[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through our diet, we are exposed to numerous natural and man-made chemicals, including polyphenols with hormone-like properties. The most abundant hormonally active polyphenols are characterized as weak estrogens. These chemicals are hypothesized to interfere with signaling pathways involved in important diseases such as breast cancer, which in most cases is initially estrogen dependent. Two such chemicals are bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. In spite of both possessing estrogenic properties, BPA and genistein yield different health outcomes. The exposure of rats during the prepubertal period to BPA increases the susceptibility of adult animals for mammary cancer development, whereas genistein decreases this susceptibility in a chemically induced model. Because both BPA and genistein possess estrogenic properties, it is certainly plausible that additional mechanisms are affected by these chemicals. Hence, it was our goal to investigate at the protein level how exposure to these 2 chemicals can contribute to mammary cancer causation as opposed to cancer chemoprevention. Using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis, we identified differentially regulated proteins from the mammary glands of rats prepubertally exposed to BPA and genistein. Following protein identification, we used immunoblotting techniques to validate the identity and regulation of these proteins and to identify downstream signaling proteins. Our studies highlight the importance of proteomics technology in elucidating signaling pathways altered by exposure to hormonally active chemicals and its potential value in identifying biomarkers for mammary cancer.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) released from adipose tissue play a role in activation of macrophages and subsequent development of insulin resistance in a mouse model.
ELVs released from adipose tissue were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and labeled with green fluorescent dye and then intravenously injected into B6 ob/ob mice (obese model) or B6 mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects of injected ELVs on the activation of macrophages were determined through analysis of activation markers by fluorescence-activated cell sorter and induction of inflammatory cytokines using an ELISA. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were also evaluated. Similarly, B6 mice with different gene knockouts including TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-beta (TRIF) were also used for testing their responses to the injected ELVs.
ELVs are taken up by peripheral blood monocytes, which then differentiate into activated macrophages with increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Injection of obELVs into wild-type C57BL/6 mice results in the development of insulin resistance. When the obELVs were intravenously injected into TLR4 knockout B6 mice, the levels of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were much lower. RBP4 is enriched in the obELVs. Bone marrow-derived macrophages preincubated with recombinant RBP4 led to attenuation of obELV-mediated induction of IL-6 and TNF-alpha.
ELVs released by adipose tissue can act as a mode of communication between adipose tissues and macrophages. The obELV-mediated induction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in macrophages and insulin resistance requires the TLR4/TRIF pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote tumor progression. The mechanisms of MDSC development during tumor growth remain unknown. Tumor exosomes (T-exosomes) have been implicated to play a role in immune regulation, however the role of exosomes in the induction of MDSCs is unclear. Our previous work demonstrated that exosomes isolated from tumor cells are taken up by bone marrow myeloid cells. Here, we extend those findings showing that exosomes isolated from T-exosomes switch the differentiation pathway of these myeloid cells to the MDSC pathway (CD11b(+)Gr-1(+)). The resulting cells exhibit MDSC phenotypic and functional characteristics including promotion of tumor growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in vivo MDSC mediated promotion of tumor progression is dependent on T-exosome prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and TGF-beta molecules. T-exosomes can induce the accumulation of MDSCs expressing Cox2, IL-6, VEGF, and arginase-1. Antibodies against exosomal PGE2 and TGF-beta block the activity of these exosomes on MDSC induction and therefore attenuate MDSC-mediated tumor-promoting ability. Exosomal PGE2 and TGF-beta are enriched in T-exosomes when compared with exosomes isolated from the supernatants of cultured tumor cells (C-exosomes). The tumor microenvironment has an effect on the potency of T-exosome mediated induction of MDSCs by regulating the sorting and the amount of exosomal PGE2 and TGF-beta available. Together, these findings lend themselves to developing specific targetable therapeutic strategies to reduce or eliminate MDSC-induced immunosuppression and hence enhance host antitumor immunotherapy efficacy.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · International Journal of Cancer