[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tripterygium glycosides (TG) are commonly used for basic medicine in curing rheumatoid arthritis but with a high incidence of liver injury. Geniposide (GP) has broad and diverse bioactivities, but until now it is still unknown whether GP can protect against TG-induced liver injury. This study, for the first time, observed the possible protection of GP against TG-induced liver injury in mice and its mechanisms underlying. Oral administration of TG (270 mg/kg) induced significant elevation in the levels of serum alanine / aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (all P < 0.01). On the other hand, remarkably decreased biomarkers, including hepatic glutathione (GSH) level, activities of glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, were observed following TG exposure (all P < 0.01). Nevertheless, all of these phenotypes were evidently reversed by pre-administration of GP for 7 continuous days. Further analysis showed that the mRNA expression of hepatic growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), one of tissue repair and regeneration cytokines, was enhanced by GP. Taken together, the current research suggests that GP protects against TG-induced liver injury in mice probably involved during attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation, and promoting tissue repair and regeneration.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quercetin (Que) is one of main compounds in Lysimachia christinae Hance (Christina loosestrife), and has both medicinal and nutritional value. Glycosides from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. (léi gōng téng [the thunder duke vine]; TG) have diverse and broad bioactivities but with a high incidence of liver injury. Our previous study reported on the hepatoprotective properties of an ethanol extract from L. christinae against TG-induced liver injury in mice. This research is designed to observe, for the first time, the possible protective properties of the compound Que against TG-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms that are involved in oxidative stress and anti-inflammation. The results indicated that TG caused excessive elevation in serum levels of alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as hepatic lipid peroxidation (all P < 0.01). On the other hand, following TG exposure, we observed significantly reduced levels of biomarkers, including hepatic glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as well as the enzyme activity and mRNA expression of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) (all P < 0.01). Nevertheless, all of these alterations were reversed by the pre-administration of Que or the drug bifendate (positive control) for 7 consecutive days. Therefore, this study suggests that Que ameliorates TG-induced acute liver injury, probably through its ability to reduce oxidative stress and its anti-inflammatory properties.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geniposide (GP) is one of main compounds in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, with both medicinal and nutritional value. This study was designed to determine, for the first time, how GP from G. jasminoides protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms. Mice were orally administered alcohol (6.0 g/kg body mass) 2 h after intragastric administration of GP and bifendate, every day for 7 continuous days. Six hours after the alcohol was administered, levels of serum alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), and catalase (CAT), and mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT were assayed. The results demonstrated that GP (20.0, 40.0, or 80 mg/kg) significantly reversed the excessive, alcohol-induced elevation in both serum ALT/AST and hepatic LPO levels. Moreover, hepatic GSH, GST, GPx, CuZn-SOD, and CAT levels were all decreased in the alcohol-treated mice, whereas treatment with GP reversed these decreases. Further analysis indicated that hepatic mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT in the alcohol-treated mice was significantly down-regulated, whereas GP up-regulated such decreases. Taken together, this study shows that GP protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes, and thus ameliorates alcohol-induced oxidative stress injury in the liver.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catalpol is a natural iridoid glycoside with diverse bioactivities that is found in abundance in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (Scrophulariaceae). The present study assessed whether catalpol treatment (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg for 14 days by intragastric administration (i.g.)) has an antidepressant-like effect on mice performing the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT), and tests for reversal of reserpine-induced ptosis, akinesia, and hypothermia. This study also examined the potential role that catalpol plays in the cerebral monoaminergic system. Results indicated that catalpol administration produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice, as indicated by the reduced duration of immobility in the FST and TST, but it had no effect on locomotor activity in the OFT. Catalpol treatment significantly counteracted the decrease in rectal temperature, akinesia, and eyelid ptosis induced by reserpine. Moreover, catalpol increased levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brains of mice, but it did not affect levels of norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA). These antidepressant-like effects of catalpol are essentially similar to the effects of the clinical antidepressant fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH). This is the first study to indicate that catalpol has an antidepressant-like effect and that its action may be mediated by the central serotonergic system, and not by noradrenergic or dopaminergic systems.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Bioscience trends
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate mechanism-based anti-anxiety effects of Shudihuang (Radix Rehmanniae Preparata) polysaccharides (RRPPs) through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis with mass spectrometry (MS) of hippocampus proteins in rats treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG).
MSG (4 g/kg) or normal saline (NS) was injected subcutaneously into infant male rats on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 after birth. MSG-treated rats at 8 weeks old were given NS, diazepam, or RRPPs daily for seven consecutive days by intragastric administration, while NS-treated rats given the same volume of NS. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark transition (LDT) tests were used to observe anti-anxiety effects of RRPPs at 1 h after the last administration. After EPM and LDT tests, hippocampus tissues were excised on ice rapidly from the brains of rats. Thereafter, 2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) were used for detecting differential proteins in hippocampus of rats so as to explore the potential mechanisms.
RRPPs (200, 400 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit MSG-induced decrease of time and entries percentages in open zones in EPM test and numbers of light-dark transition in LDT test. Further analysis of 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS indicated that beta-synuclein, protein DJ-1, peroxiredoxin-2, peroxiredoxin-6, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH-1) and iron-sulfur proteins were all found to be down-regulated significantly in MSG-treated rats, while such down-regulation was significantly inhibited after treatment with RRPPs.
RRPPs showed anti-anxiety effects and potential mechanisms might be related to inhibiting MSG-induced down-regulation of beta-synuclein, DJ-1, peroxiredoxin-2, peroxiredoxin-6, DDAH-1 and iron-sulfur proteins in hippocampus of rats.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysimachia christinae Hance (Primulaceae) is a medicinal plant. The present study was undertaken to investigate protection of L. christinae against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, the related mechanism of oxidative stress and its hepatoprotective chemical compound for the first time. Mice were orally administered alcohol at 6 g/kg 2 h after a 75% ethanol extract of L. christinae (ET) (100, 200, 400 mg/kg), quercetin (2, 4, 8 mg/kg) isolated from L. christinae, or bifendate (150 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days by intragastric administration (i.g.) except the normal group. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected 6 h after alcohol administration and the amount of quercetin in ET was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD). The results showed that alcohol-induced elevated serum alanine transferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were significantly reduced by ET (200, 400 mg/kg), quercetin (4, 8 mg/kg) and bifendate (150 mg/kg), respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels significantly decreased, while glutathione amounts, glutathione-s transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities all increased in livers of ET-, quercetin-, and bifendate-treated mice. Besides, amount of quercetin in ET was 1.03%. Taken together, our results indicate that L. christinae can protect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, the potential mechanism can be related to inhibiting liver oxidative stress injury, and its main hepatoprotective compound is quercetin, for the first time.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Bioscience trends