Maximilian Muenke

National Human Genome Research Institute, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (267)1662.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Muenke syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by coronal suture craniosynostosis, hearing loss, developmental delay, carpal, and calcaneal fusions, and behavioral differences. Reduced penetrance and variable expressivity contribute to the wide spectrum of clinical findings. Muenke syndrome constitutes the most common syndromic form of craniosynostosis, with an incidence of 1 in 30,000 births and is defined by the presence of the p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3. Participants were recruited from international craniofacial surgery and genetic clinics. Affected individuals, parents, and their siblings, if available, were enrolled in the study if they had a p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3. One hundred and six patients from 71 families participated in this study. In 51 informative probands, 33 cases (64.7%) were inherited. Eighty-five percent of the participants had craniosynostosis (16 of 103 did not have craniosynostosis), with 47.5% having bilateral and 28.2% with unilateral synostosis. Females and males were similarly affected with bicoronal craniosynostosis, 50% versus 44.4% (P = 0.84), respectively. Clefting was rare (1.1%). Hearing loss was identified in 70.8%, developmental delay in 66.3%, intellectual disability in 35.6%, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 23.7%, and seizures in 20.2%. In patients with complete skeletal surveys (upper and lower extremity x-rays), 75% of individuals were found to have at least a single abnormal radiographical finding in addition to skull findings. This is the largest study of the natural history of Muenke syndrome, adding valuable clinical information to the care of these individuals including behavioral and cognitive impairment data, vision changes, and hearing loss. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurodevelopmental disorder with serious long-term repercussions. Despite being one of the most common cognitive disorders, the clinical diagnosis of ADHD is based on subjective assessments of perceived behaviors. Endophenotypes (neurobiological markers that cosegregate and are associated with an illness) are thought to provide a more powerful and objective framework for revealing the underlying neurobiology than syndromic psychiatric classification. Here, we present the results of applying genetic linkage and association analyses to neuropsychological endophenotypes using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found several new genetic regions linked and/or associated with these endophenotypes, and others previously associated to ADHD, for example, loci harbored in the LPHN3, FGF1, POLR2A, CHRNA4 and ANKFY1 genes. These findings, when compared with those linked and/or associated to ADHD, suggest that these endophenotypes lie on shared pathways. The genetic information provided by this study offers a novel and complementary method of assessing the genetic causes underpinning the susceptibility to behavioral conditions and may offer new insights on the neurobiology of the disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes coding for components of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Features include short stature, characteristic facies, congenital heart anomalies, and developmental delay. While there is considerable clinical heterogeneity in NS, craniosynostosis is not a common feature of the condition. Here, we report on a 2 month-old girl with Noonan syndrome associated with a de novo mutation in KRAS (p.P34Q) and premature closure of the sagittal suture. We provide a review of the literature of germline KRAS mutations and find that approximately 10% of published cases have craniosynostosis. Our findings expand on the NS phenotype and suggest that germline mutations in the KRAS gene are causally involved in craniosynostosis, supporting the role of the RAS-MAPK pathway as a mediator of aberrant bone growth in cranial sutures. The inclusion of craniosynostosis as a possible phenotype in KRAS-associated Noonan Syndrome has implications in the differential diagnosis and surgical management of individuals with craniosynostosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate executive function and adaptive behavior in individuals with Muenke syndrome using validated instruments with a normative population and unaffected siblings as controls. Participants in this cross-sectional study included individuals with Muenke syndrome (P250R mutation in FGFR3) and their mutation-negative siblings. Participants completed validated assessments of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF]) and adaptive behavior skills (Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition [ABAS-II]). Forty-four with a positive FGFR3 mutation, median age 9 years, range 7 months to 52 years were enrolled. In addition, 10 unaffected siblings served as controls (5 males, 5 females; median age, 13 years; range, 3-18 years). For the General Executive Composite scale of the BRIEF, 32.1% of the cohort had scores greater than +1.5 SD, signifying potential clinical significance. For the General Adaptive Composite of the ABAS-II, 28.2% of affected individuals scored in the 3rd-8th percentile of the normative population, and 56.4% were below the average category (<25th percentile). Multiple regression analysis did not identify craniosynostosis as a predictor of BRIEF (P = .70) or ABAS-II scores (P = .70). In the sibling pair analysis, affected siblings performed significantly poorer on the BRIEF General Executive Composite and the ABAS-II General Adaptive Composite. Individuals with Muenke syndrome are at an increased risk for developing adaptive and executive function behavioral changes compared with a normative population and unaffected siblings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Limb body wall complex (LBWC) and amniotic band sequence (ABS) are multiple congenital anomaly conditions with craniofacial, limb, and ventral wall defects. LBWC and ABS are considered separate entities by some, and a continuum of severity of the same condition by others. The etiology of LBWC/ABS remains unknown and multiple hypotheses have been proposed. One individual with features of LBWC and his unaffected parents were whole exome sequenced and Sanger sequenced as confirmation of the mutation. Functional studies were conducted using morpholino knockdown studies followed by human mRNA rescue experiments. Using whole exome sequencing, a de novo heterozygous mutation was found in the gene IQCK: c.667C>G; p.Q223E and confirmed by Sanger sequencing in an individual with LBWC. Morpholino knockdown of iqck mRNA in the zebrafish showed ventral defects including failure of ventral fin to develop and cardiac edema. Human wild-type IQCK mRNA rescued the zebrafish phenotype, whereas human p.Q223E IQCK mRNA did not, but worsened the phenotype of the morpholino knockdown zebrafish. This study supports a genetic etiology for LBWC/ABS, or potentially a new syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Muenke syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by coronal suture craniosynostosis, hearing loss, developmental delay, and carpal and tarsal fusions. Reduced penetrance and variable expressivity contribute to the wide spectrum of clinical findings in Muenke syndrome. Muenke syndrome constitutes the most common syndromic form of craniosynostosis, with an incidence of one in 30 000 births and is defined by the presence of the p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of phenotypic overlap with other craniosynostosis syndromes, and diagnosis is always made by molecular testing. Optimal management of patients involves a coordinated, multidisciplinary team familiar with the condition.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Opitz G/BBB syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by variable expression of midline defects including cleft lip and palate, hypertelorism, laryngealtracheoesophageal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and hypospadias. The X-linked form of the condition has been associated with mutations in the MID1 gene on Xp22. The autosomal dominant form has been linked to chromosome 22q11.2, although the causative gene has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing on DNA samples from a three-generation family with characteristics of Opitz G/BBB syndrome with negative MID1 sequencing. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation c.1189A>C (p.Thr397Pro) in SPECC1L, located at chromosome 22q11.23. Mutation screening of an additional 19 patients with features of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome identified a c.3247G>A (p.Gly1083Ser) mutation segregating with the phenotype in another three-generation family. Previously, SPECC1L was shown to be required for proper facial morphogenesis with disruptions identified in two patients with oblique facial clefts. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SPECC1L mutations can cause syndromic forms of facial clefting including some cases of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome and support the original linkage to chromosome 22q11.2. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Medical Genetics
  • Nneamaka B. Agochukwu · Benjamin D. Solomon · Maximilian Muenke
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This review addresses hearing loss as it occurs and has been reported in Muenke syndrome as well as six additional FGFR related craniosynostosis syndromes (Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans, and Jackson-Weiss syndrome. Data Sources Pub-Med, Medline, Cochrane Database, Science Direct, NLM Catalog Review Methods A Medline search was conducted to find all reported cases of the 7 FGFR related syndromic craniosynostosis. Special attention was paid to literature that reported hearing findings and the audiology literature. Results Hearing loss occurs in variable percentage as a component part of all FGFR related craniosynostosis syndromes. Our literature review revealed the following incidences of hearing loss in FGFR craniosynostoses: 61% in Muenke syndrome, 80% in Apert Syndrome, 92% in Pfeiffer syndrome, 74% in Crouzon syndrome, 68% in Jackson Weiss syndrome, 4% in Beare Stevenson syndrome and 14% in Crouzon syndrome with Acanthosis Nigricans. The majority of the hearing loss is a conductive hearing loss, with the exception of Muenke syndrome where the majority of patients have a sensorineural hearing loss and Crouzon syndrome where almost half of patients have a pure or component of sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion This manuscript presents a diagnostic and management algorithm for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. It will aid clinicians in treating these patients and further, the recognition of a possible syndrome in patients with hearing loss who also have syndromic features.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in GLI2 have been associated with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a neuroanatomic anomaly resulting from incomplete cleavage of the developing forebrain, and an HPE-like phenotype involving pituitary anomalies and polydactyly. To characterise the genotypic and phenotypic findings in individuals with GLI2 variants and clarify clinical findings in individuals with loss-of-function mutations. Through the National Institutes of Health and collaborating centres, ∼400 individuals with HPE spectrum disorders, endocrine disorders or craniofacial anomalies were screened for GLI2 mutations. Results were combined with all published cases. We compared the clinical and molecular features of individuals with truncating mutations to individuals with variants of unknown significance (defined as not resulting in protein truncation, reported in normal controls and/or deemed unlikely to be pathogenic by functional prediction software). 112 individuals with variants in GLI2 were identified, with 43 having truncating mutations. Individuals with truncating mutations were more likely to have both pituitary anomalies and polydactyly versus those with variants of unknown significance (p<0.0001 by Fisher's exact test); only 1 of 43 had frank HPE. These individuals were more likely to have recognised penetrance (polydactyly or pituitary anomalies or both) than those without truncating mutations (p=0.0036 by Fisher's exact test). A common facial phenotype was seen in individuals (with midface hypoplasia, cleft lip/palate and hypotelorism) with truncating mutations. Individuals with truncating mutations in GLI2 typically present with pituitary anomalies, polydactyly and subtle facial features rather than HPE. This will be helpful in screening populations for GLI2 mutations and for counselling affected patients. 98-HG-0249/04-HG-0093.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the brain, results from failed or incomplete separation of the embryonic forebrain (prosencephalon). HPE occurs in approximately 1 in 250 embryos and in about 1 in 10,000 births. It is etiologically heterogeneous, and may be caused by cytogenetic anomalies and teratogenic influences; it occurs as part of a syndrome, or due to heterozygous mutations in 1 of over 10 HPE-associated genes. ZIC2 mutations are the second-most common cause of non-syndromic non-chromosomal HPE (after sonic hedgehog) and occur de novo in 74% of the affected probands. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the first case of ZIC2-related HPE with both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiencies. Case presentation: We report about a 2-year-8-month-old boy who was born as a second child in a non-consanguineous healthy Turkish family. He has the characteristic ZIC2 phenotype: bitemporal narrowing, upslanting palpebral fissures, large ears, short nose with anteverted nares and broad and deep philtrum. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed alobar HPE. During laboratory investigation, his blood sodium level was 158 mmol/L and the specific gravity of his urine was 1.002. Serum osmolarity was 336 mOsm/L and urine osmolality was 135 mOsm/kg. His FT4 was 0.8 ng/dL and TSH was 0.79 mLU/mL. Response to vasopressin confirmed the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus and TRH-stimulating test supported the central hypothyroidism. A frameshift mutation (NM_007129.2:c1091_1092 del, p.Gln364Leufs*2) in the ZIC2 gene was detected. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency other than isolated diabetes insipidus is a rare finding of HPE, and occurs most frequently in patients with GLI2 mutations (the phenotype of which typically does not include frank neuroanatomic anomalies such as HPE); ours is the only described patient with a ZIC2 mutation and both anterior and posterior pituitary dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014
  • Nneamaka B Agochukwu · Benjamin D Solomon · Maximilian Muenke
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: There are a number of craniosynostosis syndromes with hearing loss-including Muenke, Apert, Pfeiffer, Crouzon, Beare-Stevenson, Crouzon with acanthosis nigricans, and Jackson-Weiss syndromes-that result from mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes. Studies of FGFRs and their ligands, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), have revealed clues to the precise contribution of aberrant FGFR signaling to inner ear morphogenesis and the hearing loss encountered in craniosynostoses. The purpose of this article is to review basic studies of FGFRs with emphasis on their function and expression in the inner ear and surrounding structures. Method: A Medline search was performed to find basic science articles regarding FGFR, their ligands, and their expression and relevant mouse models. Additional items searched included clinical descriptions and studies of individuals with FGFR-related craniosynostosis syndromes. Results: The FGF signaling pathway is essential for the morphogensis and proper function of the inner ear and auditory sensory epithelium. Conclusion: The variable auditory phenotypes seen in individuals with Muenke syndrome may have a genetic basis, likely due to multiple interacting factors in the genetic environment or modifying factors. Further analysis and studies of mouse models of Muenke syndrome, in particular, may provide clues to the specific effects of the defining mutation in FGFR3 in the inner ear not only at birth but also into adulthood. In particular, investigations into these models may give insight into the variable expression and incomplete penetrance of this phenotype.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · American Journal of Audiology
  • Vikas Bhambhani · Maximilian Muenke
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    ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high incidence of congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, short stature, feeding difficulties, sternal deformity, renal malformation, pubertal delay, cryptorchidism, developmental or behavioral problems, vision problems, hearing loss, and lymphedema. Familial recurrence is consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, but most cases are due to de novo mutations. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical features, but may be missed in mildly affected patients. Molecular genetic testing can confirm diagnosis in 70% of cases and has important implications for genetic counseling and management. Most patients with Noonan syndrome are intellectually normal as adults, but some may require multidisciplinary evaluation and regular follow-up care. Age-based Noonan syndrome-specific growth charts and treatment guidelines are available.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · American family physician
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    ABSTRACT: Muenke syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndrome resulting from a defining point mutation in the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor3 (FGFR3) gene. Muenke syndrome is characterized by coronal craniosynostosis (bilateral more often than unilateral), hearing loss, developmental delay, and carpal and/or tarsal bone coalition. Tarsal coalition is a distinct feature of Muenke syndrome and has been reported since the initial description of the disorder in the 1990s. Although talocalcaneal coalition is the most common tarsal coalition in the general population, it has never previously been reported in a patient with Muenke syndrome. We present a 7-year-old female patient with Muenke syndrome and symptomatic talocalcaneal coalition. She presented at the age of 7 with limping, tenderness and pain in her right foot following a fall and strain of her right foot. She was treated with ibuprofen, shoe inserts, a CAM walker boot, and stretching exercises without much improvement in symptoms. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral talocalcaneal coalitions involving the middle facet. She underwent resection of the talocalcaneal coalitions, remaining pain-free post-operatively with an improvement in her range of motion, gait, and mobility. This report expands the phenotype of tarsal coalition in Muenke syndrome to include talocalcaneal coalition. A literature review revealed a high incidence of tarsal coalition in all FGFR related craniosynostosis syndromes when compared to the general population, a difference that is statistically significant. The most common articulation involved in all syndromic craniosynostoses associated with FGFR mutations is the calcaneocuboid articulation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: Current research strategies have made great efforts to further elucidate the complex genetic architecture of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the impact of an LPHN3 haplotype that has recently been associated with ADHD (Arcos-Burgos et al., 2010) on neural activity in a visual Go-NoGo task. Two hundred sixteen adult ADHD patients completed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) while the ongoing EEG was simultaneously recorded. Results showed that patients carrying two copies of the LPHN3 risk haplotype (n=114) made more omission errors and had a more anterior Go-centroid of the P300 than patients carrying at least one LPHN3 non-risk haplotype (n=102). Accordingly, the NoGo-Anteriorization (NGA; topographical ERP difference of the Go- and NoGo-condition), a neurophysiological marker of prefrontal functioning, was reduced in the LPHN3 high risk group. However, in the NoGo-condition itself no marked differences attributable to the LPHN3 haplotype could be found. Our findings indicate that, within a sample of ADHD patients, the LPHN3 gene impacts behavioral and neurophysiological measures of cognitive response control. The results of our study further strengthen the concept of an LPHN3 risk haplotype for ADHD and support the usefulness of the endophenotype approach in psychiatric and psychological research.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Difficulties in neurocognition and social interaction are the most prominent causes of morbidity and long-term disability in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Symptoms of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been extensively recognized in NF1. However, systematic evaluation of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with NF1 has been limited. Method: We present a retrospective, cross-sectional study of the prevalence of symptoms of ASD and ADHD and their relationship in a consecutive series of 66 patients from our NF1 clinic. The Social Responsiveness Scale and the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale were used to assess symptoms of ASD and ADHD. Results: Sixty-six participants (42 males, 24 females) were included in this study. Mean age at assessment was 10 years 11 months (SD 5 y 4 mo). Forty percent of our NF1 sample had raised symptom levels reaching clinical significance on the Social Responsiveness Scale (T ≥ 60), and 14% reached levels consistent with those seen in children with ASDs (T ≥ 75). These raised levels were not explained by NF1 disease severity or externalizing/internalizing behavioral disorders. There was a statistically significant relationship between symptoms of ADHD and ASD (χ(2) =9.11, df=1, p=0.003, φ=0.56). Particularly salient were the relationships between attention and hyperactivity deficits, with impairments in social awareness and social motivation. Interpretation: We found that symptoms of ASD in our NF1 population were raised, consistent with previous reports. Further characterization of the specific ASD symptoms and their impact on daily function is fundamental to the development and implementation of effective interventions in this population, which will probably include a combination of medical and behavioral approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy, a neurologic disorder characterized by the predisposition to recurrent unprovoked seizures, is reported in more than 300 genetic syndromes. Muenke syndrome is an autosomal-dominant craniosynostosis syndrome characterized by unilateral or bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, hearing loss, intellectual disability, and relatively subtle limb findings such as carpal bone fusion and tarsal bone fusion. Muenke syndrome is caused by a single defining point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Epilepsy rarely occurs in individuals with Muenke syndrome, and little detail is reported on types of epilepsy, patient characteristics, and long-term outcomes. We present seven patients with Muenke syndrome and seizures. A review of 789 published cases of Muenke syndrome, with a focus on epilepsy and intracranial anomalies in Muenke syndrome, revealed epilepsy in six patients, with intracranial anomalies in five. The occurrence of epilepsy in Muenke syndrome within our cohort of 58 patients, of whom seven manifested epilepsy, and the intracranial anomalies and epilepsy reported in the literature, suggest that patients with Muenke syndrome may be at risk for epilepsy and intracranial anomalies. Furthermore, the impact of Muenke syndrome on the central nervous system may be greater than previously thought.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Pediatric Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Holoprosencephaly is the most frequent congenital malformation of the forebrain in humans. It is anatomically classified by the relative degree of abnormal formation and separation of the developing central nervous system. Mutations of ZIC2 are the second most common heterozygous variations detected in holoprosencephaly (HPE) patients. Mutations in most known HPE genes typically result in variable phenotypes that rage from classic alobar HPE to microforms represented by hypotelorism, solitary central maxillary incisor (SCMI), and cleft lip/palate, among others. Patients with HPE owing to ZIC2 mutations have recently been described by a distinct phenotype compared with mutations in other HPE causative genes. We report the comparison of ZIC2 molecular findings by Sanger bidirectional DNA sequencing and ad hoc genotyping in a cohort of 105 Brazilian patients within the clinical spectrum of HPE, including classic and microform groups. We detected a total of five variants in the ZIC2 gene: a common histidine tract expansion c.716_718dup (p.His239dup), a rare c.1377_1391del_homozygous (p.Ala466_470del, or Ala 15 to 10 contraction), a novel intronic c.1239+18G>A variant, a novel frameshift c.1215dupC (p.Ser406Glnfs*11), and a c.1401_1406dup (p.Ala469_470dup, or alanine tract expansion to 17 residues). From these patients, only the latter two mutations found in classic HPE are likely to be medically significant. In contrast, variants detected in the microform group are not likely to be pathogenic. We show conclusively that the histidine tract expansion is a polymorphic alteration that demonstrates considerable differences in allele frequencies across different ethnic groups. Therefore, careful population studies of rare variants can improve genotype-phenotype correlations. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2012.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology
  • Benjamin D Solomon · Maximilian Muenke
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    ABSTRACT: Family physicians should be able to recognize findings on physical examination and history that suggest the presence of a genetic syndrome to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of potentially affected patients, as well as subspecialty referral. General themes that can alert family physicians to the presence of genetic conditions include dysmorphic features that are evident on physical examination; multiple anomalies in one patient; unexplained neurocognitive impairment; and a family history that is suggestive of a hereditary disease. The presence of one obvious malformation should not limit the full evaluation, because additional, subtler findings will often be important in the differential diagnosis. Taking an accurate three-generation family history is invaluable when considering a genetic syndrome. Important elements include the age and sex of family members; when family members were affected by disease or when they died; the ethnic background; and if there is consanguinity. Genetic subspecialists can assist family physicians in diagnosis, suggest additional testing and referrals if warranted, help direct medical care, and provide counseling for affected patients and their families.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · American family physician
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    ABSTRACT: Holoprosencephaly is the most common malformation of the forebrain and typically results in severe neurocognitive impairment with accompanying midline facial anomalies. Holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous and may be caused by chromosome aberrations or environmental factors, occur in the context of a syndrome or be due to heterozygous mutations in over 10 identified genes. The presence of these mutations may result in an extremely wide spectrum of severity, ranging from brain malformations incompatible with life to individuals with normal brain findings and subtle midline facial differences. Typically, clinicians regard intellectual disability as a sign that a parent or relative of a severely affected patient may be a mildly affected mutation 'carrier' with what is termed microform holoprosencephaly. Here we present 5 patients with clear phenotypic signs of microform holoprosencephaly, all of whom have evidence of above-average intellectual function. In 4 of these 5 individuals, the molecular cause of holoprosencephaly has been identified and includes mutations affecting SHH, SIX3, GLI2, and FGF8. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum of holoprosencephaly and is important in the counseling of patient and affected families.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Molecular syndromology

Publication Stats

14k Citations
1,662.01 Total Impact Points


  • 1998-2015
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Australian National University
      • Translational Medicine Department
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    • American College of Medical Genetics
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2000-2010
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Medical Genetics
      Maryland, United States
  • 1988-2006
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Division of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1996
    • Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
      • Institute of Medical Genetics
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • SickKids
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1995
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Pediatrics
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 1988-1994
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1993
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Loyola University Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1990
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ашбърн, Virginia, United States
  • 1986
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1985
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States