Clara C Chen

NCI-Frederick, Фредерик, Maryland, United States

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Publications (90)720.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare tumors and mostly benign. We report on a 32-year-old woman with metastatic PGL who was first diagnosed with an abdominal PGL at the age of 12 years. She soon developed metastatic disease and received several treatments including external beam radiation and chemotherapy. When she was referred to our institution in 2014, her major complaint was a rapidly growing chest wall mass on the left side. The patient was imaged at our institution with 4 different PET radiopharmaceuticals.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT was prospectively performed in 20 patients with HNPGLs. All patients also underwent (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT, (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT, and CT/MRI, with 18 patients also having (18)F-fluorodopamine ((18)F-FDA) PET/CT. (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT and CT/MRI served as the imaging comparators. Results: Thirty-eight lesions in 20 patients were detected, with (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT identifying 37 of 38 (37/38) and CT/MRI identifying 23 of 38 lesions (23/38, p<0.01). All 38 and additional 7 lesions (P = 0.016) were detected on (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. Significantly fewer lesions were identified by (18)F-FDG PET/CT (24/38, p<0.01) and (18)F-FDA PET/CT (10/34, p<0.01). Conclusion: (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT identified more lesions than other imaging modalities. With the results of the present study, and the increasing availability and use of DOTA-analogs in the therapy of neuroendocrine tumors, we expect that (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT will become the preferred functional imaging modality for HNPGLs in the near future.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Endocrine Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an ATP-dependent transport protein, confers multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Tariquidar binds and inhibits Pgp. To assess the toxicity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of tariquidar, we conducted a phase I trial of tariquidar in combination with doxorubicin, docetaxel, or vinorelbine in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Methods: Patients less than 19 years of age with refractory or recurrent solid tumors were eligible. Tariquidar (1, 1.5, or 2 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with doxorubicin, docetaxel, or vinorelbine. PK of tariquidar and cytotoxic drugs was performed. Pgp function was assessed by a rhodamine efflux assay and (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Tumor Pgp expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Response was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Results: Twenty-nine subjects were enrolled. No tariquidar-related dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed. DLT related to cytotoxic drugs occurred in 12 % of subjects receiving tariquidar 2 mg/kg. When administered in combination with tariquidar, the clearance of docetaxel and vinorelbine was reduced compared to prior studies. Inhibition of rhodamine efflux was dose dependent. After tariquidar administration, (99m)Tc-sestamibi accumulation in tumor increased by 22 %. Objective responses (1 complete, 2 partial) were observed. There was no association between tumor Pgp expression and response. Conclusion: A tolerable and biologically active dose of tariquidar was established in children and adolescents. This trial demonstrates that modulators of resistance can be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic endpoints can be useful in determination of recommended dose in children and adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to prospectively screen patients with a positive family history of carcinoid small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) to elucidate the benefits of early detection and operative intervention. Methods: A single-center, prospective trial was conducted from 2008 to 2014 that evaluated patients with 2 or more blood relatives with carcinoid SI-NETs. All eligible patients were screened with urine/serum biochemistries and various imaging modalities. Operative intervention was elected in patients found to have at least 1 positive diagnostic study. Results: Twenty-nine patients from 13 families had occult carcinoid SI-NETs (15 female, 14 male). Twenty-four of the 29 patients (83%) had multifocal disease found in either the distal jejunum or ileum. On average, 75.9 cm (range, 13-195) of bowel was resected in 1 segment. Three patients were found to have stage IV disease at operation. All stage I-IIIB patients who had R0 resections have remained disease-free, with a median follow-up of 35 months. Conclusion: Familial carcinoid SI-NETs often are asymptomatic and can be diagnosed with aggressive screening. With early detection, there may be a window of opportunity for operative resection to change the natural history of this disease and even prove to be curative.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Context: (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been proved to be a highly sensitive method for pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) associated with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutations. This finding has been attributed to altered tumor cell metabolism resulting from these mutations and does not provide additional prognostic information to genotype. Therefore, identification of new biomarkers for aggressiveness is needed. A high Ki-67 index was proposed to be an additional prognostic factor. Objectives: This pilot study aimed to evaluate 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET/CT, a PET proliferation tracer, as a potential imaging agent in a series of 12 PHEO/PGL patients with different genetic backgrounds, to compare (18)F-FLT uptake with (18)F-FDG PET/CT, and to evaluate classical factors of aggressiveness. Patients and methods: Twelve patients (7 metastatic and 5 non-metastatic) were prospectively evaluated with (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT and followed for at least 2 years after the initial imaging work-up. Outcome measures: Uptake was assessed at a lesion level, visually and quantitatively by maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) for both tracers. (18)F-FLT uptake was compared to risk factors known to be linked with a poor prognosis in PGLs (SDHB-mutated status, lesion size, dopaminergic phenotype) and with (18)F-FDG uptake. Results: In 12 patients, 77 lesions were assessed. All lesions had low (18)F-FLT uptake (median SUVmax, 2.25; range, 0.7-4.5). There was no apparent superiority of (18)F-FLT uptake in progressive lesions and most of the lesions showed a mismatch, with high (18)F-FDG uptake (median SUVmax, 10.8; range, 1.1-79.0) contrasting with low (18)F-FLT uptake. Conclusion: This study suggests that PHEOs/PGLs-even those that progress-do not exhibit intense (18)F-FLT uptake. It provides the first in vivo demonstration that proliferation may not be a major determinant of (18)F-FDG uptake in these tumors. These findings provide new insight into the biological behavior of PGL and suggest that antiproliferative agents may be suboptimal for treatment of these tumors.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Patients with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) mutation-related pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are at a higher risk for metastatic disease than other hereditary PHEOs/PGLs. Current therapeutic approaches are limited, but the best outcomes are based on the early and proper detection of as many lesions as possible. Because PHEOs/PGLs overexpress somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), the goal of our study was to assess the clinical utility of [68Ga]-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)-octreotate ([68Ga]-DOTATATE) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to evaluate its diagnostic utility in comparison with the currently recommended functional imaging modalities [18F]-fluorodopamine ([18F]-FDA), [18F]-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F]-FDOPA), [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) PET/CT as well as CT/MRI. Experimental Design: [68Ga]-DOTATATE PET/CT was prospectively performed in 17 patients with SDHB-related metastatic PHEOs/PGLs. All patients also underwent [18F]-FDG PET/CT and CT/MRI, with 16 of the 17 patients also receiving [18F]-FDOPA and [18F]-FDA PET/CT scans. Detection rates of metastatic lesions were compared between all these functional imaging studies. A composite synthesis of all used functional and anatomical imaging studies served as the imaging comparator. Results: [68Ga]-DOTATATE PET/CT demonstrated a lesion-based detection rate of 98.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 96.5%-99.5%], [18F]-FDG, [18F]-FDOPA, [18F]-FDAPET/CT, and CT/MRI showed detection rates of 85.8% (CI, 81.3%-89.4%; P< 0.01), 61.4% (CI, 55.6%-66.9%; P< 0.01), 51.9% (CI, 46.1%-57.7%; P < 0.01), and 84.8% (CI, 80.0%-88.5%; P < 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: [68Ga]-DOTATATE PET/CT showed a significantly superior detection rate to all other functional and anatomical imaging modalities and may represent the preferred future imaging modality in the evaluation of SDHB-related metastatic PHEO/PGL.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Small intestinal carcinoids are rare and difficult to diagnose and patients often present with advanced, incurable disease. Although the disease occurs sporadically, there have been reports of family clusters. Hereditary small intestinal carcinoid has not been recognized and genetic factors have not been identified. We performed a genetic analysis of families with small intestinal carcinoids to establish a hereditary basis and find genes that might cause this cancer. We performed a prospective study of 33 families with at least 2 cases of small intestinal carcinoids. Affected members were characterized clinically and asymptomatic relatives were screened and underwent exploratory laparotomy for suspected tumors. Disease-associated mutations were sought using linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, and copy number analyses of germline and tumor DNA collected from members of a single large family. We assessed expression of mutant protein, protein activity, and regulation of apoptosis and senescence in lymphoblasts derived from the cases. Familial and sporadic carcinoids are clinically indistinguishable except for the multiple synchronous primary tumors observed in most familial cases. Nearly 34% of asymptomatic relatives older than 50 y were found to have occult tumors; the tumors were cleared surgically from 91% of these individuals (21/23). Linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified a germline 4 bp deletion in the gene inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) that truncates the protein. This mutation was detected in all 11 individuals with small intestinal carcinoids and 17/35 family members whose carcinoid status was unknown. Mutant IPMK had reduced kinase activity and nuclear localization, compared with the full-length protein. This reduced activation of p53 and increased cell survival. We found that small intestinal carcinoids can occur as an inherited autosomal dominant disease. The familial form is characterized by multiple synchronous primary tumors, which might account for 22%-35% of cases previously considered sporadic. Relatives of patients with familial carcinoids should be screened to detect curable early-stage disease. IPMK haplo-insufficiency promotes carcinoid tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma is curable, but when treatment fails, outcome is poor. Although imaging can help to identify patients at risk of treatment failure, they are often imprecise, and radiation exposure is a potential health risk. We aimed to assess whether circulating tumour DNA encoding the clonal immunoglobulin gene sequence could be detected in the serum of patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma and used to predict clinical disease recurrence after frontline treatment. We used next-generation DNA sequencing to retrospectively analyse cell-free circulating tumour DNA in patients assigned to one of three treatment protocols between May 8, 1993, and June 6, 2013. Eligible patients had diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma, no evidence of indolent lymphoma, and were previously untreated. We obtained serial serum samples and concurrent CT scans at specified times during most treatment cycles and up to 5 years of follow-up. VDJ gene segments of the rearranged immunoglobulin receptor genes were amplified and sequenced from pretreatment specimens and serum circulating tumour DNA encoding the VDJ rearrangements was quantitated. Tumour clonotypes were identified in pretreatment specimens from 126 patients who were followed up for a median of 11 years (IQR 6·8-14·2). Interim monitoring of circulating tumour DNA at the end of two treatment cycles in 108 patients showed a 5-year time to progression of 41·7% (95% CI 22·2-60·1) in patients with detectable circulating tumour DNA and 80·2% (69·6-87·3) in those without detectable circulating tumour DNA (p<0·0001). Detectable interim circulating tumour DNA had a positive predictive value of 62·5% (95% CI 40·6-81·2) and a negative predictive value of 79·8% (69·6-87·8). Surveillance monitoring of circulating tumour DNA was done in 107 patients who achieved complete remission. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that the hazard ratio for clinical disease progression was 228 (95% CI 51-1022) for patients who developed detectable circulating tumour DNA during surveillance compared with patients with undetectable circulating tumour DNA (p<0·0001). Surveillance circulating tumour DNA had a positive predictive value of 88·2% (95% CI 63·6-98·5) and a negative predictive value of 97·8% (92·2-99·7) and identified risk of recurrence at a median of 3·5 months (range 0-200) before evidence of clinical disease. Surveillance circulating tumour DNA identifies patients at risk of recurrence before clinical evidence of disease in most patients and results in a reduced disease burden at relapse. Interim circulating tumour DNA is a promising biomarker to identify patients at high risk of treatment failure. National Cancer Institute and Adaptive Biotechnologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Lancet Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Carney triad is a rare syndrome involving gastrointestinal stromal tumor, pulmonary chondroma, and extra-adrenal paraganglioma. We present a 21-year-old woman with the complete triad who was evaluated with MRI, F-FDOPA, F-FDA, and F-FDG. F-FDOPA best demonstrated the paraganglioma, whereas hepatic metastases noted by MRI demonstrated increased uptake only by F-FDG.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: T cells can be genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We assessed the safety and efficacy of administering autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells to patients with advanced CD19(+) B-cell malignancies. Patients and methods: We treated 15 patients with advanced B-cell malignancies. Nine patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), two had indolent lymphomas, and four had chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients received a conditioning chemotherapy regimen of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine followed by a single infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Results: Of 15 patients, eight achieved complete remissions (CRs), four achieved partial remissions, one had stable lymphoma, and two were not evaluable for response. CRs were obtained by four of seven evaluable patients with chemotherapy-refractory DLBCL; three of these four CRs are ongoing, with durations ranging from 9 to 22 months. Acute toxicities including fever, hypotension, delirium, and other neurologic toxicities occurred in some patients after infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells; these toxicities resolved within 3 weeks after cell infusion. One patient died suddenly as a result of an unknown cause 16 days after cell infusion. CAR T cells were detected in the blood of patients at peak levels, ranging from nine to 777 CAR-positive T cells/μL. Conclusion: This is the first report to our knowledge of successful treatment of DLBCL with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. These results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of treating chemotherapy-refractory B-cell malignancies with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. The numerous remissions obtained provide strong support for further development of this approach.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the RET protooncogene and is characterized by a strong penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma (all subtypes) and is often accompanied by pheochromocytoma (MEN2A/2B) and primary hyperparathyroidism (MEN2A). The evaluation and management of MEN2-related tumors is often different from that of sporadic counterparts. This review article provides an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and surgical management of MEN2 patients. This review also presents applications of the most up-to-date imaging modalities to MEN2 patients that are tightly linked to the clinical management and aims to guide physicians towards a rationale for the use of imaging prior to prophylactic thyroidectomy, initial surgery, and reoperations for persistent/recurrent disease. This review also concludes that, in the near future, it is expected that these patients will indeed benefit from newly developed PET approaches which will target peptide receptors and protein kinases. Identification of MEN2-specific radiopharmaceuticals will also soon arise from molecular profiling studies. Furthermore, subtotal (cortical-sparing) adrenalectomy, which is a valid option in MEN2 for avoiding long-term steroid replacement, will benefit from an accurate estimation through imaging of differential adrenocortical function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Clinical Endocrinology

  • No preview · Article · May 2014 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) account for at least 35% of all HNPGLs, most commonly due to germline mutations in SDHx susceptibility genes. Several studies about sympathetic paragangliomas have shown that (18) F-FDG PET/CT was not only able to detect and localize tumors, but also to characterize tumors ((18) F-FDG uptake being linked to SDHx mutations). However, the data concerning (18) F-FDG uptake specifically in HNPGLs have not been addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between (18) F-FDG uptake and the SDHx mutation status in HNPGL patients. (18) F-FDG PET/CT from sixty HNPGL patients were evaluated. For all lesions, we measured the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax), and the uptake ratio defined as HNPGL SUVmax over pulmonary artery trunk SUVmean (SUVratio). Tumor sizes were assessed on radiological studies. Sixty patients (53.3% with SDHx mutations) were evaluated for a total of 106 HNPGLs. HNPGLs SUVmax and SUVratio were highly dispersed (1.2-30.5 and 1.0-17.0 respectively). The HNPGL (18) F-FDG uptake was significantly higher in SDHx versus sporadic tumors on both univariate and multivariate analysis (p=0.002). We developed two models for calculating the probability of a germline SDHx mutation. The first one, based on a per-lesion analysis, had an accuracy of 75.5%. The second model, based on a per-patient analysis, had an accuracy of 80.0%. (18) F-FDG uptake in HNPGL is strongly dependent on patient genotype. Thus, the degree of (18) F-FDG uptake in these tumors can be used clinically to help identify patients in whom SDHx mutations should be suspected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Following cancer radiotherapy, reconstruction of doses to organs, other than the target organ, is of interest for retrospective health risk studies. Reliable estimation of doses to organs that may be partially within or fully outside the treatment field requires reliable knowledge of the location and size of the organs, e.g., the stomach, which is at risk from abdominal irradiation. The stomach location and size are known to be highly variable between individuals, but have been little studied. Moreover, for treatments conducted years ago, medical images of patients are usually not available in medical records to locate the stomach. In light of the poor information available to locate the stomach in historical dose reconstructions, the purpose of this work was to investigate the variability of stomach location and size among adult male patients and to develop prediction models for the stomach location and size using predictor variables generally available in medical records of radiotherapy patients treated in the past. To collect data on stomach size and position, we segmented the contours of the stomach and of the skeleton on contemporary computed tomography (CT) images for 30 male patients in supine position. The location and size of the stomach was found to depend on body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), and age. For example, the anteroposterior dimension of the stomach was found to increase with increasing BMI (≈0.25 cm kg(-1) m(2)) whereas its craniocaudal dimension decreased with increasing PI (≈-3.3 cm kg(-1) m(3)) and its transverse dimension increased with increasing PI (≈2.5 cm kg(-1) m(3)). Using the prediction models, we generated three-dimensional computational stomach models from a deformable hybrid phantom for three patients of different BMI. Based on a typical radiotherapy treatment, we simulated radiotherapy treatments on the predicted stomach models and on the CT images of the corresponding patients. Those dose calculations demonstrated good agreement between predicted and actual stomachs compared with doses derived from a reference model of the body that might be used in the absence of individual CT scan data.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Physics in Medicine and Biology
  • David Taïeb · Arthur Varoquaux · Clara C Chen · Karel Pacak
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) account for approximately 3% of all paragangliomas (PGLs). Most often, HNPGLs are benign, nonsecreting, and slowly progressing. The initial physical examination and biochemical diagnosis usually adds very little to the proper diagnosis of these tumors, and, therefore, radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians play a pivotal role in providing the initial diagnosis, the locoregional staging, and the plan for detecting potential multicentric or metastatic lesions. Based on several current studies, the most accurate use of HNPGL-specific initial and subsequent imaging modalities must be guided by the knowledge of genetics and the specifically measured biochemical profile of these tumors for the proper management of these patients. Thus, this short review article presents the application of the most up-to-date anatomical and functional imaging approaches to HNPGLs tightly linked to the clinical management of these patients. Based on the most recent studies, 18F-FDOPA PET/CT has been shown to be a useful addition to anatomical imaging in the preoperative localization and molecular assessment of HNPGLs. It is estimated that the frequency of metabolically active PGLs on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT in this region is higher than 90%. For patients with hereditary PGL syndromes, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT should be reserved. Imaging of somatostatin receptors using Octreoscan or 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogues plays an important role for selecting patients for targeted radiation therapy. This review also concludes that it is expected that in the near future, these patients will indeed benefit from new diagnostic approaches based on the identification of new targets by molecular profiling studies that will result in the development of novel PGL-specific radiopharamceuticals.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Seminars in nuclear medicine

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare disorder of phosphate wasting due to fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23)-secreting tumors that are often difficult to locate. We present a systematic approach to tumor localization and post-operative biochemical changes in 31 subjects with TIO. All had failed either initial, or re-localization (in case of recurrence or metastases at outside institutions). Functional imaging with (111) Indium- octreotide with single photon emission computed tomography (octreo-SPECT or SPECT/CT), and (18) fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) were performed, followed by anatomic imaging (CT,MRI). Selective venous sampling (VS) was performed when multiple suspicious lesions were identified or high surgical risk was a concern. Tumors were localized in 20/31 subjects (64.5%). Nineteen of 20 subjects underwent octreo-SPECT imaging, and 16/20 FDG-PET/CT imaging. Eighteen of 19 (95%) were positive on octreo-SPECT, and 14/16 (88%) on FDG-PET/CT. Twelve of 20 subjects underwent VS; 10/12 (83%) were positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were: sensitivity=0.95, specificity=0.64, PPV=0.82 and NPV=0.88 for octreo-SPECT; sensitivity=0.88, specificity=0.36, PPV=0.62 and NPV=0.50 for FDG-PET/CT. Fifteen subjects had their tumor resected at our institution, and were disease-free at last follow-up. Serum phosphorus returned to normal in all subjects within 1-5 days. In 10 subjects who were followed for at least 7 days postoperatively, intact FGF23 (iFGF23) decreased to near undetectable within hours and returned to the normal range within 5 days. C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) decreased immediately but remained elevated, yielding a markedly elevated cFGF23/iFGF23 ratio. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D) rose and exceeded the normal range. In this systematic approach to TIO tumor localization Octreo-SPECT was more sensitive and specific, but in many cases FDG-PET/CT was complementary. VS can discriminate between multiple suspicious lesions and increase certainty prior to surgery. Sustained elevations in cFGF23 and 1,25D were observed, suggesting novel regulation of FGF23 processing and 1,25D generation. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

Publication Stats

5k Citations
720.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 1995-2015
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Center for Clinical Research
      • • Radiology and Imaging Sciences Department
      • • Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology
      • • Branch of Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases
      • • Branch of Pediatric Oncology
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2014
    • CRC Press Online
      Boca Raton, Florida, United States
  • 2011
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      • Program in Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics (PDEGEN)
      Роквилл, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Pharmaceutics
      Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
  • 2008-2009
    • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Nyitra, Nitriansky, Slovakia
  • 2007
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States