[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fascioliasis is an important disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The distributions of both species overlap in many areas of Asia and Africa including Egypt. Fifty adult Fasciola worms were collected from livers of cattle and sheep slaughtered in abattoirs, Cairo, Egypt. They were subjected to morphological and metric assessment of external features of fresh adults, morphological and metric assessment of internal anatomy of stained mounted worms, determination of electrophorezed bands of crude adult homogenates using SDS-PAGE, and molecular characterization of species-specific DNA segments using RFLP-PCR. It was found that the correlation between conventional morphology and its morphotype was statistically significant (P value = 0.00). Using SDS-PAGE, 13 bands were detected among both genotypes of Fasciola (35.7, 33.6, 32.4, 29.3, 27.5, 26, 24.4, 23, 21.45, 19, 16.75, 12.5, and 9.1 kDa).The most prevalent bands were that with a molecular weight of 29.3, 26, and 19 kDa. Bands detected were common for both species, but protein bands could not distinguish between F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The result of PCR for the amplification of the selected 28S rDNA fragment with the designed primer set yielded 618 bp long PCR products for F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Different band patterns generated after digestion of the 618 bp segment by the enzyme AvaII obtained with F. hepatica showed segments of the length 529, 62, 27 bp, while with F. gigantica 322, 269, 27 bp bands were obtained. Genotyping revealed no equivocal results. The conventional morphological parameters for species determination of Fasciola spp. endemic in Egypt were evaluated versus protein bands characterization and genotyping. It was concluded that conventional morphological and metric assessments were not useful for differentiation between F. gigantica and F. hepatica due to extensive overlap in the relative ranges. Similar conclusion was reached concerning protein band characterization where the patterns of protein banding were mostly similar. In contrast, genotyping using RFLP-PCR gave consistent results and clear differentiation between the two species. Considering the implications of proper speciation of endemic parasites on clinical evaluation, therapy, epidemiology, and control measures, speciation of parasites is currently revised on molecular basis. The presently used molecular tool is therefore recommended for further study to help draw a proper map for geographical distribution of Fasciola species.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal infection of wide distribution that is more prevalent in childhood. Easy and rapid diagnosis of giardiasis is essential for reduction of this infection. This cross-sectional study included 62 children in which collection of saliva, stool and serum samples was performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was evaluated to detect IgA and IgG responses in both saliva and serum samples. Twenty-two children were positive for Giardia duodenalis infection by direct examination of faecal specimens, 20 non-infected and 20 infected with other parasites. Salivary and serum IgA and IgG responses against G. duodenalis infection were significantly higher in Giardia parasitized than non-Giardia parasitized children (p < 0.001). This concludes that specific salivary IgA may serve as a diagnostic tool and specific salivary IgG as a screening tool in monitoring the exposure of various populations to Giardia duodenalis. The advantage of salivary assays over serum immunoglobulin assay is being easy and non-invasive in sampling technique which is important especially for young children.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophils participate in the complex regulatory system that mediates inflammatory responses and parasitic infections. when activated eosinophils degranulate, they release Four highly basic proteins which include Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a major constitutent of secondary eosinophilic granules . In this study, the ECP levels were measured in both serum and urine of patients with lymphatic filariasis (LF) with different presentations and compared to their levels in normal individuals living in endemic areas (endemic normals), asthmatic patients as an example of allergic condition and normal individuals living in non-endemic areas (non-endemic controls). Serum ECP was found to be significantly elevated in all filarial cases with marked elevation in acute cases reflecting the ongoing pathological process. The asthmatic patients and to a lesser extent the endemic normals showed an elevated mean serum ECP. In addition, urinary levels of ECP were significantly elevated in the chyluria cases reflecting the pathological condition affecting the urinary tract. In conclusion: Measurement of serum and urine ECP can help in the diagnosis of infection with Wuchereria bancrofti and can also be used in the follow-up of pathological changes in lymphatic filariasis as its levels reflect the hidden tissue eosinophilic inflammatory reaction associated with this disease. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):515-523]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).