and caspase12 were detected by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Result Intermittent and persistent hypoxia could increase the rate of endothelium apoptosis and the expressions of GRP78, CHOP and caspase12 compared with the control, induction by intermittent hypoxia was slightly higher than persistent hypoxia. In the HUVEC experiment, TUDCA significantly reduced apoptosis and the expressions of GRP78, CHOP and caspase12. Hypoxia, especially intermittent, can induce endothelial cell apoptosis possibly through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway, which can be attenuated by taurodeoxycholic acid.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for systemic hypertension. The study investigated the functional consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on aortic constriction induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and the possible signaling involving ERK1/2 and contractile proteins such as myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into CIH group and normoxia group and exposed to either CIH procedure or air-air cycles. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2, MYPT1 and MLC was assessed by Western blotting following constrictor studies in the presence or absence of PD98059 (10 µmol/L). CIH-exposure resulted in more body weight gain and elevated blood pressure, which could be attenuated by pretreatment with PD98059. Endothelium-removed aortic rings from CIH rats exhibited higher constrictor sensitivity to Ang II (Emax: (138.56±5.78)% versus (98.45±5.31)% of KCl; pD2: 7.98±0.14 versus 8.14±0.05, respectively). CIH procedure exerted complex effects on ERK expressions (total ERK1/2 decreased whereas the ratio of phosphorylated to total ERK1/2 increased). CIH aortas had higher MLCK mRNA and basal phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC. In parallel to greater increases in phosphorylation of ERK1/2, MYPT1 and MLC, Ang II-induced aortic constriction was significantly enhanced in CIH rats, which was largely reversed by PD98059. However vascular constriction of normoxia rats remained unchanged despite similar but smaller changing tendency of proteins phosphorylation. These data suggest that CIH exposure results in aortic hyperresponsiveness to Ang II, presumably owing to more activated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea is a frequent medical condition consisting of repetitive sleep-related episodes of upper air ways obstruction and can lead to hypertension. Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) played important roles in hypertension since it binds with Ang II, controlling salt-water and blood pressure homeostasis. This study explores rat aorta AT1R expression during intermittent hypoxia (IH) and the signaling pathways involved. A rat model and a cell model used a BioSpherix-OxyCycler A84 system and a ProOx C21 system respectively. The arterial blood pressure was recorded by a Nihon Kohden Polygraph System. Immunohistochemic was used to focus and analyze the expression of AT1R in rat aorta. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to explore the signaling pathways that participated in AT1R expression. In this study, we found that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) induced AT1R transcription which increased the blood pressure in rat aorta compared to normoxia and to sustained hypoxia. The AT1R protein expression in the aorta was similar to the real-time PCR results. We explored the signaling mechanisms involved in the AT1R induction in both rat aorta and the aortic endothelial cells by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Compared to normoxia, CIH increased ERK1 mRNA transcription but not ERK2 or p38MAPK in the aorta; whereas sustained hypoxia (SH) upregulated ERK2 but not ERK1 or p38MAPK mRNA. In cells, IH induced AT1R expression with ERK1/2 phosphorylation but reduced p38MAPKs phosphorylation, whereas SH induced only ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the IHinduced AT1R increase but the p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Our results indicate that CIH induced the elevation of rat blood pressure and aorta AT1R expression. Moreover, AT1R expression in IH and sustained hypoxia might be regulated by different signal transduction pathways, highlighting a novel regulatory function through ERK1/2 signaling in IH.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor apocynin on the enhanced hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression, elevated systolic blood pressure under chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) condition and its action mechanism were investigated. Thirty healthy 8-week old Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each): sham group, CIH group, and apocynin-treated CIH group. Tail artery systolic blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of HIF-1α and ET-1 in the carotid body, and the HIF-1α protein expression was examined by using Western blotting. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined by using colorimetric method. In addition, the plasma ET-1 and HIF-1α levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was found that CIH exposure was associated with increased MDA levels, and apocynin-treated CIH animals showed reduction in MDA levels. Apocynin treatment prevented CIH-induced hypertension as well as CIH-induced decrease in SOD. The increases of HIF-1α and ET-1 mRNA along with HIF-1α protein expression in the carotid body, and elevated circulating HIF-1α and ET-1 levels were observed in CIH-exposed animals. Treatment with apocynin significantly decreased the ET-1 mRNA, HIF-1α protein expression and circulating HIF-1α level in CIH-exposed animals, and there was no statistically significant difference in the HIF-1α mRNA expression between CIH group and apocynin-treated group. These results indicated that apocynin alleviated CIH-induced hypertension by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, further leading to the reduced vasoconstrictor ET-1 level and oxidative stress. HIF-1α/ET-1 system signal pathway may interact with CIH-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity may hopefully serve as a useful strategy for prevention and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome-induced hypertension.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the change of the cognitive function and the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and then to investigate the correlation between them. Sixty seven patients with OSAHS, 20 healthy controls with matched age, BMI, and education, 15 patients with OSAHS after effective treatment of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with matched age, BMI, and education were enrolled. Polysomnography (PSG), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and clock drawing test (CDT) were performed in these groups. The serum level of AOPP, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The MMSE and CDT scores of patients with OSAHS were decreased compared to those in healthy controls [(4.73 ± 0.81) vs (2.69 ± 1.38), (2.85 ± 0.61) vs (1.92 ± 0.62)], but the scores improved after effective CPAP treatment. The serum levels of AOPP [(78 ± 20) vs (117 ± 20) µmol/L] and MDA [(2.9 ± 1.0) vs (6.1 ± 3.0) µmol/L] in patients with OSAHS were increased compared to those in healthy controls, but the levels decreased after effective CPAP treatment. The serum SOD level in patients with OSAHS was decreased compared to that in healthy controls [(89 ± 8) vs (57 ± 9) U/ml], but it was increased after effective CPAP treatment. The MMSE and CDT scores of all the subjects including the 2 groups (the OSAHS group and the effective CPAP-treatment group) were correlated with the results of PSG (baseline SaO2, lowest SaO2, AHI, LA/HT, SLT90%). The serum levels of AOPP, MDA and SOD of all the subjects were also correlated with the results of PSG (lowest SaO2, AHI, LA/HT, SLT90%). The serum levels of AOPP, MDA and SOD of all the subjects were correlated with the MMSE and CDT scores. The serum level of AOPP of all the subjects was also correlated with the serum levels of MDA and SOD. Cognitive impairment in patients with OSAHS is correlated with the severity of the disease. AOPP is a useful marker for oxidative stress and protein injury, and closely correlated with the cognitive impairment in patients with OSAHS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent occurrence in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH), one of the hallmarks of OSAS, could mediate ED. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity contributes to ED in rats responses to the LTIH. Methods: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly distributed into four groups: a LTIH group, an apocynin (a selective NADPH oxidase inhibitor)-treated LTIH group, a sham LTIH group, an apocynin-treated sham group. Erectile function was examined by measuring the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) upon electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Real-time quantitavite-PCR and Western blot were used to examine mRNA and protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit in corpus cavernosa (CC). The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by colorimetric method. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in corpus cavernosa were also investigated. Results: LTIH markedly attenuated the erectile responses (ICP/MAP) and these were partially prevented by apocynin treatment. Promoted oxidative stress associated NADPH oxidase subunit activation was found in CC form LTIH rats. Decreased expression and activity of constitutive NOS (cNOS), including endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS), associated with enhanced inducible NOS (iNOS) expression and activity were observed in LTIH rats. Apocynin prevented the decrease in cNOS activity and inhibited iNOS expression and activity in LTIH rats. Conclusions: These results indicate that NADPH oxidase activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of LTIH-mediated ED.
Tongji HospitalWu-han-shih, Hubei, China