[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure the surface loss of dental restorative zirconia and the short-term bond strength between an indirect composite resin (ICR) and zirconia ceramic after various sandblasting processes.
Three hundred zirconia bars were randomly divided into 25 groups according to the type of sandblasting performed with pressures of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa, sandblasting times of 7, 14 and 21 seconds, and alumina powder sizes of 50 and 110 µm. The control group did not receive sandblasting. The volume loss and height loss on zirconia surface after sandblasting and the shear bond strength (SBS) between the sandblasted zirconia and ICR after 24-h immersion were measured for each group using multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Least Significance Difference (LSD) test (α=.05). After sandblasting, the failure modes of the ICR/zirconia surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy.
The volume loss and height loss were increased with higher sandblasting pressure and longer sandblasting treatment, but they decreased with larger powder size. SBS was significantly increased by increasing the sandblasting time from 7 seconds to 14 seconds and from 14 seconds to 21 seconds, as well as increasing the size of alumina powder from 50 µm to 110 µm. SBS was significantly increased from 0.1 MPa to 0.2 MPa according to the size of alumina powder. However, the SBSs were not significantly different with the sandblasting pressure of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa. The possibilities of the combination of both adhesive failure and cohesive failure within the ICR were higher with the increases in bonding strength.
Based on the findings of this study, sandblasting with alumina particles at 0.2 MPa, 21 seconds and the powder size of 110 µm is recommended for dental applications to improve the bonding between zirconia core and ICR.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The journal of advanced prosthodontics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overall enamel is the hard tissue overlying teeth that is vulnerable to caries, congenital defects, and damage due to trauma. Not only is enamel incapable of self-repair in most species, it is also subject to attrition. Besides the use of artificial materials to restore enamel, enamel regeneration is a promising approach to repairing enamel damage. In order to comprehend the progression and challenges in tissue-engineered enamel, this article elaborates alternative stem cells potential for enamel secretion and expounds fined strategies for enamel regeneration in bioengineered teeth. Consequently, more and more cell types have been induced to differentiate into ameloblasts and to secrete enamel, and an increasing number of reports have emerged to provide various potential approaches to induce cells to secrete enamel based on recombination experiments, artificial bioactive nano-materials, or gene manipulation. Accordingly, it is expected to further project more optimal conditions for enamel formation in bioengineering based on a more thorough knowledge of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, by which the procedures of enamel regeneration are able to be practically recapitulated and widely spread for the potential clinical value of enamel repair.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of rest-inserted loading on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes. In the investigation, cultured MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells were strained on cyclic compressive force (CCF) by the self-made compressive loading device. Then we observed the effect of different rest periods-inserted loading (5 s, 15 s, 30 s, respectively) on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes. We then determined the levels of secreted nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by Griess method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. We then stained the cytoskeleton F-actin using immunofluorescence. We found that the expressions of NO and PGE2 in rest-inserted strained groups (> 15 s) were significantly increased compared to those in the continuous strained group. And rest-inserted loading promoted the parallel alignment of stress fibers. It indicates that rest-inserted loading could promote the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes, and this might be related to the parallel alignment of stress fibers.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-6 has a dual role in bone remodeling. The ERK1/2 pathway partially upregulated IL-6 secretion in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells exposed to CCF. We have now investigated the possible role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in the CCF-induced IL-6 expression. MLO-Y4 cells were treated with CCF 2000 µstrain, 2 Hz, or 10, 30min, 1, 3 and 6h. IL-6 expression, Akt and ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation were determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and western blotting. Inihbition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002 or ERK1/2 with PD98059 significantly attenuated IL-6 upregulation, and IL-6 expression was abolished by inhibiting both pathways. Inhibition of one pathway downregulated the other's phosphorylation level. In conclusion, concomitant activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways mediated IL-6 expression in MLO-Y4 cells under CCF.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Cell Biology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of the neuronal control of bone remodeling has become one of the many significant recent advances in bone biology. Cholinergic activity has recently been shown to favor bone mass accrual by complex cellular regulatory networks. Here, we identified the gene expression of the muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (m- and nAChRs) in mice tibia tissue and in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells. Acetylcholine, which is a classical neurotransmitter and an osteo-neuromediator, not only influences the mRNA expression of the AChR subunits but also significantly induces the proliferation and viability of osteocytes. Moreover, acetylcholine treatment caused the reciprocal regulation of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression, which resulted in a signicant increase in the mRNA ratio of RANKL:OPG in osteocytes via acetylcholine receptors. The expression of neuropeptide Y and reelin, which are two neurogenic markers, was also modulated by acetylcholine via m- and nAChRs in MLO-Y4 cells. These results indicated that osteocytic acetylcholine receptors might be a new valuable mediator for cell functions and even for bone remodeling .
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a novel dental composite based on the unsaturated bismethylene spiroorthocarbonate expanding monomer 3,9-dimethylene-1,3,5,7-tetraoxa-spiro[5,5]undecane (BMSOC) and bisphenol-S-bis(3-meth acrylate-2-hydroxypropyl)ether (BisS-GMA) was prepared. CQ (camphorquinone) of 1 wt % and DMAEMA (2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) of 2 wt % were used in a photoinitiation system to initiate the copolymerization of the matrix resins. Distilled water contact angle measurements were performed for the wettability measurement. Degree of conversion, volumetric shrinkage, contraction stress and compressive strength were measured using Fourier Transformation Infrared-FTIR spectroscopy, the AccuVol and a universal testing machine, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the resin composites modified by bismethylene spiroorthocarbonate and BisS-GMA showed a low volumetric shrinkage at 1.25% and a higher contact angle. The lower contraction stress, higher degree of conversion and compressive strength of the novel dental composites were also observed.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a potent stimulator of osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteocyte secretion of IL-6 plays an important role in bone metabolism. Serotonin (5-HT) has recently been reported to regulate bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of serotonin on osteocyte expression of IL-6. The requirement for the 5-HT receptor(s) and the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in serotonin-induced IL-6 synthesis were examined. In this study, real-time PCR and ELISA were used to analyse IL-6 gene and protein expression in serotonin-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells. ERK1/2 pathway activation was determined by western blot. We found that serotonin significantly activated the ERK1/2 pathway and induced IL-6 mRNA expression and protein synthesis in cultured MLO-Y4 cells. However, these effects were abolished by pre-treatment of MLO-Y4 cells with a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist, RS127445 or the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059. Our results indicate that serotonin stimulates osteocyte secretion of IL-6 and that this effect is associated with activation of 5-HT2B receptor and the ERK1/2 pathway. These findings provide support for a role of serotonin in bone metabolism by indicating serotonin regulates bone remodelling by mediating an inflammatory cytokine.
Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The local delivery of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) into the tissues around dental implants may improve their osseointegration. We have designed a new method of attaching BMP-7 to a titanium surface and assessed both the retention of the BMP-7 and its effect on osteoblast differentiation.
Adenoviral vector expressing BMP-7 was attached to dental titanium discs by hexon-specific antibodies in a type I collagen-avidin gel. FITC-labelled secondary antibody was used to measure the continuing adherence of the coating after repeated rinsing. Osteoblasts were harvested and seeded on the titanium discs. Gene transduction efficiency and targeting ability were assessed after 24h. Surface morphology was observed by SEM. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were measured.
The anti-adenohexon antibody adhered strongly to the collagen-avidin gels. BMP-7 gene expression was localized precisely to cells growing on the gels bound by the hexon-specific antibody. Osteoblasts on the titanium containing Ad-BMP-7 had a higher ALP activity than those without Ad-BMP-7.
This study describes a novel technique for the precise attachment of BMP-7 to titanium surfaces. The process may enhance the osseointegration of dental implants.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Archives of oral biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the biomechanical effects of intracellular changes on the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) on trigeminal ganglion neuron (TRGN).
TRGN cells were acutely isolated from the neonatal SD rats. The voltage-dependent currents of the VGSCs on these neurons were elicited and analyzed by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and the intracellular anisotonicity stimuli was established by adjusting the content of pipette solution. The effects of hypo-(260 mOsm) and hypertonic (350 mOsm) osmolarity on the activation and inactivation kinetics of VGSCs on TRGN were evaluated, compared with the normal intracellular environment.
The results demonstrated that intracellular hypotonic stimuli could influence both the activation and inactivation characteristics of VGSCs currents, including the membrane potential at half inactivation (V0.5) of the G-V and inactivation curves had obvious statistics significance (P<0.05) between hypotonicity (260mOsm) and isotonicity (306mOsm). However, only inactivation properties changed under intracellular hypertonic effects, including inactivation rate and k value.
It suggests that the kinetics of VGSCs on TRGN can be modulated both by intracellular hypo- and hypertonic with different characteristics.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteocytes that have a dendritic appearance are widely believed to form a complex cellular network system and play crucial roles in mechanotransduction as a principal bone mechanosensor, which is the basis of their neuronallike biology, as previously reported. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and reelin mRNA, which are brain-specific neurogenic markers, have been identified in osteocytes. However, changes in the production of NPY and reelin in response to specific biochemical stimulation are unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of corticosterone, one of the endogenous glucocorticoids, on the expression of NPY and reelin in the MLO-Y4 osteocyte cell line. Cells were treated with corticosterone at different concentrations (10(-9) M-10(-5) M) for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. As revealed, corticosterone reduced the MLO-Y4 cell viability and proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner based on an MTT assay and a Vi-CELL analyzer. The cells were then incubated with corticosterone (10(-6) μM), and the NPY and reelin expression levels were detected at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. These results demonstrated that at the gene and the protein levels, corticosterone significantly upregulated the NPY and reelin expression in a time-dependent manner. The application of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, reversed the reduced cell viability and the increased expression of NPY and reelin that were caused by corticosterone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to verify that corticosterone regulates the NPY and reelin expression in osteocytes.