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ABSTRACT: In emerging countries, pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization and death, particularly among the youngest and oldest. This retrospective study aimed to quantify the incidence of hospitalization due to all-cause pneumonia (HDTP) and in-hospital case fatality rates (CFRs) in all age groups, in five administrative regions of Brazil. The International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision coding for pneumonia (J12-J18) and an interactive web-based database of individuals covered by the Unified Health System in Brazil who were hospitalized from 2003 to 2007, were used to identify cases. In-hospital CFRs were the percentage of hospitalized cases that died. The overall HDTP incidence per 100,000 people of all ages decreased from 451 in 2003 to 388 in 2007. When categorized by age group, the HDTP incidence was lowest for those aged 5-49 years, and highest in children aged ≤4 years and adults aged ≥50 years. The in-hospital CFR increased from 2.89% in 2003 to 4.02% in 2007. Regional differences in HDTP incidence rates and in-hospital CFR were observed from 2003 to 2007. As expected, the highest HDTP rates were observed in the very young and the elderly. Regional differences in hospitalization incidence rates and in-hospital CFRs were observed.