[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure in mice. The discovery of irisin raised expectations of its therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases. However, the effect of irisin in humans is unclear. Analyses of genomic DNA, mRNA and expressed sequence tags revealed that FNDC5, the gene encoding the precursor of irisin, is present in rodents and most primates, but shows in humans a mutation in the conserved start codon ATG to ATA. HEK293 cells transfected with a human FNDC5 construct with ATA as start codon resulted in only 1% full-length protein compared to human FNDC5 with ATG. Additionally, in vitro contraction of primary human myotubes by electrical pulse stimulation induced a significant increase in PGC1α mRNA expression. However, FNDC5 mRNA level was not altered. FNDC5 mRNA expression in muscle biopsies from two different human exercise studies was not changed by endurance or strength training. Preadipocytes isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited differentiation to brite human adipocytes when incubated with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7, but neither recombinant FNDC5 nor irisin were effective. In conclusion, our findings suggest that it is rather unlikely that the beneficial effect of irisin observed in mice can be translated to humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent secretome analyses suggest that human fat cells secrete hundreds of proteins (adipokines).
We made an overall analysis of their potential functional importance.
A secretome of 347 adipokines was evaluated by in silico analysis of their expression during adipocyte differentiation, regulation by obesity and adipose region. The gene expression in human adipose tissue was investigated in microarray studies using samples from different adipose depots from lean or obese patients.
60% of the adipokines were regulated by obesity and 50% between visceral and subcutaneous adipose region. Eight adipokines, all novel, scored particularly high in the in silico analysis. Among those, four were both regulated by obesity and adipose region, namely WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2, transmembrane glycoprotein NMB, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H5, and complement C4-A. Furthermore, many adipokines were extracellular matrix proteins.
Several novel adipokines have potential important functional features warranting in depth analysis.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry