[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, spliced HBV genomes and splice-generated proteins have been widely described, however, their biological and clinical significance remains to be defined. Here, an elevation of the proportion of HBV spliced variants in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is shown to correlate with an impaired respond to interferon-α (IFN-α) therapy. Transfection of the constructs encoding the three most dominant species of spliced variants into cells or ectopic expression of the two major spliced protein including HBSP and N-terminal-truncated viral polymerase protein result in strong suppression of IFN-α signaling transduction, while mutation of the major splicing-related sites of HBV attenuates the viral anti-IFN activities in both cell and mouse models. These results have associated the productions of HBV spliced variants with the failure response to IFN therapy and illuminate a novel mechanism where spliced viral products are employed to resist IFN-mediated host defense.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims To investigate the histopathological manifestations of two fatal cases of H7N9 influenza A virus infection.
Methods Pulmonary and hepatic specimens from two fatal cases of H7N9 influenza virus infection were examined using H&E staining. Additionally, in situ hybridisation was performed with probes (ViewRNA) targeting H7N9 RNA and IP-10, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA. The distribution of surfactant protein A (SP-A), surfactant protein B (SP-B), CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68 and C4d were determined with immunohistochemistry.
Results Apart from the typical diffuse alveolar damage and hyaline membrane observed in severe influenza infection, we detected H7N9 RNA and massive intrapulmonary production of IP-10 and IL-6 mRNA using in situ hybridisation. Hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes was observed by H&E staining and immunohistochemistry. Proliferating macrophages and clustered neutrophils in the infected lungs were observed, whereas T lymphocytes, especially CD4T helper cells, were markedly depleted. No obvious complement deposition was found in lung tissues.
Conclusions Our findings suggest that H7N9 influenza virus induced an immunological response towards overt pulmonary inflammation and systemic lymphopenia which led to intense alveolar damage and respiratory failure.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elucidation of the mechanisms of liver fibrogenesis is important to treat liver fibrosis. In this study, we established rat models of liver fibrosis with stages from 0-1, 2, and 3-4 to 4 at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, by injection of pig serum. Liver fibrogenesis was detected by Masson's trichrome staining. Rat non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) were enriched 4-fold by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Protein extracts from NPCs were prepared at 4 and 8 weeks, separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and then stained with Coomassie Blue G-250. At 4 weeks, we identified 18 non-redundant differentially expressed proteins of which protein disulfide-isomerase associated protein 3 (PDIA3) and NDUV showed consistent expression at protein and mRNA levels from 4 to 8 weeks. PDIA3 was found to be down-regulated by Western blotting in the rat model and immunohistochemically in human liver. Our results revealed important aspects of the pathogenesis/progression of liver fibrosis and demonstrated important changes in protein expression levels of NPCs at various stages of liver fibrosis.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Science China. Life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new avian-origin influenza virus A (H7N9) recently crossed the species barrier and infected humans; therefore, there is an urgent need to establish mammalian animal models for studying the pathogenic mechanism of this strain and the immunological response. In this study, we attempted to develop mouse models of H7N9 infection because mice are traditionally the most convenient models for studying influenza viruses. We showed that the novel A (H7N9) virus isolated from a patient could infect inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice as well as outbred Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. The amount of bodyweight lost showed differences at 7 days post infection (d.p.i.) (BALB/c mice 30%, C57BL/6 and ICR mice approximately 20%), and the lung indexes were increased both at 3 d.p.i. and at 7 d.p.i.. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the existence of the H7N9 viruses in the lungs of the infected mice, and these findings were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) detection at 3 d.p.i. and 7 d.p.i.. Histopathological changes occurred in the infected lungs, including pulmonary interstitial inflammatory lesions, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhages. Furthermore, because the most clinically severe cases were in elderly patients, we analysed the H7N9 infections in both young and old ICR mice. The old ICR mice showed more severe infections with more bodyweight lost and a higher lung index than the young ICR mice. Compared with the young ICR mice, the old mice showed a delayed clearance of the H7N9 virus and higher inflammation in the lungs. Thus, old ICR mice could partially mimic the more severe illness in elderly patients.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Emerging Microbes and Infections
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol-induced injury has become one of the major causes for liver cirrhosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced injury are not fully understood. To this end, we performed a dynamic plasma membrane proteomic research on rat model. A rat model from hepatitis to liver cirrhosis was developed. Plasma membrane from liver tissue with liver fibrosis stage of 2 and 4 (S2 and S4) was purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Its purification was verified by western blotting. Proteins from plasma membrane were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. 16 consistent differentially expressed proteins from S2 to S4 were identified by mass spectrometry. The expression of differentially expressed proteins annexin A6 and annexin A3 were verified by western blotting, and annexin A3 was futher verified by immunohistochemistry. Our research suggests a possible mechanism by which ethanol alters protein expression to enhance the liver fibrosis progression. These differentially expressed proteins might be new drug targets for treating alcoholic liver cirrhosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulomas, the pathologic hallmarks of tuberculosis, are composed of tightly numerous immune cells that respond to a variety of persistent stimuli during pathogen-host interaction. The granuloma is essential for host containment of mycobacterial infection, however, the mechanism of host and pathogen determinants to recruit immune cells at the site of inflammation and the formation of granulomas remains elusive until now. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a cytokine produced by many cell types, modulates cellular and humoral immune responses and promote lymphocytes migration to the site of infection. In this study, we evaluate the expression of MIF in tuberculous granulomas by three different models of diseases: mouse, human tissues and zebrafish. The overall results demonstrated that the expression of MIF positive signals markedly increased in the tissues which have been infected with mycobacterium, whereas a few presence of MIF in the PBS-treated animals (means the control group). In the mycobacterial-infected animals, the MIF positives distributed extensively within the granuloma especially in the multinucleated giant cells. Thus, three independent lines of evidence support the hypothesis that MIF may be an important player in aggregate immune cells to the granuloma microenvironments in these animal models of tuberculosis.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Experimental and Molecular Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, the over-consumption of alcohol can lead to serious liver disease. To examine the early effects of alcohol on liver disease, rats were given sufficient ethanol to develop liver cirrhosis. Rats before the onset of fibrosis were studied in this work. Plasma membranes (PM) of liver were extracted by twice sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The proteome profiles of PM from ethanol-treated rats and the controls were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology. Ethanol treatment altered the amount of 15 different liver proteins: 10 of them were detected by 2-DE and 5 by iTRAQ. Keratin 8 was detected by both methods. Gene ontology analysis of these differentially detected proteins indicated that most of them were involved in important cell functions such as binding activity (including ion, DNA, ATP binding, etc.), cell structure, or enzyme activity. Among these, annexin A2, keratin 8, and keratin 18 were further verified using western blot analysis and annexin A2 was verified by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggested that alcohol has the potential to affect cell structure, adhesion and enzyme activity by altering expression levels of several relevant proteins in the PM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to study the effect of alcohol on the liver PM proteome and it might be helpful for understanding the possible mechanisms of alcohol-induced liver disease.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is important to study the mechanism of liver fibrogenesis, and find new non-invasive biomarkers. In this study, we used subcellular proteomic technology to study the plasma membrane (PM) proteins related to immune liver fibrosis and search for new non-invasive biomarkers. A rat liver fibrosis model was induced by pig serum injection. The liver fibrogenesis from stage (S) S0-1, S2, S3-4, and S4 was detected by Masson staining and HE staining in this rat model after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of treatment. The liver PM was enriched and analyzed using subcellular proteomic technology. The differentially expressed proteins were verified by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. PM with 149-fold purification was obtained and 22 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of which, annexin A2 (ANXA2) was detected to be increased obviously in S4 compared with S0-1, and verified by Western blotting of rat liver tissue and immunohistochemistry of rat and human liver tissue. The expression of ANXA2 in human plasma with S1-2 was also found to be up-regulated for 1.4-fold than that in S0. Furthermore, ANXA2 was detected to translocate from nuclear membrane and cytosol to PM as HBV stimulation through immunocytochemical analysis in vitro. This study identified 22 differentially expressed proteins related to liver fibrosis, and verified a potential biomarker (ANXA2) for non-invasive diagnosis of immune liver fibrosis. To our knowledge, it was the first time to dynamically study the proteins related to liver fibrosis and select biomarkers for liver fibrosis diagnosis through PM proteome research.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry