[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While tumor blood vessels have been a major therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy, little is known regarding the stepwise development of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we use a multicolor Cre-dependent marker system to trace clonality within the tumor microenvironment to show that tumor blood vessels follow a pattern of dynamic clonal evolution. In an advanced melanoma tumor microenvironment, the vast majority of tumor vasculature clones are derived from a common precursor. Quantitative lineage analysis reveals founder clones diminish in frequency and are replaced by sub-clones as tumors evolve. These tumor specific blood vessels are characterized by a developmental switch to a more invasive and immunologically silent phenotype. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis reveals selection for traits promoting upregulation of alternative angiogenic programs such as unregulated HGF- MET signaling, and enhanced autocrine signaling through VEGF and PDGF. Furthermore, we show a developmental switch in the expression of functionally significant primary lymphocyte adhesion molecules on tumor endothelium, such as the loss in expression of the mucosal addressin MAdCAM-1-whose counter receptor a4β7 on lymphocytes controls lymphocyte homing. Changes in adhesive properties on tumor endothelial subclones are accompanied by decreases in expression of lymphocyte chemokines CXCL16, CXCL13, CXCL12, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL19. These evolutionary patterns in the expressed genetic program within tumor endothelium will have both a quantitative and functional impact on lymphocyte distribution that may well influence tumor immune function and underlie escape mechanisms from current anti-angiogenic pharmacotherapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signaling through the immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) enables tumor progression by dampening antitumor immune responses. Therapeutic blockade of the signaling axis between PD-1 and its ligand programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) with monoclonal antibodies has shown remarkable clinical success in the treatment of cancer. However, antibodies have inherent limitations that can curtail their efficacy in this setting, including poor tissue/tumor penetrance and detrimental Fc-effector functions that deplete immune cells. To determine if PD-1:PD-L1-directed immunotherapy could be improved with smaller, nonantibody therapeutics, we used directed evolution by yeast-surface display to engineer the PD-1 ectodomain as a high-affinity (110 pM) competitive antagonist of PD-L1. In contrast to anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies, high-affinity PD-1 demonstrated superior tumor penetration without inducing depletion of peripheral effector T cells. Consistent with these advantages, in syngeneic CT26 tumormodels, high-affinity PD-1 was effective in treating both small (50 mm(3)) and large tumors (150 mm(3)), whereas the activity of anti-PD-L1 antibodies was completely abrogated against large tumors. Furthermore, we found that high-affinity PD-1 could be radiolabeled and applied as a PET imaging tracer to efficiently distinguish between PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors in living mice, providing an alternative to invasive biopsy and histological analysis. These results thus highlight the favorable pharmacology of small, nonantibody therapeutics for enhanced cancer immunotherapy and immune diagnostics.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell based therapy is an emerging paradigm in skeletal regenerative medicine. However, the primary means by which transplanted cells contribute to bone repair and regeneration remain controversial. To gain insight into the mechanisms of how both transplanted and endogenous cells mediate skeletal healing, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain expressing both the topaz variant of green fluorescent protein under the control of the collagen type I alpha 1 promoter/enhancer sequence (Col1a1GFP) and membrane-bound tomato red constitutively in all cells types (R26mTmG). A comparison of healing in parietal versus frontal calvarial defects in these mice revealed that frontal osteoblasts express Col1a1 to a greater degree than parietal osteoblasts. Furthermore, the scaffold-based application of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and osteoblasts derived from these mice to critical sized calvarial defects allowed for investigation of cell survival and function following transplantation. We found that ASCs led to significantly faster rates of bone healing in comparison to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts. ASCs displayed both increased survival and increased Col1a1 expression compared to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts following calvarial defect transplantation, which may explain their superior regenerative capacity in the context of bone healing. By utilizing this novel reporter system we were able to elucidate how cell-based therapies impact bone healing and identify ASCs as an attractive candidate for cell-based skeletal regenerative therapy. These insights potentially influence stem cell selection in translational clinical trials evaluating cell-based therapeutics for osseous repair and regeneration.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Tissue Engineering Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many of the factors affecting the success of haematopoietic cell transplantation are still unknown. Here we show in mice that donor sleep deprivation reduces the ability of its haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to engraft and reconstitute the blood and bone marrow of an irradiated recipient by more than 50%. We demonstrate that sleep deprivation downregulates the expression of microRNA (miR)-19b, a negative regulator of the suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) genes, which inhibit HSC migration and homing. Accordingly, HSCs from sleep-deprived mice have higher levels of SOCS genes expression, lower migration capacity in vitro and reduced homing to the bone marrow in vivo. Recovery of sleep after sleep deprivation restored the reconstitution potential of the HSCs. Taken together, this study provides insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation on HSCs, emphasizing the potentially critical role of donor sleep in the success of bone marrow transplantation.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α4β7 integrin is a cell adhesion receptor that is crucial for the migration of hematopoietic progenitors and mature effector cells in the periphery, but its role in adult hematopoiesis is controversial. We identified a subset of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) that expressed β7 integrin. These β7+ HSCs were capable of multilineage, long-term reconstitution and had an inherent competitive advantage over β7- HSCs. On the other hand, HSCs that lacked β7 integrin (β7KO) had reduced engraftment potential. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry revealed that β7KO HSCs expressed lower levels of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Accordingly, β7KO HSCs exhibited impaired migration abilities in vitro and BM homing capabilities in vivo. Lethal irradiation induced expression of the α4β7 integrin ligand - mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) on BM endothelial cells. Moreover, blocking MAdCAM-1 reduced the homing of HSCs and impaired the survival of recipient mice. Altogether, these data indicate that β7 integrin, when expressed by HSCs, interacted with its endothelial ligand MAdCAM-1 in the BM microenvironment, thereby promoting HSC homing and engraftment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD47 is a widely expressed cell surface protein that functions as a regulator of phagocytosis mediated by cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. CD47 serves as the ligand for a receptor on these innate immune cells, SIRP-alpha, which in turn delivers an inhibitory signal for phagocytosis. We previously found increased expression of CD47 on primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells, and demonstrated that blocking monoclonal antibodies directed against CD47 enabled the phagocytosis and elimination of AML, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and many solid tumors in xenograft models. Here, we report the development of a humanized anti-CD47 antibody with potent efficacy and favorable toxicokinetic properties as a candidate therapeutic. A novel monoclonal anti-human CD47 antibody, 5F9, was generated, and antibody humanization was carried out by grafting its complementarity determining regions (CDRs) onto a human IgG4 format. The resulting humanized 5F9 antibody (Hu5F9-G4) bound monomeric human CD47 with an 8 nM affinity. Hu5F9-G4 induced potent macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of primary human AML cells in vitro and completely eradicated human AML in vivo, leading to long-term disease-free survival of patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, Hu5F9-G4 synergized with rituximab to eliminate NHL engraftment and cure xenografted mice. Finally, toxicokinetic studies in non-human primates showed that Hu5F9-G4 could be safely administered intravenously at doses able to achieve potentially therapeutic serum levels. Thus, Hu5F9-G4 is actively being developed for and has been entered into clinical trials in patients with AML and solid tumors (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02216409).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The postnatal skeleton undergoes growth, remodeling, and repair. We hypothesized that skeletal progenitor cells active during these disparate phases are genetically and phenotypically distinct. We identified a highly potent regenerative cell type that we term the fracture-induced bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor (f-BCSP) in the fracture callus of adult mice. The f-BCSP possesses significantly enhanced skeletogenic potential compared with BCSPs harvested from uninjured bone. It also recapitulates many gene expression patterns involved in perinatal skeletogenesis. Our results indicate that the skeletal progenitor population is functionally stratified, containing distinct subsets responsible for growth, regeneration, and repair. Furthermore, our findings suggest that injury-induced changes to the skeletal stem and progenitor microenvironments could activate these cells and enhance their regenerative potential.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determining the developmental pathway leading to erythrocytes and being able to isolate their progenitors are crucial to understanding and treating disorders of red cell imbalance such as anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera. Here we show that the human erythrocyte progenitor (hEP) can be prospectively isolated from adult bone marrow. We found three subfractions that possessed different expression patterns of CD105 and CD71 within the previously defined human megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (hMEP; Lineage(-) CD34(+) CD38(+) IL-3Rα(-) CD45RA(-)) population. Both CD71(-) CD105(-) and CD71(+) CD105(-) MEPs, at least in vitro, still retained bipotency for the megakaryocyte (MegK) and erythrocyte (E) lineages, although the latter subpopulation is skewed in differentiation toward the erythroid lineage. Notably, the proliferative and differentiation output of the CD71(intermediate(int)/+) CD105(+) subset of cells within the MEP population was completely restricted to the erythroid lineage with the loss of MegK potential. CD71(+) CD105(-) MEPs are erythrocyte-biased MEPs (E-MEPs) and CD71(int/+) CD105(+) cells are EPs. These previously unclassified populations may facilitate further understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing human erythroid development and serve as potential therapeutic targets in disorders of the erythroid lineage.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence, characteristics, and potential clinical relevance of neural progenitor populations within the neural placodes of myelomeningocele patients remain to be studied. Neural stem cells are known to reside adjacent to ependyma-lined surfaces along the central nervous system axis.
Given such neuroanatomic correlation and regenerative capacity in fetal development, we assessed myelomeningocele-derived neural placode tissue as a potentially novel source of neural stem and progenitor cells.
Nonfunctional neural placode tissue was harvested from infants during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele and subsequently further analyzed by in vitro studies, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. To assess lineage potential, neural placode-derived neurospheres were subjected to differential media conditions. Through assessment of platelet-derived growth factor α (PDGFRα) and CD15 cell marker expression, Sox2+Olig2+ putative oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were successfully isolated.
PDGFRαCD15 cell populations demonstrated the highest rate of self-renewal capacity and multipotency of cell progeny. Immunofluorescence of neural placode-derived neurospheres demonstrated preferential expression of the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker, CNPase, whereas differentiation to neurons and astrocytes was also noted, albeit to a limited degree.
Neural placode tissue contains multipotent progenitors that are preferentially biased toward oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and presents a novel source of such cells for use in the treatment of a variety of pediatric and adult neurological disease, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and metabolic leukoencephalopathies.
OPC, oligodendrocyte progenitor cellPDGFRα, platelet-derived growth factor receptor αSCI, spinal cord injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer.
Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences