Claudia Mattern

Nova Southeastern University, Флорида, New York, United States

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Publications (36)132.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reward-dependent instrumental behavior must continuously be re-adjusted according to environmental conditions. Failure to adapt to changes in reward contingencies may incur psychiatric disorders like anxiety and depression. When an expected reward is omitted, behavior undergoes extinction. While extinction involves active re-learning, it is also accompanied by emotional behaviors indicative of frustration, anxiety and despair (extinction-induced depression, EID). Here we report evidence for a sphingolipid mechanism in the extinction of behavior. Rapid extinction, indicating efficient re-learning, coincided with a decrease in the activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which catalyzes turnover of sphingomyelin to ceramide, in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of rats. The stronger the decline in ASM activity, the more rapid was the extinction. Sphingolipid-focused lipidomic analysis showed that this results in a decline of local ceramide species in the DH. Ceramides shape the fluidity of lipid rafts in synaptic membranes and by that way can control neural plasticity. We also found that aging modifies activity of enzymes and ceramide levels in selective brain regions. Aging also changed how the chronic treatment with corticosterone (stress) or intranasal dopamine modified regional enzyme activity and ceramide levels, coinciding with rate of extinction. These data provide first evidence for a functional ASM-ceramide pathway in the brain involved in the extinction of learned behavior. This finding extends the known cellular mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity to a new class of membrane-located molecules, the sphingolipids, and their regulatory enzymes, and may offer new treatment targets for extinction- and learning-related psychopathological conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The present study assessed the influence of L-DOPA administration on neostriatal dopamine (DA) D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. Methods: D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline, after challenge with the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide, and after challenge with either 5 or 10 mg/kg L-DOPA plus benserazide. Additional rats received injections of saline. For baseline and challenges, striatal equilibrium ratios (V[Formula: see text]) were computed as estimation of the binding potential. Motor and exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]IBZM. D2 receptor binding was measured with small animal SPECT 2 h after radioligand administration for 60 min. Results: Both L-DOPA doses significantly reduced D2 receptor binding relative to baseline and led to significantly less ambulation, less head-shoulder motility, and more sitting relative to saline. Moreover, 10 mg/kg L-DOPA induced less head-shoulder motility, more sitting, and more grooming than 5 mg/kg L-DOPA. Analysis of time-behavior curves showed that L-DOPA-treated animals relative to saline exhibited a faster rate of decrease of ambulation frequency and a slower rate of decrease of both duration and frequency of head-shoulder motility from a lower maximum level. Conclusions: The reductions of striatal D2 receptor binding after L-DOPA may be conceived to reflect elevated concentrations of synaptic DA. L-DOPA-treated animals showed less ambulation and less head-shoulder motility than saline-treated animals, indicating an association between less behavioral activity and increased availability of striatal DA. The faster rate of decrease of ambulation frequency and the lower maximum levels of both head-shoulder motility duration and frequency may be interpreted in terms of influence of increased DA availability on behavioral habituation to a novel environment.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of intranasal administration of progesterone on the early brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and oxidative damage after transient middle cerebral occlusion in male and female mice. We showed that progesterone (8 mg/kg at 1 h post-middle cerebral occlusion) restored the mitochondrial reduced glutathione pool and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked respiration in both sexes. Progesterone also reversed the decrease of the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked respiration, which was only observed in females. Our findings point to a sex difference in stroke effects on the brain respiratory chain and suggest that the actions of progesterone on mitochondrial function may participate in its neuroprotective properties.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of steroids in the adult central nervous system (CNS) show marked changes in response to stress, degenerative disorders and injury. However, their analysis in complex matrices such as fatty brain and spinal cord tissues, and even in plasma, requires accurate and precise analytical methods. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, even with prepurification steps, do not provide sufficient specificity, and they are at the origin of many inconsistent results in the literature. The analysis of steroids by mass spectrometric methods has become the gold standard for accurate and sensitive steroid analysis. However, these technologies involve multiple purification steps prone to errors, and they only provide accurate reference values when combined with careful sample workup. In addition, the interpretation of changes in CNS steroid levels is not an easy task because of their multiple sources: the endocrine glands and the local synthesis by neural cells. In the CNS, decreased steroid levels may reflect alterations of their biosynthesis, as observed in the case of chronic stress, post-traumatic stress disorders or depressive episodes. In such cases, return to normalization by administering exogenous hormones or by stimulating their endogenous production may have beneficial effects. On the other hand, increases in CNS steroids in response to acute stress, degenerative processes or injury may be part of endogenous protective or rescue programs, contributing to the resistance of neural cells to stress and insults. The aim of this review is to encourage a more critical reading of the literature reporting steroid measures, and to draw attention to the absolute need for well-validated methods. We discuss reported findings concerning changing steroid levels in the nervous system by insisting on methodological issues. An important message is that even recent mass spectrometric methods have their limits, and they only become reliable tools if combined with careful sample preparation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Steroids
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    ABSTRACT: Progesterone is a potential neuroprotective agent for cerebral stroke. One of the STAIR's recommendations is to test different routes of delivery of therapeutic agents. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of intranasal delivery of progesterone in oleogel. Male mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral occlusion (MCAO) for 1h. Mice received intranasal or intraperitoneal administrations of progesterone (8 mg/kg) at 1, 6, and 24h post-MCAO. Plasma and brain levels of steroids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry 2 and 24h after the last administration of progesterone. Behavioral and histopathological analyzes were performed at 48h post-MCAO. For blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability analysis, mice received one intranasal administration of progesterone or placebo at reperfusion and Evans Blue and sodium fluorescein extravasations were assessed at 4h post-MCAO. Two hours after its nasal administration, progesterone reached elevated levels in brain and plasma and was bioconverted to its 5α-reduced metabolites and to 20α-dihydroprogesterone. However, brain levels of progesterone and its metabolites were about half those measured after intraperitoneal injections, whereas levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were 5-times lower. In contrast, after 24h, higher levels of progesterone were measured in brain and plasma after intranasal than after intraperitoneal delivery. Intranasal progesterone decreased the mortality rate, improved motor functions, reduced infarct, attenuated neuronal loss, and decreased the early BBB disruption. This study demonstrates a good bioavailability, a prolonged absorption and a good neuroprotective efficacy of intranasal delivery of progesterone, thus potentially offering an efficient, safe, non-stressful and very easy mode of administration in stroke patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Following oral or IV administration, dopamine (DA) cannot cross the blood-brain barrier to a significant extent, but can enter the brain when administered via the nasal passages. Intranasal administration of DA was shown to increase extracellular DA in the striatum, to have antidepressant action and to improve attention and working memory in rats. Here we show that aged (22-24 months old) rats are deficient in an object-place learning task, but that this learning/memory is intact and comparable with that of adult rats upon pre-trial administration of 0.3 mg/kg DA gel into the nasal passages. This result raises the possibility of the therapeutic application of intranasal DA treatment for age-related cognitive disorders.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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    ABSTRACT: Intranasal application of dopamine (IN-DA) has been shown to increase motor activity and to release DA in the ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS) of rats. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of IN-DA treatment on parameters of DA and excitatory amino acid (EAA) function in prepuberal rats of the Naples high-excitability (NHE) line, an animal model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal random bred (NRB) controls. NHE and NRB rats were daily administered IN-DA (0.075, 0.15, 0.30 mg/kg) or vehicle for 15 days from postnatal days 28-42 and subsequently tested in the Làt maze and in the Eight-arm radial Olton maze. Soluble and membrane-trapped L-glutamate (L-Glu) and L-aspartate (L-Asp) levels as well as NMDAR1 subunit protein levels were determined after sacrifice in IN-DA- and vehicle-treated NHE and NRB rats in prefrontal cortex (PFc), DS and VS. Moreover, DA transporter (DAT) protein and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels were assessed in PFc, DS, VS and mesencephalon (MES) and in ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra, respectively. In NHE rats, IN-DA (0.30 mg/kg) decreased horizontal activity and increased nonselective attention relative to vehicle, whereas the lower dose (0.15 mg/kg) increased selective spatial attention. In NHE rats, basal levels of soluble EAAs were reduced in PFc and DS relative to NRB controls, while membrane-trapped EAAs were elevated in VS. Moreover, basal NMDAR1 subunit protein levels were increased in PFc, DS and VS relative to NRB controls. In addition, DAT protein levels were elevated in PFc and VS relative to NRB controls. IN-DA led to a number of changes of EAA, NMDAR1 subunit protein, TH and DAT protein levels in PFc, DS, VS, MES and VTA, in both NHE and NRB rats with significant differences between lines. Our findings indicate that the NHE rat model of ADHD may be characterized by (1) prefrontal and striatal DAT hyperfunction, indicative of DA hyperactivty, and (2) prefrontal and striatal NMDA receptor hyperfunction indicative of net EAA hyperactivty. IN-DA had ameliorative effects on activity level, attention, and working memory, which are likely to be associated with DA action at inhibitory D2 autoreceptors, leading to a reduction in striatal DA hyperactivity and, possibly, DA action on striatal EAA levels, resulting in a decrease of striatal EAA hyperfunction (with persistence of prefrontal EAA hyperfunction). Previous studies on IN-DA treatment in rodents have indicated antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-parkinsonian effects in relation to enhanced central DAergic activity. Our present results strengthen the prospects of potential therapeutic applications of intranasal DA by indicating an enhancement of selective attention and working memory in a deficit model.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Amino Acids
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    ABSTRACT: Progesterone is commonly considered as a female reproductive hormone and is well-known for its role in pregnancy. It is less well appreciated that progesterone and its metabolite allopregnanolone are also male hormones, as they are produced in both sexes by the adrenal glands. In addition, they are synthesized within the nervous system. Progesterone and allopregnanolone are associated with adaptation to stress, and increased production of progesterone within the brain may be part of the response of neural cells to injury. Progesterone receptors (PR) are widely distributed throughout the brain, but their study has been mainly limited to the hypothalamus and reproductive functions, and the extra-hypothalamic receptors have been neglected. This lack of information about brain functions of PR is unexpected, as the protective and trophic effects of progesterone are much investigated, and as the therapeutic potential of progesterone as a neuroprotective and promyelinating agent is currently being assessed in clinical trials. The little attention devoted to the brain functions of PR may relate to the widely accepted assumption that non-reproductive actions of progesterone may be mainly mediated by allopregnanolone, which does not bind to PR, but acts as a potent positive modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The aim of this review is to critically discuss effects of progesterone on the nervous system via PR, and of allopregnanolone via its modulation of GABAA receptors, with main focus on the brain.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Progress in Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Progesterone receptors (PR) are expressed throughout the brain. However, their functional significance remains understudied. Here we report a novel role of PR as crucial mediators of neuroprotection using a model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and PR knockout mice. Six hours after ischemia, we observed a rapid increase in progesterone and 5α-dihydroprogesterone, the endogenous PR ligands, a process that may be a part of the natural neuroprotective mechanisms. PR deficiency, and even haploinsufficiency, increases the susceptibility of the brain to stroke damage. Within a time window of 24 h, PR-dependent signaling of endogenous brain progesterone limits the extent of tissue damage and the impairment of motor functions. Longer-term improvement requires additional treatment with exogenous progesterone and is also PR dependent. The potent and selective PR agonist Nestorone is also effective. In contrast to progesterone, levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, which modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, did not increase after stroke, but its administration protected both wild-type and PR-deficient mice against ischemic damage. These results show that 1) PR are linked to signaling pathways that influence susceptibility to stroke, and 2) PR are direct key targets for both endogenous neuroprotection and for therapeutic strategies after stroke, and they suggest a novel indication for synthetic progestins already validated for contraception. Although allopregnanolone may not be an endogenous neuroprotective agent, its administration protects the brain against ischemic damage by signaling mechanisms not involving PR. Collectively, our data clarify the relative roles of PR and allopregnanolone in neuroprotection after stroke.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Progesterone is well known as a female reproductive hormone and in particular for its role in uterine receptivity, implantation, and the maintenance of pregnancy. However, neuroendocrine research over the past decades has established that progesterone has multiple functions beyond reproduction. Within the nervous system, its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects are much studied. Although progesterone has been shown to also promote myelin repair, its influence and that of other steroids on myelination and remyelination is relatively neglected. Reasons for this are that hormonal influences are still not considered as a central problem by most myelin biologists, and that neuroendocrinologists are not sufficiently concerned with the importance of myelin in neuron functions and viability. The effects of progesterone in the nervous system involve a variety of signaling mechanisms. The identification of the classical intracellular progesterone receptors as therapeutic targets for myelin repair suggests new health benefits for synthetic progestins, specifically designed for contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapies. There are also major advantages to use natural progesterone in neuroprotective and myelin repair strategies, because progesterone is converted to biologically active metabolites in nervous tissues and interacts with multiple target proteins. The delivery of progesterone however represents a challenge because of its first-pass metabolism in digestive tract and liver. Recently, the intranasal route of progesterone administration has received attention for easy and efficient targeting of the brain. Progesterone in the brain is derived from the steroidogenic endocrine glands or from local synthesis by neural cells. Stimulating the formation of endogenous progesterone is currently explored as an alternative strategy for neuroprotection, axonal regeneration, and myelin repair.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) remains the most effective drug for therapy of Parkinson's disease. However, the current clinical route of L-DOPA administration is variable and unreliable because of problems with drug absorption and first-pass metabolism. Administration of drugs via the nasal passage has been proven an effective alternate route for a number of medicinal substances. Here we examined the acute behavioral and neurochemical effects of intranasally (IN) applied L-DOPA in rats bearing unilateral lesions of the medial forebrain bundle, with severe depletion (97%) of striatal dopamine. Turning behavior in an open field, footslips on a horizontal grid and postural motor asymmetry in a cylinder were assessed following IN L-DOPA or vehicle administration with, or without, benserazide pre-treatment. IN L-DOPA without benserazide pre-treatment mildly decreased ipsilateral turnings and increased contralateral turnings 10-20 min after the treatment. IN L-DOPA with saline pre-treatment reduced contralateral forelimb-slips on the grid while no effects were evident in the cylinder test. These results support the hypothesis that L-DOPA can bypass the blood-brain barrier by the IN route and alleviate behavioral impairments in the hemiparkinsonian animal model.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Brain research bulletin
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · European Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Neurosteroids hold great promise for the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We compared the uptake by 11 brain regions and appearance in blood of tritium-labeled pregnenolone and progesterone after intranasal and intravenous (IV) injection. Both neurosteroids appeared in blood and brain after either method of administration, but with important differences in uptake. Bioavailability based on appearance in arterial serum showed that about 23% and 14% of the intranasal administered doses of pregnenolone and progesterone, respectively, entered the blood. Brain levels were about two fold lower after intranasal administration for the two neurosteroids. With intranasal administration, brain levels of the two steroids did not vary over time (2-120 min), whereas brain levels were higher early (10 min or less) after i.v. administration. With i.v. administration, uptake by brain regions did not vary, whereas the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and hypothalamus had high uptake rates after intranasal administration. Intranasal administration of prenenolone improved memory, whereas progesterone decreased anxiety, thus demonstrating that therapeutic levels of neurosteroids can be delivered to the brain by intranasal administration. The neurosteroids were rapidly degraded after i.v. or intranasal delivery, but pregnenolone was more resistant to degradation in the brain after intranasal administration and in serum after i.v. administration. These results show that either the i.v. or intranasal routes of administration can deliver neurosteroids to blood and brain, but that the two routes have significant differences with intranasal administration favoring some brain regions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered regulation of amygdala functioning which is thought to be mediated by the prefrontal cortex, we studied the effects of exogenous testosterone on the interaction between the amygdala and other brain regions. Healthy middle-aged women received a single nasal testosterone dose in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover manner, and performed an emotional face matching task while their brain activity was measured with functional MRI. The results show that testosterone rapidly reduced functional coupling of the amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex, and enhanced amygdala coupling with the thalamus. This suggests that testosterone may reduce the regulatory control over the amygdala, or that testosterone shifts amygdala output away from the orbitofrontal cortex towards the thalamus. Testosterone also reduced functional coupling with the contralateral amygdala. Because interhemispheric amygdala coupling is lower in men than in women, this result suggests that circulating testosterone may contribute to this sexual dimorphism.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Psychoneuroendocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Due to its lipophobic properties, dopamine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier following systemic application. However, recently it has been demonstrated that, when applied directly via the nasal passages in the rat, dopamine exerts neurochemical and behavioural action, including increases of dopamine in striatal subregions, antidepressive-like action, and increased behavioral activity. These effects could potentially be mediated by exogenous dopamine acting as a direct agonist at postsynaptic dopamine receptors. However, it is also possible that intranasally applied dopamine acts indirectly via the modulation of the activity of dopaminergic cell bodies. To approach this question, the present study used rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the nigrostriatal tract, as these lesions lead to pharmacologically stimulated behavioural asymmetries which are specific for direct and indirect dopamine agonists. We found that 7 days of repeated treatment with intranasal dopamine induced a sensitization of the turning response to amphetamine, but not to apomorphine. Furthermore, intranasal dopamine dose-dependently increased the use of the forepaw ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA-lesioned side of the brain. These results suggest that intranasally administered dopamine acts via an indirect mechanism of action, putatively by increasing the release of endogenous dopamine in the brain.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Based on findings of a profound action of intranasally applied dopamine (DA) on dopamine release in the striatum, we examined the possibility that intranasal application of DA would influence indices of attention and activity in juvenile male rats of the Naples High Excitability line. This rat model features the main aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Juvenile NHE rats received an intranasal application of either DA (0.075 mg/kg, 0.15 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg) or vehicle into both nostrils daily for 15 days. On day 14, 1 h after treatment, they were tested in the Làt maze, and one day later, in the eight arm radial maze. Activity in the Làt maze: The highest dose of DA (0.3 mg/kg) decreased horizontal (HA) and vertical (VA) activity during the first 10 min of the test. No effect was found for rearing duration (RD), which indexes non-selective attention (NSA). Activity in the radial maze: No treatment effects were found for HA and VA components, and for RD. Attention indices: The intermediate dose of DA (0.15 mg/kg) significantly improved the number of arms visited before the first repetitive arm entry in the radial maze, an index of selective spatial attention (SSA). In conclusion, intranasal application of DA reduced hyperactivity at the highest dose used, whereas the intermediate dose improved attention in an animal model of ADHD. These results suggest the potential of employing intranasal DA for therapeutic purposes.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Intranasal (i.n.) administration has emerged as a strategy to deliver therapeutics to the brain. Here, we compared i.n. and intravenous (i.v.) administration for testosterone. About 75% of the i.n. administered testosterone entered the blood. However, whole brain levels of testosterone were about twice as high after i.n. administration as after i.v. administration. About two-thirds of the testosterone entering the brain after i.n. administration did so by direct entry by nasal routes and the remainder indirectly by first entering the blood and then crossing the blood-brain barrier. All brain regions except the frontal cortex had higher levels of testosterone after i.n. administration than after i.v. administration, although the differences among brain regions varied much more for the i.n. route. The olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus had the highest levels after i.n. administration. The brain uptake pattern suggested a variety of distribution routes likely involving the cerebrospinal fluid, diffusion through brain tissue, and transport through nerve projections. Regional distribution patterns were similar after either i.n. or i.v. administration, suggesting that the dominant factor determining distribution/retention was the same for either route of administration. We conclude that the i.n. administration route delivers testosterone systemically and can target the brain, especially the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Drug Targeting
  • Claudia Mattern · Claudia Hoffmann · John E Morley · Corin Badiu
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    ABSTRACT: Although multiple forms of testosterone replacement therapy are available to treat hypogonadism, none is ideal. This article reports on the pharmacokinetics of an innovative nasal formulation of testosterone in hypogonadal men. The first study was undertaken in eight men with a baseline total testosterone (TT) of 130.8 +/- 87.4 ng/dL and examined the pharmacokinetics of nasal testosterone given in a single dose of 7.6 mg, 15.2 mg or 22.8 mg, respectively. The second study examined the pharmacokinetics of nasal testosterone (7.6 mg) given either twice or three times a day in 21 severely hypogonadal men (baseline TT in 20 patients <50 ng/dL, in one patient 152 ng/dL) for 14 days. The steady-state concentration of testosterone was within the normal range in all treatment groups, but only in the 3-times-a-day group was the 95% confidence interval completely within the physiological range. The average DHT level did not exceed the upper range of normal. The clinical global visual analogue scale improved in the whole group receiving testosterone (p < 0.001). All adverse events in both studies were of mild to moderate intensity and were evaluated as unlikely or not related to the administered study drug. No patients dropped out during treatment. Comparison with the normal circadian rhythm by computer modelling suggests that nasal testosterone can be used to mimic the normal diurnal pattern in eugonadal men. Thus, nasal testosterone can be administered safely to humans in doses that approximate serum concentrations in the normal physiological range.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · The Aging Male
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of intranasal administration of progesterone (PROG) on the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of anesthetized rats by means of microdialysis. Male Wistar rats were implanted with guide cannulae in the basolateral amygdala and neostriatum. Three to 5 days later, they were anesthetized with urethane, and dialysis probes were inserted. After a stabilization period of 2 h, four 30-min samples were collected. Thereafter, the treatment (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg of PROG dissolved in a viscous castor oil mixture, or vehicle) was applied into the nose in a volume of 10 microl (5 microl in each nostril). In other animals, an s.c. injection of PROG (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg/kg) or vehicle was given. Samples of both application ways were collected at 30-min interval for 4 h after the treatment and immediately analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg of PROG led to an immediate (within 30 min after the treatment) significant increase in the basolateral amygdala dopamine levels. In the neostriatum, the 2 mg/kg dose led to a delayed significant increase in dopamine. S.c. administration of 4 mg/kg of PROG was followed by a delayed significant increase in dopamine, both, in the basolateral amygdala and neostriatum, but smaller in magnitude in comparison to the intranasal treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate dopamine-enhancing effects of PROG, not only in the neostriatum, but also in the basolateral amygdala. Our results indicate that the intranasal route of administration of PROG is a more efficacious way for targeting the brain than the s.c. route.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Testosterone was administered intranasally in anesthetized male rats, and its effects on the activity of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens were assessed by means of microdialysis and HPLC. The treatment (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg of testosterone or vehicle, 10 microl volume) was applied in both nostrils, half (5 microl) into each. Subcutaneous injections of testosterone (2.0, 4.0 or 8.0 mg/kg) or vehicle were tested in other subjects. Samples were collected for 5 h. In the neostriatum, an increase of dopamine occurred after 2.0 mg/kg. Serotonin levels increased after 1.0 mg/kg dose. In the nucleus accumbens, dopamine and serotonin increased after 1.0 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg doses. Subcutaneous administration of 8.0 mg/kg testosterone increased dopamine and serotonin in the neostriatum only. We conclude that intranasal administration of testosterone is a more efficacious way for targeting the brain than the subcutaneous route, and may be considered as a means to activate central dopaminergic and serotonergic systems.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Publication Stats

825 Citations
132.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2016
    • Nova Southeastern University
      • Oceanographic Center
      Флорида, New York, United States
  • 2007-2009
    • AVACO AG, Switzerland
      Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland
  • 1995
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Institute of Ecological Plant Physiology
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany