[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The involvement of platelets in tumor progression is well recognized. The depletion of circulating platelets or pharmacologic inhibitors of platelet activation decreases the metastatic potential of circulating tumor cells in metastasis mouse models. The platelet ADP receptor P2Y12 amplifies the initial hemostatic responses activated by a variety of platelet agonists and stabilizes platelet aggregation, playing a crucial role in granule secretion, integrin activation and thrombus formation. However, the relationship between P2Y12 and tumor progression is not clear. In our study, the Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) spontaneous metastatic mouse model was used to evaluate the role of P2Y12 in metastasis. The results demonstrated that P2Y12 deficiency significantly reduced pulmonary metastasis. Further studies indicated that P2Y12 deficiency diminished the ability of LLC cells to induce platelet shape change and release of active TGFβ1 by a non-contact dependent mechanism resulting in a diminished, platelet-induced EMT-like transformation of the LLC cells, and that transformation probably is a prerequisite of LLC cell metastasis. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated an obvious P2Y12 deficiency related attenuation of recruitment of VEGFR1+ bone marrow derived cell clusters, and extracellular matrix fibronectin deposition in lungs, which presumably are required for pre-metastatic niche formation. In contrast to the LLC cells, non-epithelial melanoma B16 cells induced platelet aggregation in a cell number and P2Y12-dependent manner. Also, a platelet induced EMT-like transformation of B16 cells is dependent on P2Y12. In agreement with the LLC cell model, platelet P2Y12 deficiency also results in significantly less lung metastasis in the B16 melanoma experimental metastasis model. These results demonstrate that P2Y12 is a safe drug target for anti-thrombotic therapy, and that P2Y12 may serve as a new target for inhibition of tumor metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of PDK1, a master kinase in PI3K/Akt pathway, on platelet activation are unknown. Accordingly, platelet-specific PDK1 deficient mice were characterized to elucidate the platelet-related function(s) of PDK1. We found that PDK1 deficiency caused a mild thrombocytopenia. Also, the aggregation of PDK1(-/-) platelets was diminished in response to low levels of thrombin, U46619 and ADP, respectively. Further results demonstrated that PDK1 regulates thrombin-induced platelet activation by affecting αIIbβ3-mediated outside-in signaling. This result provided an explanation for the diminished spreading of PDK1(-/-) platelets on immobilized fibrinogen (Fg) and the decreased rate of clot retraction in platelet rich plasma containing PDK1(-/-) platelets. PDK1 deficiency diminished agonist-induced Akt Ser473 phosphorylation, and thoroughly abolished Akt Thr308 and Gsk3β Ser9 phosphorylation in response to agonist treatment, and platelet spreading, respectively. A Gsk3β inhibitor fully restored the aggregation of PDK1(-/-) platelets in response to low levels of thrombin, the normal spreading of PDK1(-/-) platelets on Fg, and normal clot retraction in PRP containing PDK1(-/-) platelets. Those results indicated that Gsk3β is one of major downstream effectors of PDK1 in thrombin-induced platelet activation and αIIbβ3-mediated outside-in signaling. In addition, the in vivo data demonstrated that PDK1 is an important regulator in arterial thrombosis formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrin αIIbβ3 mediated bidirectional signaling plays a critical role in thrombosis and haemostasis. Signaling mediated by the β3 subunit has been extensively studied, but αIIb mediated signaling has not been characterized. Previously, we reported that platelet granule secretion and TxA2 production induced by αIIb mediated outside-in signaling is negatively regulated by the β3 cytoplasmic domain residues R(724)KEFAKFEEER(734). In this study, we identified part of the signaling pathway utilized by αIIb mediated outside-in signaling. Platelets from humans and gene deficient mice, and genetically modified CHO cells as well as a variety of kinase inhibitors were used for this work. We found that aggregation of TxA2 production and granule secretion by β3Δ724 human platelets initiated by αIIb mediated outside-in signaling was inhibited by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, respectively, but not by the MAPK inhibitor U0126. Also, PP2 and wortmannin, and the palmitoylated β3 peptide R(724)KEFAKFEEER(734), each inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt residue Ser473 and prevented TxA2 production and storage granule secretion. Similarly, Akt phosphorylation in mouse platelets stimulated by the PAR4 agonist peptide AYPGKF was αIIbβ3-dependent, and blocked by PP2, wortmannin and the palmitoylated peptide p-RKEFAKFEEER. Akt was also phosphorylated in response to mAb D3 plus Fg treatment of CHO cells in suspension expressing αIIbβ3-Δ724 or αIIbβ3E(724)AERKFERKFE(734), but not in cells expressing wild type αIIbβ3. In summary, SFK(s) and PI3K/Akt signaling is utilized by αIIb-mediated outside-in signaling to activate platelets even in the absence of all but 8 membrane proximal residues of the β3 cytoplasmic domain. Our results provide new insight into the signaling pathway used by αIIb-mediated outside-in signaling in platelets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of purinergic receptor P2Y, G protein-coupled 12 (P2Y12), an ADP receptor, in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.
Apolipoprotein E-null mice were crossed with P2y12(-/-) mice to generate double knockout mice. The double knockout mice and the control apolipoprotein E-null mice were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Assessment of the atherosclerotic lesions in the control and double knockout mice demonstrated that P2Y12 deficiency caused a diminished lesion area, an increased fibrous content at the plaque site, and decreased monocyte/macrophage infiltration of the lesions. Polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that white blood cells do not express significant levels of P2Y12. Bone marrow transplantation experiments confirmed that P2Y12 expressed on platelets is a key factor responsible for atherosclerosis, but do not exclude a role of smooth muscle cell P2Y12. Supernatant fluid from activated P2y12(+/+) but not P2y12(-/-) platelets was capable of causing monocyte migration. In vitro studies showed that platelet P2Y12 deficiency suppressed platelet factor 4 secretion and P-selectin expression. Further work demonstrated that platelet P2Y12, through inhibition of the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway, critically regulates the release of platelet factor 4, and thereby affects monocyte recruitment and infiltration.
These results demonstrate that P2Y12 modulates atherogenesis, at least in part by augmenting inflammatory cell recruitment via regulation of platelet α-granule release.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology