David I Buckley

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States

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Publications (32)166.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is uncertainty regarding the use of bladder-sparing alternatives to standard radical cystectomy, optimal lymph node dissection techniques, and optimal chemotherapeutic regimens. This study was conducted to systematically review the benefits and harms of bladder-sparing therapies, lymph node dissection, and systemic chemotherapy for patients with clinically localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE (from 1990 through October 2014), the Cochrane databases, reference lists, and the ClinicalTrials.gov Web site were performed. A total of 41 articles were selected for review. Bladder-sparing therapies were found to be associated with worse survival compared with radical cystectomy, although the studies had serious methodological shortcomings, findings were inconsistent, and only a few studies evaluated currently recommended techniques. More extensive lymph node dissection might be more effective than less extensive dissection at improving survival and decreasing local disease recurrence, but there were methodological shortcomings and some inconsistency. Six randomized trials found cisplatin-based combination neoadjuvant chemotherapy to be associated with a decreased mortality risk versus cystectomy alone. Four randomized trials found adjuvant chemotherapy to be associated with decreased mortality versus cystectomy alone, but none of these trials reported a statistically significant effect. There was insufficient evidence to determine optimal chemotherapeutic regimens. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: . To assess reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a 29-item short-form version of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and a novel "impact score" calculated from those measures. Design: . Prospective cohort study. Setting: . Rural primary care practices. Subjects: . Adults aged ≥ 55 years with chronic musculoskeletal pain, not currently receiving prescription opioids. Methods: . Subjects completed the PROMIS short form at baseline and after 3 months. Patient subsets were compared to assess reliability and responsiveness. Construct validity was tested by comparing baseline scores among patients who were or were not applying for Worker's Compensation; those with higher or lower catastrophizing scores; and those with or without recent falls. Responsiveness was assessed with mean score changes, effect sizes, and standardized response means. Results: . Internal consistency was good to excellent, with Cronbach's alpha between 0.81 and 0.95 for all scales. Among patients who rated their pain as stable, test-retest scores at 3 months were around 0.70 for most scales. PROMIS scores were worse among patients seeking or receiving worker's compensation, those with high catastrophizing scores, and those with recent falls. Among patients rating pain as "much less" at 3 months, absolute effect sizes for the various scales ranged from 0.24 (Depression) to 1.93 (Pain Intensity). Conclusions: . Results indicate that the PROMIS short 29-item form may be useful for the study of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Our findings also support use of the novel "impact score" recommended by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pain Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Urinary biomarkers may be a useful alternative or adjunct to cystoscopy for diagnosis of bladder cancer. Purpose: To systematically review the evidence on the accuracy of urinary biomarkers for diagnosis of bladder cancer in adults who have signs or symptoms of the disease or are undergoing surveillance for recurrent disease. Data sources: Ovid MEDLINE (January 1990 through June 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and reference lists. Study selection: 57 studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative or qualitative nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22), qualitative or quantitative bladder tumor antigen (BTA), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), fluorescent immunohistochemistry (ImmunoCyt [Scimedx]), and Cxbladder (Pacific Edge Diagnostics USA) using cystoscopy and histopathology as the reference standard met inclusion criteria. Case-control studies were excluded. Data extraction: Dual extraction and quality assessment of individual studies. Overall strength of evidence (SOE) was also assessed. Data synthesis: Across biomarkers, sensitivities ranged from 0.57 to 0.82 and specificities ranged from 0.74 to 0.88. Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 2.52 to 5.53, and negative likelihood ratios ranged from 0.21 to 0.48 (moderate SOE for quantitative NMP22, qualitative BTA, FISH, and ImmunoCyt; low SOE for others). For some biomarkers, sensitivity was higher for initial diagnosis of bladder cancer than for diagnosis of recurrence. Sensitivity increased with higher tumor stage or grade. Studies that directly compared the accuracy of quantitative NMP22 and qualitative BTA found no differences in diagnostic accuracy (moderate SOE); head-to-head studies of other biomarkers were limited. Urinary biomarkers plus cytologic evaluation were more sensitive than biomarkers alone but missed about 10% of bladder cancer cases. Limitation: Restricted to English-language studies; no search for studies published only as abstracts; statistical heterogeneity present in most analyses; few studies for qualitative NMP22, quantitative BTA, and Cxbladder; and methodological shortcomings in almost all studies. Conclusion: Urinary biomarkers miss a substantial proportion of patients with bladder cancer and are subject to false-positive results in others. Accuracy is poor for low-stage and low-grade tumors. Primary funding source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014013284).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Annals of internal medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the number and types of patients' chronic diseases and being up to date for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Methods: Data were abstracted from medical charts at 4 primary care clinics located in 2 rural Oregon communities. Eligibility criteria included being at least 55 years old and having at least 1 clinic visit in the past 2 years. Results: Of 3433 patients included, 503 (15%) had no chronic illness, 646 (19%) had 1, 786 (23%) had 2, and 1498 (44%) had ≥3 chronic conditions. Women with asthma/chronic lung disease and with cardiovascular disease were less likely to be up o date for mammography screening (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.80), and those with chronic digestive disorders were more likely to be up to date for mammography (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.66) compared with those without chronic conditions. Women with arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were less likely to be up to date for cervical cancer screening (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21-0.68) compared with those without chronic conditions. Men with cardiovascular disease were less likely to be up to date for colorectal cancer screening (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.80), and women with depression were less likely to be up to date (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91) compared with men and women without chronic conditions. Conclusion: Specific chronic conditions were found to be associated with up-to-date status for cancer screening. This finding may help practices to identify patients who need to receive cancer screening.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly recognized as critical elements in research translation. Process models to develop CEnR partnerships in rural and underserved communities are needed. Method: Academic partners transformed four established Community Health Improvement Partnerships (CHIPs) into Community Health Improvement and Research Partnerships (CHIRPs). The intervention consisted of three elements: an academic-community kickoff/orientation meeting, delivery of eight research training modules to CHIRP members, and local community-based participatory research (CBPR) pilot studies addressing childhood obesity. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of pre-/postsurveys, interviews, session evaluations, observational field notes, and attendance logs to evaluate intervention effectiveness and acceptability. Results: Forty-nine community members participated; most (78.7%) attended five or more research training sessions. Session quality and usefulness was high. Community members reported significant increases in their confidence for participating in all phases of research (e.g., formulating research questions, selecting research methods, writing manuscripts). All CHIRP groups successfully conducted CBPR pilot studies. Conclusions: The CHIRP process builds on existing infrastructure in academic and community settings to foster CEnR. Brief research training and pilot studies around community-identified health needs can enhance individual and organizational capacity to address health disparities in rural and underserved communities.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Clinical and Translational Science
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Remote monitoring technology (RMT) may enhance healthcare quality and reduce costs. RMT adoption depends on perceptions of the end-user (e.g., patients, caregivers, healthcare providers). We conducted a systematic review exploring the acceptability and feasibility of RMT use in routine adult patient care, from the perspectives of primary care clinicians, administrators, and clinic staff. Materials and methods: We searched the databases of Medline, IEEE Xplore, and Compendex for original articles published from January 1996 through February 2013. We manually screened bibliographies of pertinent studies and consulted experts to identify English-language studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Results: Of 939 citations identified, 15 studies reported in 16 publications met inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous by country, type of RMT used, patient and provider characteristics, and method of implementation and evaluation. Clinicians, staff, and administrators generally held positive views about RMTs. Concerns emerged regarding clinical relevance of RMT data, changing clinical roles and patterns of care (e.g., reduced quality of care from fewer patient visits, overtreatment), insufficient staffing or time to monitor and discuss RMT data, data incompatibility with a clinic's electronic health record (EHR), and unclear legal liability regarding response protocols. Conclusions: This small body of heterogeneous literature suggests that for RMTs to be adopted in primary care, researchers and developers must ensure clinical relevance, support adequate infrastructure, streamline data transmission into EHR systems, attend to changing care patterns and professional roles, and clarify response protocols. There is a critical need to engage end-users in the development and implementation of RMT.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Telemedicine and e-Health
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    David Buckley · M Ansari · Mary Butler · Clara Soh · Christine Chang

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the expected duration of symptoms of common respiratory tract infections in children in primary and emergency care. Systematic review of existing literature to determine durations of symptoms of earache, sore throat, cough (including acute cough, bronchiolitis, and croup), and common cold in children. PubMed, DARE, and CINAHL (all to July 2012). Randomised controlled trials or observational studies of children with acute respiratory tract infections in primary care or emergency settings in high income countries who received either a control treatment or a placebo or over-the-counter treatment. Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias framework for randomised controlled trials, and the critical appraisal skills programme framework for observational studies. Individual study data and, when possible, pooled daily mean proportions and 95% confidence intervals for symptom duration. Symptom duration (in days) at which each symptom had resolved in 50% and 90% of children. Of 22,182 identified references, 23 trials and 25 observational studies met inclusion criteria. Study populations varied in age and duration of symptoms before study onset. In 90% of children, earache was resolved by seven to eight days, sore throat between two and seven days, croup by two days, bronchiolitis by 21 days, acute cough by 25 days, common cold by 15 days, and non-specific respiratory tract infections symptoms by 16 days. The durations of earache and common colds are considerably longer than current guidance given to parents in the United Kingdom and the United States; for other symptoms such as sore throat, acute cough, bronchiolitis, and croup the current guidance is consistent with our findings. Updating current guidelines with new evidence will help support parents and clinicians in evidence based decision making for children with respiratory tract infections.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · BMJ (online)
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research on ascertainment of cancer family history and cancer screening has been conducted in urban settings. To examine whether documented family history of breast or colorectal cancer is associated with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Medical record reviews were conducted on 3,433 patients aged 55 and older from four primary care practices in two rural Oregon communities. Data collected included patient demographic and risk information, including any documentation of family history of breast or colorectal cancer, and receipt of screening for these cancers. A positive breast cancer family history was associated with an increased likelihood of being up-to-date for mammography screening (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45-3.00 relative to a recorded negative history). A positive family history for colorectal cancer was associated with an increased likelihood of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening according to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force low risk guidelines for males (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.15-7.29) and females (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.32-4.64) relative to a recorded negative family history. The absence of any recorded family cancer history was associated with a decreased likelihood of being up-to-date for mammography screening (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88 relative to recorded negative history) or for colorectal cancer screening OR 0.75, 95% CI 060-0.96 in females, 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.88 in males relative to recorded negative history). Further research is needed to determine if establishing routines to document family history of cancer would improve appropriate use of cancer screening.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Pressure ulcers are associated with substantial health burdens but may be preventable. To review the clinical utility of pressure ulcer risk assessment instruments and the comparative effectiveness of preventive interventions in persons at higher risk. MEDLINE (1946 through November 2012), CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, grant databases, clinical trial registries, and reference lists. Randomized trials and observational studies on effects of using risk assessment on clinical outcomes and randomized trials of preventive interventions on clinical outcomes. Multiple investigators abstracted and checked study details and quality using predefined criteria. One good-quality trial found no evidence that use of a pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument, with or without a protocolized intervention strategy based on assessed risk, reduces risk for incident pressure ulcers compared with less standardized risk assessment based on nurses' clinical judgment. In higher-risk populations, 1 good-quality and 4 fair-quality randomized trials found that more advanced static support surfaces were associated with lower risk for pressure ulcers compared with standard mattresses (relative risk range, 0.20 to 0.60). Evidence on the effectiveness of low-air-loss and alternating-air mattresses was limited, with some trials showing no clear differences from advanced static support surfaces. Evidence on the effectiveness of nutritional supplementation, repositioning, and skin care interventions versus usual care was limited and had methodological shortcomings, precluding strong conclusions. Only English-language articles were included, publication bias could not be formally assessed, and most studies had methodological shortcomings. More advanced static support surfaces are more effective than standard mattresses for preventing ulcers in higher-risk populations. The effectiveness of formal risk assessment instruments and associated intervention protocols compared with less standardized assessment methods and the effectiveness of other preventive interventions compared with usual care have not been clearly established. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Annals of internal medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children are common and often result in antibiotic prescription despite their typically self-limiting course. Aim To assess the effectiveness of primary care based interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for children with RTIs. Design and setting Systematic review. Method MEDLINE(®), Embase, CINAHL(®), PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library were searched for randomised, cluster randomised, and non-randomised studies testing educational and/or behavioural interventions to change antibiotic prescribing for children (<18 years) with RTIs. Main outcomes included change in proportion of total antibiotic prescribing or change in 'appropriate' prescribing for RTIs. Narrative analysis of included studies was used to identify components of effective interventions. Results Of 6301 references identified through database searching, 17 studies were included. Interventions that combined parent education with clinician behaviour change decreased antibiotic prescribing rates by between 6-21%; structuring the parent-clinician interaction during the consultation may further increase the effectiveness of these interventions. Automatic computerised prescribing prompts increased prescribing appropriateness, while passive information, in the form of waiting room educational materials, yielded no benefit. Conclusion Conflicting evidence from the included studies found that interventions directed towards parents and/or clinicians can reduce rates of antibiotic prescribing. The most effective interventions target both parents and clinicians during consultations, provide automatic prescribing prompts, and promote clinician leadership in the intervention design.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · British Journal of General Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Effective Health Care Program conducts systematic reviews of health-care topics nominated by stakeholders. Topics undergo refinement to ensure relevant questions of appropriate scope and useful reviews. Input from key informants, experts, and a literature scan informs changes in the nominated topic. AHRQ convened a work group to assess approaches and develop recommendations for topic refinement. Study design and setting: Work group members experienced in topic refinement generated a list of questions and guiding principles relevant to the refinement process. They discussed each issue and reached agreement on recommendations. Results: Topics should address important health-care questions or dilemmas, consider stakeholder priorities and values, reflect the state of the science, and be consistent with systematic review research methods. Guiding principles of topic refinement are fidelity to the nomination, relevance, research feasibility, responsiveness to stakeholder inputs, reduced investigator bias, transparency, and suitable scope. Suggestions for stakeholder engagement, synthesis of input, and reporting are discussed. Refinement decisions require judgment and balancing guiding principles. Variability in topics precludes a prescriptive approach. Conclusion: Accurate, rigorous, and useful systematic reviews require well-refined topics. These guiding principles and methodological recommendations may help investigators refine topics for reviews.
    Full-text · Book · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was performed to determine, in rural settings, the relation between the type and status of insurance coverage and being up-to-date for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Four primary care practices in 2 rural Oregon communities participated. Medical chart reviews that were conducted between October 2008 and August 2009 assessed insurance coverage and up-to-date status for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Inclusion criteria involved having at least 1 health care visit within the past 5 years and being aged ≥ 55 years. The majority of patients were women aged 55 years to 70 years, employed or retired, and who had private health insurance and an average of 2.5 comorbid conditions. The overall percentage of eligible women who were up-to-date for cervical cancer screening was 30%; approximately 27% of women were up-to-date for clinical breast examination, 37% were up-to-date for mammography, and 19% were up-to-date for both mammography and clinical breast examination. Approximately 38% of men and 35% of women were up-to-date for colorectal cancer screening using any test at appropriate screening intervals. In general, having any insurance versus being uninsured was associated with undergoing cancer screening. For each type of screening, patients who had at least 1 health maintenance visit were significantly more likely to be up-to-date compared with those with no health maintenance visits. A significant interaction was found between having health maintenance visits, having any health insurance, and being up-to-date for cancer screening tests. Overall, the percentage of patients who were up-to-date for any cancer screening, especially cervical cancer screening, was found to be very low in rural Oregon. Patients with some form of health insurance were more likely to have had a health maintenance visit within the previous 2 years and to be up-to-date for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer screening. Cancer 2012.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Cancer
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    David I Buckley · Melinda M Davis · Elena M Andresen
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    ABSTRACT: Adults with physical disabilities are less likely than others to receive cancer screening. It is not known, however, whether commonly used measures assess elements of physical ability necessary for successful screening. The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether patients who reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental ADLs (IADLs) are perceived by their primary care clinicians to have physical limitations that may impede cancer screening. Patients at 2 rural primary care clinics were surveyed about ADLs and IADLs and about their up-to-date status for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer screening. Clinicians and office staff were asked whether they believed each patient had a physical limitation that might impede screening. The agreement between patient and clinician assessments was evaluated. Clinicians believed that 43% of patients with severe disability (ADLs) and 30% of patients with moderate disability (IADLs) had limitations that might affect screening. Agreement between patient and clinician assessments was low according to the kappa statistic (κ = 0.355), but had a high percentage of negative agreement (92.3%) and a low percentage of positive agreement (42.7%). Patients with ADL/IADL-related disability were less likely than nondisabled patients to be current for cervical and breast cancer screening. Patients who were viewed by clinicians as having limitations relevant for screening were less likely to be current for cervical cancer screening. These results indicate that a common measure of general disability may not capture all factors relevant for cancer screening. An instrument designed to include these factors may help identify and accommodate patients who have disabilities that may impede screening.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of an intervention to promote mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing among women with mobility impairments overdue for screenings. Randomized controlled trial. Urban and suburban Oregon. Women aged 35 to 64 with mobility impairments who reported not receiving a Pap test in the past 3 years and/or mammogram (if age >40 years) in the last 2 years were eligible. A total of 211 women were randomized, and 156 completed the study (26% attrition). The majority were not employed and reported annual income <$10,000. The Promoting Access to Health Services (PATHS) program is a 90-minute, small-group, participatory workshop with 6 months of structured telephone support, based on the health belief model and social cognitive theory. Perceived susceptibility to breast and cervical cancer, perceived benefits of and self-efficacy for screening, intention to be screened, and self-reported receipt of mammography and Pap testing. ANALYSIS . Chi-square tests to examine the proportion of women obtaining screening; analysis of covariance to examine change in theoretical mediators. The intervention group received more Pap tests than the control group at posttest (intervention 61%, control 27%, n  =  71, p < .01). No significant group effect was observed for mammography (intervention 49%, control 42%, n  =  125, p  =  .45). Findings indicate that the PATHS intervention promotes Pap testing but not mammography among women with mobility impairments.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · American journal of health promotion: AJHP
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    Dataset: Table S1
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    ABSTRACT: Search strategies. (DOC)
    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2012
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    Dataset: Figure S3
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of interventions to influence filling antibiotic prescription for children with respiratory tract infection. (TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2012
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    Dataset: Table S2
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    ABSTRACT: Quality assessment of included studies. (DOC)
    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2012
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    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2012
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    Dataset: Table S3
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    ABSTRACT: Characteristics of included studies. (DOC)
    Preview · Dataset · Jan 2012