Waldemar Wilczak

University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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Publications (63)250.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: SALL4 is a transcription factor originally identified as a homeotic gene essential for organ development. Early studies suggested that SALL4 is a useful marker to identify testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of SALL4 immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) with 3966 samples from 94 different tumor types and on a further TMA with 492 esophagus carcinomas. SALL4 immunostaining was by far most prevalent and most intensive in testicular tumors with a positivity rate of 93.1 % in seminomas, 80 % in mixed germ cell tumors (embryonic carcinomas/yolk sac tumors), and 18.5 % in teratomas, respectively. However, SALL4 expression is not specific to germ cell tumors. We observed SALL4 positivity in non-germ cell tumors as carcinomas of the kidney (28.9 % of chromophobe, 34.4 % of clear cell carcinoma), in intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the stomach (10.9 %), in adenocarcinoma (10.5 %) and squamous cell carcinoma (7.2 %) of the esophagus, and in malignant melanoma (8.1 %) and invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (20 %). SALL4 expression was not found in lymphomas, in soft tissue tumors or breast tumors. At analysis of esophagus carcinoma TMA, no significant association was seen between SALL4 expression and overall survival in adenocarcinoma. However, SALL4 expression was strongly associated with worse overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma. SALL4 expression can be found at relevant frequencies in various tumors of different primary sites. SALL4 expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus may constitute a sign of dedifferentiation leading to poor patient prognosis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Aberrant DNA content has been discussed as a potential prognostic feature in prostate cancer. Experimental design: We analyzed the clinical significance of DNA ploidy in combination with prognostic relevant deletions of PTEN and 6q15 in 3,845 prostate cancers. Result: The DNA status was diploid in 67.8%, tetraploid in 25.6% and aneuploid in 6.8% of tumors, and deletions of PTEN and 6q15 occurred in 17.8% and 20.3% of tumors. Abnormal DNA content and deletions were linked to high Gleason score, advanced tumor stage, and positive nodal stage (p<0.0001 each). The risk of PSA recurrence increased from diploid to tetraploid and from tetraploid to aneuploid DNA status (p<0.0001 each). However, 40% of patients with Gleason score ≥4+4 and 55% of patients with PSA recurrence had diploid cancers. This fraction decreased to 21% (Gleason ≥4+4) and 29% (PSA recurrence) if PTEN and/or 6q deletion data were added to ploidy data to identify cancers with an aberrant DNA status. The significance of combining both deletions and ploidy was further demonstrated in a combined recurrence analysis. Presence of deletions increased the risk of PSA recurrence in diploid (p<0.0001), tetraploid (p<0.0001), and aneuploid cancers (p=0.0049), and the combination of ploidy data and deletions provided clinically relevant information beyond the CAPRA-S nomogram. Multivariate modeling including preoperatively and postoperatively available parameters identified the "combined DNA status" as a strong independent predictor of poor patient outcome. Conclusion: The combinatorial DNA content analysis involving general (ploidy) and specific events (deletions) has the potential for clinical utility in prostate cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Gleason grading is the strongest prognostic parameter in prostate cancer. Gleason grading is categorized as Gleason ≤6, 3+4, 4+3, 8, and 9-10, but there is variability within these subgroups. For example, Gleason 4 components may range from 5-45% in a Gleason 3+4=7 cancer. Objective: To assess the clinical relevance of the fractions of Gleason patterns. Design, setting, and participants: Prostatectomy specimens from 12823 consecutive patients and of 2971 matched preoperative biopsies for which clinical data with an annual follow-up between 2005 and 2014 were available from the Martini-Klinik database. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: To evaluate the utility of quantitative grading, the fraction of Gleason 3, 4, and 5 patterns seen in biopsies and prostatectomies were recorded. Gleason grade fractions were compared with prostatectomy findings and prostate-specific antigen recurrence. Results and limitations: Our data suggest a striking utility of quantitative Gleason grading. In prostatectomy specimens, there was a continuous increase of the risk of prostate-specific antigen recurrence with increasing percentage of Gleason 4 fractions with remarkably small differences in outcome at clinically important thresholds (0% vs 5%; 40% vs 60% Gleason 4), distinguishing traditionally established prognostic groups. Also, in biopsies, the quantitative Gleason scoring identified various intermediate risk groups with respect to Gleason findings in corresponding prostatectomies. Quantitative grading may also reduce the clinical impact of interobserver variability because borderline findings such as tumors with 5%, 40%, or 60% Gleason 4 fractions and very small Gleason 5 fractions (with pivotal impact on the Gleason score) are disclaimed. Conclusions: Quantitative Gleason pattern data should routinely be provided in addition to Gleason score categories, both in biopsies and in prostatectomy specimens. Patient summary: Gleason score is the most important prognostic parameter in prostate cancer, but prone to interobserver variation. The results of our study show that morphological aspects that define the Gleason grade in prostate cancer represent a continuum. Quantitation of Gleason patterns provides clinically relevant information beyond the traditional Gleason grading categories ≤3+3, 3+4, 4+3, 8, 9-10. Quantitative Gleason scoring can help to minimize variations between different pathologists and substantially aid in optimized therapy decision-making.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma of the breast is a very rare malignant tumor. It can clinically manifest as a palpable breast mass and mimic primary breast cancer. We report an unusual case of a 51-year-old female who presented with an asymptomatic right breast mass, which was histologically diagnosed as well differentiated liposarcoma arisen within malignant phyllodes tumor. The patient underwent breast conserving surgery, received no adjuvant treatment and is disease-free after 2 years. Radiological and histopathological features are presented and described in detail. Data from the literature are presented and therapy recommendations discussed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: ELAVL1 is an RNA binding protein involved in translation control, which might have a regulatory role in prostate cancer progress. Methods: To evaluate its impact and relationship with key genomic alterations, ELAVL1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 12,427 prostate cancers. Results: The analysis revealed a mild to moderate predominantly nuclear immunostaining in normal prostate epithelium and an often higher both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression in cancer cells. Weak, moderate, and strong cytoplasmic ELAVL1 staining was found in 43%, 18%, and 3% of 10,478 interpretable tumors. Strong ELAVL1 staining was linked to high Gleason grade, advanced pathological tumor stage, positive nodal status, and PSA recurrence (P<0.0001 each). A combined analysis of the effect of nuclear and cytoplasmic ELAVL1 expression on PSA recurrence revealed that the association with patient outcome was entirely driven by cytoplasmic staining. ELAVL1 positivity was more frequent in cancers harboring TMPRSS2:ERG fusions found by FISH (78%) or showing immunohistochemical ERG expression (74%) than in cancers without ERG rearrangement (63%) or ERG expression (58%, P<0.0001 each). Strong cytoplasmic ELAVL1 staining was further linked to presence of PTEN, 5q21, 6q15, and 3p13 deletions (P<0.0001 each), an observation consistent with cytoplasmic ELAVL1 accumulation in case of genomic instability. The prognostic role of ELAVL1 expression was independent of Gleason grade, T stage, N stage, surgical margin status, and preoperative PSA, irrespective of whether preoperative or postoperative variables were used for modeling. Conclusion: Our study identifies cytoplasmic accumulation of ELAVL1 as a predictor of adverse clinical behavior of prostate cancer independent of established clinico-pathological parameters.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Prostate
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    ABSTRACT: Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is an androgen-regulated member of a family of small hydrophobic integral transmembrane water channel proteins regulating cellular water homeostasis and growth signaling. To evaluate its clinical impact and relationship with key genomic alterations in prostate cancer, AQP5 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 12427 prostate cancers. The analysis revealed weak to moderate immunostaining in normal prostate epithelium. In prostate cancers AQP5 staining levels were more variable and also included completely negative and highly overexpressing cases. Negative, weak, moderate, and strong AQP5 staining was found in 25.0%, 32.5%, 32.5%, and 10.0% of 10239 interpretable tumors. Comparison of AQP5 expression levels with tumor characteristics showed a dichotomous pattern with both high and low staining levels being linked to unfavorable tumor phenotype. AQP5 was negative in 28%, 23%, 24%, and 35% of tumors with Gleason score ≤3 + 3, 3 + 4, 4 + 3 and ≥4 + 4, while the rate of strongly positive cases continuously increased from 7.0% over 10.0% and 12.0% to 13.0% in cancers with Gleason score ≤3 + 3, 3 + 4, 4 + 3 and ≥4 + 4. AQP5 expression was also related to ERG positivity and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion (P < .0001 each). Strong AQP5 positivity was seen in 15.5% of ERG-positive and 5.8% of ERG-negative cancers (P < .0001) as well as in 14.7% of cancers with PTEN deletion and 9.4% of cancers without PTEN deletion. Remarkably, both negativity and strong positivity of AQP5 were linked to unfavorable disease outcome. This was however only seen in subgroups defined by TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and/or PTEN deletion. In summary, AQP5 can be both overexpressed and lost in subgroups of prostate cancers. Both alterations are linked to unfavorable outcome in molecularly defined cancer subgroups. It is hypothesized that this dichotomous role of AQP5 is due to two highly different mechanisms as to how the protein can influence cancer cells, that is, hydraulic motility regulation and Ras/MAPK pathway activation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Human pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) plays an important role in tumor development and progression by interacting with histone and nonhistone proteins. In the current study, we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of EZH2 in prostate cancer. EZH2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12400 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence and molecular subtypes defined by ERG status as well as genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN. EZH2 immunostaining was detectable in 56.6% of 10168 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 1.1%, moderate in 12.2% and weak in 43.3% of cases. High EZH2 expression was strongly associated with high Gleason grade (P < 0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage (P < 0.0001), positive nodal status (P < 0.0001), elevated preoperative PSA level (P = 0.0066), early PSA recurrence (P < 0.0001) and increased cell proliferation P < 0.0001). High-level EZH2 staining was also associated with TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangement and ERG expression in prostate cancers (P < 0.0001) and was linked to deletions of PTEN, 6q15, 5q21 and 3p13 (P < 0.0001 each) particularly in ERG-negative cancers. The prognostic impact of EZH2 was independent of established pre- and postoperatively assessed clinicopathological parameters. EZH2 has strong prognostic impact in prostate cancer and might contribute to the development of a fraction of genetically instable and particularly aggressive prostate cancers. EZH2 analysis might therefore be of clinical value for risk stratification of prostate cancer.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Carcinogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) plays a crucial role in various developmental processes. Although GRHL2 recently has attracted considerable interest in that it could be identified as a novel suppressor of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, evidence is emerging that GRHL2 also exhibits tumour-promoting activities. Aim of the present study therefore was to help defining the relevance of GRHL2 for human cancers by performing a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of GRHL2 expression in normal (n=608) and (n=3143) tumour tissues using tissue microarrays. Consistent with its accepted role in epithelial morphogenesis, GRHL2 expression preferentially but not exclusively was observed in epithelial cells. Regenerative and proliferating epithelial cells with stem cell features showed a strong GRHL2 expression. Highly complex GRHL2 expression patterns indicative of both reduced and elevated GRHL2 expression in tumours, possibly reflecting potential tumour-suppressing as well as oncogenic functions of GRHL2 in distinct human tumours, were observed. A dysregulation of GRHL2 expression for the first time was found in tumours of non-epithelial origin (e.g., astrocytomas, melanomas). We also report GRHL2 copy number gains which, however, did not necessarily translate into increased GRHL2 expression levels in cancer cells. Results obtained by meta-analysis of gene expression microarray data in conjunction with functional assays demonstrating a direct regulation of HER3 expression further point to a potential therapeutic relevance of GRHL2 in ovarian cancer. Hopefully, the results presented in this study may pave the way for a better understanding of the yet largely unknown function of GRHL2 in the initiation, progression and also therapy of cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Hook microtubule-tethering protein 3 (HOOK3) is an adaptor protein for microtubule-dependent intracellular vesicle and protein trafficking. In order to assess the role of HOOK3 in prostate cancer we analyzed HOOK3 expression by immunohistochemistry on a TMA containing more than 12,400 prostate cancers. Results were compared to tumor phenotype and PSA recurrence as well as aberrations possibly defining relevant molecular subtypes such as ERG status and deletions of 3p13, 5q21, 6q15 and PTEN. HOOK3 immunostaining was negative in normal luminal cells of prostate epithelium, whereas 53.3% of 10,572 interpretable cancers showed HOOK3 expression, which was considered low in 36.4% and high in 16.9% of cases. High-level HOOK3 expression was linked to advanced tumor stage, high Gleason score, high proliferation index, positive lymph node stage, and PSA recurrence (p<0.0001 each). The prognostic role of HOOK3 expression was independent of established clinico-pathological parameters both in preoperative and postoperative settings. Comparisons with molecular features were performed to draw conclusions on the potential function of HOOK3 in the prostate. A strong association with all examined deletions is consistent with a role of HOOK3 for maintaining genomic integrity by contributing to proper centrosome assembly. Finding HOOK3 expression in 74% of ERG positive but in only 38% of ERG negative cancers (p<0.0001) further suggests functional interactions between these genes. In conclusion, the results of our study identify HOOK3 as a strong candidate prognostic marker with a possible role in maintaining genomic integrity in prostate cancer, which may have potential for inclusion into clinical routine assays.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Deletion of 12p is a recurrent alteration in prostate cancer, but the prevalence and clinical consequences of this alteration have not been studied in detail. Dual labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes for 12p13 (CDKN1B; p27) and centromere 12 as a reference was used to successfully analyze more than 3700 prostate cancers with clinical follow-up data assembled in a tissue microarray format. CDKN1B was selected as a probe because it is located in the center of the deletion, which spans > 10 Mb and includes > 50 genes in 80% of cancers with 12p deletion. Deletion of 12p was found in 13.7% of cancers and included 13.5% heterozygous and 0.2% homozygous deletions. 12p deletion were linked to advanced tumor stage (p < 0.0001), high Gleason grade (p < 0.0001), rapid tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.0001), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0004), and biochemical recurrence (p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis including pT stage (p < 0.0001), Gleason grade (p < 0.0001), pN status (p = 0.0001), preoperative PSA levels (p = 0.0001), and resection margin status (p = 0.0001) revealed an independent prognostic value of 12p deletion (p = 0.0014). Deletion of 12p was unrelated to the ERG fusion status. Deletion of 12p was only marginally linked to reduced p27 expression, which by itself was unrelated to clinical outcome. This argues against p27 as the key target gene of 12p deletions. In summary, the results of our study demonstrate that 12p deletion is frequent in prostate cancer and provides independent prognostic information. 12p deletion analysis alone, or in combination with other prognostic parameters may thus have clinical utility.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: DNA ligases are essential for the maintenance of genome integrity as they are indispensable for DNA replication, recombination and repair. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the prevalence and clinical significance of ligase IV (LIG4) expression in prostate cancer. A total of 11,152 prostate cancer specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for LIG4 expression. Results were compared to follow-up data, ERG status and deletions at PTEN, 3p13, 5q21 and 6q15. LIG4 expression was predominantly localized in the nucleus of the cells with increased intensities in malignant as compared to benign prostate epithelium. In prostate cancer, LIG4 expression was found in 91% of interpretable tumors, including 12% cancers with weak, 23% with moderate and 56% with strong LIG4 positivity. Strong LIG4 expression was tightly linked to advanced Gleason score (P<0.0001) and positive nodal involvement (P=0.03). There was a remarkable accumulation of strong LIG4 expression in tumors harboring TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PTEN deletions (P<0.0001 each). High LIG4 expression was also tightly related to early biochemical recurrence when all tumors (P<0.0001) or the subsets of ERG-negative (P=0.0004) or ERG-positive prostate cancers (P=0.006) were analyzed. Multivariate analysis including parameters that are available before surgery demonstrated independent association with biochemical recurrence for advanced Gleason grade on biopsy, high preoperative PSA level, high clinical stage (P<0.0001 each) and for LIG4 immunostaining (P=0.03). Our study identifies LIG4 as a predictor of an increased risk for early PSA recurrence in prostate cancer. Moreover, the strong association with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PTEN deletions suggest important interactions between these pathways in prostate cancers.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Oncology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor SOX9 plays a crucial role in normal prostate development and has been suggested to drive prostate carcinogenesis in concert with PTEN inactivation. To evaluate the clinical impact of SOX9 and its relationship with key genomic alterations in prostate cancer, SOX9 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancers. Data on ERG status and deletions of PTEN, 3p13, 5q21 and 6q15 were available from earlier studies. SOX9 expression levels were comparable in luminal cells of normal prostate glands (50% SOX9 positive) and 3,671 cancers lacking TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (55% SOX9 positive), but was markedly increased in 3,116 ERG-fusion positive cancers (81% SOX9 positive, p<0.0001). While no unequivocal changes in the SOX9 expression levels were found in different stages of ERG-negative cancers, a gradual decrease of SOX9 paralleled progression to advanced stage, high Gleason grade, metastatic growth, and presence of PTEN deletions in ERG-positive cancers (p<0.0001 each). SOX9 levels were unrelated to deletions of 3p, 5q, and 6q. Down-regulation of SOX9 expression was particularly strongly associated with PSA recurrence in ERG-positive tumors harboring PTEN deletions (p=0.001), but had no significant effect in ERG-negative cancers or in tumors with normal PTEN copy numbers. In summary, the results of our study argue against a tumor-promoting role of SOX9 in prostate cancer, but demonstrate that loss of SOX9 expression characterizes a particularly aggressive subset of ERG positive cancers harboring PTEN deletions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The VEGFR-1 is suggested to promote tumor progression. In the current study we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of the VEGFR-1 by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 3000 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, ETS-related gene (ERG) status, and biochemical recurrence. Membranous VEGFR-1 expression was detectable in 32.6% of 2669 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 1.7%, moderate in 6.7% and weak in 24.2% of cases. Strong VEGFR-1 expression was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (p < 0.0001 each). Elevated VEGFR-1 expression was linked to high Gleason grade and advanced pT stage in TMPRSS2:ERG negative cancers (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.001), while these associations were absent in TMPRSS2:ERG positive cancers. VEGFR-1 expression was also linked to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletions. A comparison with prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence revealed that the 1.7% of prostate cancers with the highest VEGFR-1 levels had a strikingly unfavorable prognosis. This could be seen in all cancers, in the subsets of TMPRSS2:ERG positive or negative, PTEN deleted or undeleted carcinomas (p < 0.0001 each). High level VEGFR-1 expression is infrequent in prostate cancer, but identifies a subgroup of aggressive cancers, which may be candidates for anti-VEGFR-1 targeted therapy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: HOXB13 is a prostate cancer susceptibility gene which shows a cancer predisposing (G84E) mutation in 0.1-0.6% of males. We analyzed the prognostic impact of HOXB13 expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12,400 prostate cancers. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as well as molecular subtypes defined by ERG status and genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q, and PTEN. HOXB13 immunostaining was detectable in 51.7% of 10,216 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 9.6%, moderate in 19.7% and weak in 22.3% of cases. HOXB13 expression was linked to advanced pT stage, high Gleason grade, positive lymph node status (p < 0.0001 each), high pre-operative PSA levels (p = 0.01), TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, PTEN deletions, AR expression, cell proliferation, reduced PSA expression and early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001 each). The prognostic value of HOXB13 was independent from established parameters including Gleason, stage, nodal stage and PSA. Co-expression analysis identified a subset of tumors with high HOXB13 and AR but low PSA expression that had a particularly poor prognosis. HOXB13 appears to be a promising candidate for clinical routine tests either alone or in combination with other markers, including AR and PSA.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in tumor development and progression by modifying histone and non-histone proteins. In the current study we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of HDAC1 in prostate cancer. HDAC1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12,400 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, and molecular subtypes defined by ERG status as well as genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN. HDAC1 immunostaining was detectable in 75.4% of 9,744 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 15.4%, moderate in 39.4% and weak in 20.7% of cases. High HDAC1 expression was associated with high Gleason grade (p<0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage (p<0.0001), positive nodal status (p=0.0010), elevated preoperative PSA-level (p=0.0127), early PSA recurrence (p<0.0001) and increased cell proliferation p<0.0001). Moreover, high-level HDAC1 staining was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangement and ERG expression in prostate cancers (p<0.0001) and was linked to deletions of PTEN (p<0.0001), 6q (p<0.0001) and 5q (p=0.0028) in ERG-negative cancers. The prognostic impact of HDAC1 was independent of established clinicopathological parameters and was mostly driven by ERG-negative cancers as revealed by subgroup analyses. HDAC1 has strong prognostic impact in prostate cancer and might contribute to the development of a fraction of genetically instable and particularly aggressive prostate cancers. HDAC1 measurement might therefore be of clinical value for risk stratification of prostate cancer and should be further evaluated in this regard. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) plays a role in DNA synthesis and is a target for 5-fluorouracil. In this study TYMS was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancers. TYMS expression was higher in neoplastic than in normal prostate epithelium and was detectable in 72.9% of 10,223 interpretable cancers. It was considered strong in 21.9%, moderate in 33.4% and weak in 17.6% of tumors. TYMS overexpression was associated with deletions at 5q21 (p < 0.0001), 6q15 (p < 0.0001) and 3p13 (p = 0.0083) and gradually increased with the total number of these deletions present in the respective cancer sample (p < 0.0001). TYMS expression was unrelated to PTEN deletions (p = 0.9535) but tightly linked to high Gleason grade, advanced pathological tumor stage and early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001). The prognostic value of TYMS was independent from the ERG status and deletions at 3p13, 5q21, and 6q15. In multivariate analyses the prognostic role of TYMS expression was independent of Gleason grade, pT stage, preoperative PSA, pN stage, or resection margins. TYMS expression analysis might result in clinically useful information in prostate cancer. The striking link to some but not all chromosomal aberrations might suggest a mechanistical link with specific types of DNA damage.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a membranous cell adhesion protein that is often expressed in breast cancer. Data on the prognostic impact of ALCAM expression is highly controversial in this cancer. To evaluate the clinical impact of ALCAM expression in a sufficiently large patient cohort, we utilized a tissue microarray (TMA) containing more than 2,100 primary breast cancers with clinical follow-up data by immunohistochemistry. TMA spots containing normal breast epithelium showed moderate to strong membranous ALCAM staining. ALCAM staining was strong in 66.2%, moderate in 10.9%, weak in 11.1% and absent in 11.8% of 1,778 (80.9%) interpretable breast cancer tissue spots. Decreased ALCAM expression was significantly associated with advanced tumor size (p=0.0017), unfavorable tumor grade (p<0.0001), negative ER and PR status (p<0.0001 each) as well as high Ki67 labeling index (p<0.0001). Cancers with ACLAM expression loss had a significantly poorer overall (p<0.0001) and disease-specific survival (p=0.0088). This association also held true in the subset of nodal positive cancers (p<0.0001). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that ALCAM is generally expressed in normal and cancerous breast epithelium and that a marked reduction of ALCAM expression characterizes a subset of breast cancer patients with adverse tumor characteristics and unfavorable clinical outcome.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Oncology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is expressed in a number of malignancies (e.g. prostate, breast, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, lung and head and neck tumors). Based on studies in which ALCAM showed prognostic relevance in several carcinomas, it has been discussed as a potential therapeutic target. We evaluate its expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). A tissue microarray was constructed from more than 400 HNSCCs. Slides were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for ALCAM. Membranous and cytoplasmic ALCAM positivity were rated separately. The tumors were combined into a) cases with membranous staining and b) cases with cytoplasmic staining, independently from membranous/cytoplasmic co-expression. We found staining in 70.3% of interpretable HNSCCs. Pure membranous staining was found in 12.4% of tumors, with cytoplasmic positivity in 40.1% of cases, and membranous/cytoplasmic co-expression in 17.9%. No significant association between ALCAM positivity and clinical parameters was found. No significant association between ALCAM expression and survival data was observed for all tumors. The frequent expression of ALCAM (70.3%) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas does not support an important role for HNSCC biology. The increased levels ol ALCAM suggest the existence of a therapeutic window for potential anti-ALCAM therapies.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Pathology - Research and Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a multitude of p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies, data on the combined effect of nuclear p53 protein accumulation and TP53 genomic inactivation are lacking for prostate cancer. A tissue microarray (TMA) including 11,152 prostate cancer samples was analyzed by p53 IHC and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Nuclear p53 accumulation was found in 10.1% of patients including 1.4% with high-level and 8.7% with low-level immunostaining. TP53 sequencing revealed that 17 of 22 (77%) cases with high-level p53 immunostaining, but only 3% (1 of 31) low-level p53 cases carried putative dominant-negative mutations. TP53 deletions occurred in 14.8% of cancers. Both deletions and protein accumulation were linked to unfavorable tumor phenotype and prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence (p<0.0001 each). The combination of both methods revealed subgroups with remarkable differences in their clinical course. Tumors with either TP53 deletion (14%) or low-level p53 positivity (8.7%) had identical risks of PSA recurrence, which were markedly higher than in cancers without p53 alterations (p<0.0001). Tumors with both p53 deletion and low-level p53 positivity (1.5%) had a worse prognosis than patients with only one of these alterations (p<0.0001). Tumors with strong p53 immunostaining or homozygous inactivation through deletion of one allele and disrupting translocation involving the second allele had the worst outcome, independent from clinical and pathological parameters. These data demonstrate a differential clinical impact of various TP53 alterations in prostate cancer. Strong p53 immunostaining - most likely accompanying dominant negative or oncogenic p53 mutation - has independent prognostic relevance and may thus represent a clinical useful molecular feature of prostate cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS1) gene was suggested as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. This study was undertaken to determine, whether NBS1 expression is linked to clinically or molecularly relevant subgroups of prostate cancer. NBS1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancer specimens. NBS1 expression was absent or only weakly detectable in benign prostate. In prostate cancers, NBS1 expression was found in 81.3% of interpretable tumors and was considered strong in 41.3% of cases. NBS1 upregulation was tightly linked to ERG positive cancers (p<0.0001). Within ERG negative cancers, strong NBS1 immunostaining was linked to advanced pathological tumor stage, high Gleason grade, and positive nodal status (p<0.0001 each), while high NBS1 immunostaining was only weakly associated with advanced pathological tumor stage in ERG positive cancers (p=0.0099). A comparison with chromosomal deletions revealed a strong NBS1 upregulation in PTEN-deleted cancers, while deletions of 3p13, 5q21 and 6q15 did not affect NBS1 expression. High NBS1 expression was linked to biochemical recurrence in ERG negative and PTEN non-deleted cancers (p<0.0001), which was largely driven by high KPNA2 karyopherin alpha 2 expression. In conclusion, our study identifies an association of NBS1 expression with surrogates of genomic instability in prostate cancer including TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements and PTEN deletion. The prognostic impact of NBS1 expression in ERG negative, PTEN non-deleted cancers was dependent of the expression status of its interaction partner KPNA2. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Cancer

Publication Stats

607 Citations
250.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2015
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Gynecology
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2013
    • Max Planck Research Department for Structural Dynamics
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany