Anthony Smith

The Scripps Research Institute, لا هویا, California, United States

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Publications (3)8.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The galanin 3 receptor (GalR3) belongs to the large G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family of proteins. GalR3 and two other closely related receptors, GalR1 and GalR2, together with their endogenous ligand galanin, are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. GalR3 in particular has been strongly implicated in addiction and mood-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. It has been the target of many drug discovery programs within the pharmaceutical industry, but despite the significant resources and effort devoted to discovery of galanin receptor subtype selective small molecule modulators, there have been very few reports for the discovery of such molecules. GalR3 has proven difficult to enable in cell-based functional assays due to its apparent poor cell surface expression in recombinant systems. Here, we describe the generation of a modified GalR3 that facilitates its cell surface expression while maintaining wild-type receptor pharmacology. The modified GalR3 has been used to develop a high-throughput screening-compatible, cell-based, cAMP biosensor assay to detect selective small molecule modulators of GalR3. The performance of the assay has been validated by challenging it against a test library of small molecules with known pharmacological activities (Sigma-LOPAC). This approach will enable identification of GalR3 selective modulators (chemical probes) that will facilitate dissection of the biological role(s) that GalR3 plays in normal physiological processes as well as in disease states.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Assay and Drug Development Technologies
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    ABSTRACT: A series of orexin receptor antagonists was synthesized based on a substituted piperidine scaffold. Through traditional medicinal chemistry structure-activity relationships (SAR), installation of various groups at the 3-6-positions of the piperidine led to modest enhancement in receptor selectivity. Compounds were profiled in vivo for plasma and brain levels in order to identify candidates suitable for efficacy in a model of drug addiction.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
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    ABSTRACT: Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-inducible protein, is an important cytoprotective agent against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of downstream mediators involved in HO-1-induced cytoprotection is not clear. In the current study we investigated the role of biliverdin reductase, an enzyme involved in the conversion of HO-1-derived biliverdin into bilirubin and the PI3K/Akt pathway in mediating the cytoprotective effects of HO-1 against hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) injury in vitro and in vivo. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were transfected with a plasmid expressing HO-1 or LacZ and exposed to 24 h of hypoxia followed by 12 h of reoxygenation. At the end of reoxygenation, reactive oxygen species generation was determined using CM-H(2)DCFDA dye and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL, caspase activity and Bad phosphorylation. p85 and Akt phosphorylation were determined using cell-based ELISA and phospho-specific antibodies, respectively. HO-1 overexpression increased phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of the PI3K (p85alpha) and downstream effector Akt in H9c2 cells, leading to decreased ROS and apoptosis. Furthermore, cardiac expression of HO-1 increased basal phosphorylated Akt levels and decreased infarct size in response to LAD ligation and release induced I/R injury. Conversely, PI3K inhibition reversed the effects of HO-1 on Akt phosphorylation, cell death and infarct size. In addition, knockdown of biliverdin reductase (BVR) expression with siRNA attenuated HO-1-induced Akt phosphorylation and increased H/R-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed protein-protein interaction between BVR and the phosphorylated p85 subunit of the PI3 kinase. Taken together, these results suggest that the enzyme biliverdin reductase plays an important role in mediating cytoprotective effects of HO-1. This effect is mediated, at least in part, via interaction with and activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology