[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous study showed that extracts from Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) exhibit analgesic effects in acute pain models. The present study evaluates the antinociceptive properties of the methanol/methylene chloride extract (MECM) of the stem bark of this plant using mice models of persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and assesses its mechanism of action.
MECM was tested on Complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced persistent thermal and mechanical pain, neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced acute mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as on nociception induced by capsaicin in mice. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed using von Frey hair in awake mice. The mechanism of action of MECM was evaluated by using glibenclamide on PGE2-induced hyperalgesia or rimonabant on capsaicin-induced pain.
MECM administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, induced long lasting and significant antihyperalgesic effects on CFA-inflammatory and PSNL-induced neuropathic pain. MECM significantly reduced the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by PGE2 either when administered preventively or therapeutically. MECM also significantly and time dependently inhibited the capsaicin-induced nociception. These effects were not affected by glibenclamide or by rimonabant.
The present results demonstrate that the oral administration of MECM to mice resulted in long lasting antihyperalgesic activity in inflammatory and neuropathic pain as well as in acute and persistent pain. The mechanism underlying the long lasting MECM antihyperalgesic effect is currently unknown, but might be mediated, at least partially, through the modulation of TRPV1 receptors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistent pains associated with inflammatory and neuropathic states are prevalent and debilitating diseases, which still remain without a safe and adequate treatment. Euphol, an alcohol tetracyclic triterpene, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-inflammatory action. Here, we assessed the effects and the underlying mechanisms of action of euphol in preventing inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Oral treatment with euphol (30 and 100 mg/kg) reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Likewise, euphol given through the spinal and intracerebroventricular routes prevented mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. Euphol consistently blocked the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha associated with the suppression of myeloperoxidase activity in the mouse paw. Oral treatment with euphol was also effective in preventing the mechanical nociceptive response induced by ligation of the sciatic nerve and also significantly reduced the levels and mRNA of cytokines/chemokines in both paw and spinal cord tissues following i.pl. injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. In addition, the pre-treatment with either CB(1)R or CB(2)R antagonists, as well as the knockdown gene of the CB(1)R and CB(2)R, significantly reversed the antinociceptive effect of euphol. Interestingly, even in higher doses, euphol did not cause any relevant action in the central nervous system. Considering that few drugs are currently available for the treatment of chronic pain states, the present results provided evidence that euphol constitutes a promising molecule for the management of inflammatory and neuropathic pain states.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Neuropharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural products have been revealed as relevant sources of therapeutic agents including those for the management of pain states. In this study, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of (-)-cassine, isolated from Senna spectabilis were evaluated using pharmacological, behavioural and biochemical approaches. Oral treatment with (-)-cassine (3-30 mg/kg) reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal nociception associated with the suppression of myeloperoxidase activity in the mouse paw. Moreover, (-)-cassine (1-10 μg/site) prevented mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan when given through the intraplantar (i.pl.), spinal and intracerebroventricular routes. Additionally, oral treatment with (-)-cassine (3-60 mg/kg) prevented the mechanical hyperalgesia elicited by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E 2, complete Freund's adjuvant, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. Furthermore, (-)-cassine inhibited the mechanical nociceptive response induced by ligation of the sciatic nerve and also significantly reduced the levels of cytokines/chemokines in paw tissue following i.pl. injection of carrageenan. In addition, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of (-)-cassine were associated with its ability to interact with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors and by inhibiting the upregulation of cyclooxigenase-2 as well as inhibiting the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK and the transcription factor NF-κB. It is important to highlight that oral treatment with (-)-cassine did not produce any effects related to temperature, locomotor activity or catalepsy. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that (-)-cassine has systemic, spinal and supraspinal anti-nociceptive properties when assessed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. These effects are associated with its ability to block several signalling pathways associated with inflammatory and nociceptive responses.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Neuropharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B(1) and B(2) kinin receptors are involved in pain transmission but they may have different roles in the muscle pain induced by intense exercise or inflammation. We investigated the contribution of each of these receptors, and the intracellular pathways involved, in the initial development and maintenance of the muscle pain associated with inflammation-induced tissue damage.
Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured using the Randall-Selitto apparatus after injecting 5% formalin solution into the gastrocnemius muscle in mice treated with selective antagonists for B(1) or B(2) receptors. The expression of kinin receptors and cytokines and the activation of intracellular kinases were monitored by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.
The i.m. injection of formalin induced an overexpression of B(1) and B(2) receptors. This overexpression was associated with the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by formalin because treatment with B(1) receptor antagonists (des-Arg(9) [Leu(8)]-BK, DALBK, and SSR240612) or B(2) receptor antagonists (HOE 140 and FR173657) prevented the hyperalgesia. Formalin increased myeloperoxidase activity, and up-regulated TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in gastrocnemius. Myeloperoxidase activity and TNF-α mRNA expression were inhibited by either DALBK or HOE 140, whereas IL-6 was inhibited only by HOE 140. The hyperalgesia induced by i.m. formalin was dependent on the activation of intracellular MAPKs p38, JNK and PKC.
Inflammatory muscle pain involves a cascade of events that is dependent on the activation of PKC, p38 and JNK, and the synthesis of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 associated with the up-regulation of both B(1) and B(2) kinin receptors.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have shown the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoid (CB) agonists in different models of pain. Herein, we have investigated their relevance in neuropathic pain induced by brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in mice.
Mice underwent BPA or sham surgery. The mRNA levels and protein expression of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors were assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The activation of glial cells, MAP kinases and transcription factors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The antinociceptive properties induced by cannabinoid agonists were assessed on the 5(th) and 30(th) days after surgery. We observed a marked increase in CB(1) and CB(2) receptor mRNA and protein expression in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion, either at the 5(th) or 30(th) day after surgery. BPA also induced a marked activation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases (on the 30(th) day), glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, and the transcription factors CREB and NF-κB (at the 5(th) and 30(th) days) in the spinal cord. Systemic treatment with cannabinoid agonists reduced mechanical allodynia on both the 5(th) and 30(th) days after surgery, but the greatest results were observed by using central routes of administration, especially at the 30(th) day. Treatment with WIN 55,212-2 prevented the activation of both glial cells and MAP kinases, associated with an enhancement of CREB and NF-κB activation.
Our results indicate a relevant role for cannabinoid agonists in BPA, reinforcing their potential therapeutic relevance for the management of chronic pain states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we report that α,β-amyrin, a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpene, reduced persistent inflammatory and neuropathic hyperalgesia in mice by a direct activation of the CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R and CB(2)R). The oral treatment with α,β-amyrin (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). The pretreatment with either CB(1)R or CB(2)R antagonists and the knockdown gene of the receptors significantly reverted the antinociceptive effect of α,β-amyrin. Of note, binding studies showed that α,β-amyrin directly bound with very high affinity to CB(1)R (K(i)=0.133 nM) and with a lower affinity to CB(2)R (K(i)=1989 nM). Interestingly, α,β-amyrin, ACEA (CB(1)R agonist), or JWH-133 (CB(2)R agonist), at doses that caused antinociception, failed to provoke any behavioral disturbance, as measured in the tetrad assay. In addition, α,β-amyrin largely decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. Likewise, α,β-amyrin prevented the activation of the transcriptional factors: nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB) and the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in mice footpads and spinal cords. The present results demonstrated that α,β-amyrin exhibits long-lasting antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties in 2 models of persistent nociception via activation of cannabinoid receptors and by inhibiting the production of cytokines and expression of NF-κB, CREB and cyclooxygenase 2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dioscorea bulbifera var sativa is a medicinal plant commonly used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat pain and inflammation.
The present work evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the bulbs of Dioscorea bulbifera in inflammatory and neuropathic models of pain and further investigated its possible mechanism of action.
The effects of Dioscorea bulbifera administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500mg/kg were tested in mechanical hypernociception induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)), as well as in partial ligation sciatic nerve (PLSN), nociception induced by capsaicin and thermal hyperalgesia induced by i.pl. injection of CFA. The therapeutic effects of Dioscorea bulbifera on PGE(2)-induced hyperalgesia were evaluated in the absence and in the presence of l-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium channels.
The extract showed significant antinociceptive effects in persistent pain induced by CFA and on neuropathic pain induced by PLSN. The effects of Dioscorea bulbifera persisted for 5 days after two administrations in CFA-induced hypernociception. Dioscorea bulbifera significantly inhibited acute LPS-induced pain but failed to reduce thermal hypernociception and capsaicin-induced spontaneous nociception. The antinociceptive effects of this plant extract in PGE(2) model was antagonized by either l-NAME or glibenclamide.
Present demonstrate the antinociceptive activities of Dioscorea bulbifera both in inflammatory and neuropathic models of pain and these effects may result, at least partially, from its ability to activate the NO-cGMP-ATP-sensitive potassium channels pathway.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the mechanisms underlying the pruritogenic response induced by trypsin in mice, to assess the relevance of neurogenic inflammation components in this response.
Itching was induced by an intradermal injection of trypsin in the mouse neck. The animals were observed for 40 min and their scratching behaviour was quantified.
Trypsin-induced itching was blocked by the lima bean trypsin inhibitor, the selective proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) antagonist FSLLRY and PAR-2 receptor desensitization. An important involvement of mast cells was observed, as chronic pretreatment with the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 or the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate prevented scratching. Also, trypsin response was inhibited by the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and by the selective kinin B2 (FR173657) and B1 (SSR240612) receptor antagonists. Moreover, an essential role for the mediators of neurogenic inflammation was established, as the selective NK1 (FK888), NK3 (SR142801) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP(8-37) fragment) receptor antagonists inhibited trypsin-induced itching. Similarly, blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors by the selective TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB366791, or by genetic deletion of TRPV1 receptor reduced this behaviour in mice. C-fibre desensitization showed a very similar result.
Trypsin intradermal injection proved to be a reproducible model for the study of itching and the involvement of PAR-2 receptors. Also, trypsin-induced itching seems to be widely dependent on neurogenic inflammation, with a role for TRPV1 receptors. In addition, several other mediators located in the sensory nerves and skin also seem to contribute to this process.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relevance of kinin B(1) (B(1)R) and B(2) (B(2)R) receptors in the brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) model was evaluated in mice, by means of genetic and pharmacological tools. BPA-induced hypernociception was absent in B(1)R, but not in B(2)R, knock-out mice. Local or intraperitoneal administration of the B(2)R antagonist Hoe 140 failed to affect BPA-induced mechanical hypernociception. Interestingly, local or intraperitoneal treatment with B(1)R antagonists, R-715 or SSR240612, dosed at the time of surgery, significantly reduced BPA-evoked mechanical hypernociception. Intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration of these antagonists, at the surgery moment, did not prevent the hypernociception. Both antagonists, dosed by intraperitoneal or intrathecal routes (but not intracerebroventricularly) 4 d after the surgery, significantly inhibited the mechanical hypernociception. At 30 d after the BPA, only the intracerebroventricular treatment effectively reduced the hypernociception. A marked increase in B(1)R mRNA was observed in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex at 4 d after BPA and only in the hypothalamus and cortex at 30 d. In the spinal cord, a slight increase in B(1)R mRNA expression was observed as early as at 2 d. Finally, an enhancement of B(1)R protein expression was found in all the analyzed brain structures at 4 and 30 d after the BPA, whereas in the spinal cord, this parameter was augmented only at 4 d. The data provide new evidence on the role of peripheral and central kinin B(1)R in the BPA model of neuropathic pain. Selective B(1)R antagonists might well represent valuable tools for the management of neuropathic pain.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that trypsin is able to evoke the classical signals of inflammation, mainly via the activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). This study was designed to evaluate the inflammatory and nociceptive responses caused by trypsin injection in the mouse paw. Trypsin produced a dose- and time-related paw edema, a response that was markedly reduced in PAR-2-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice, particularly at the early time-points after trypsin injection. In addition, trypsin produced an increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, which was significantly reduced in PAR-2-deficient mice. The injection of trypsin into the mouse paw also elicited a dose- and time-dependent spontaneous nociception, as well as thermal and mechanical hypernociceptive responses, which were consistently decreased in mice with genetic deletion of PAR-2. Pharmacological evaluation revealed that edema formation and spontaneous nociception caused by trypsin injection in the mouse paw are mediated by a complex range of mediators. Both edema and nociception seem to rely on the production of neuropeptides, probably involving C-fibre activation and vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1), besides the stimulation of kinin B(2) receptors. Edematogenic response is also likely related to the production of cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites, whereas the mast cell activation appears to be greatly associated to spontaneous nociception. Altogether, the present results indicate that trypsin-induced edema and nociception in the mouse paw represent multi-mediated responses that are largely, but not exclusively, related to the activation of PAR-2. These pieces of evidence provide new insights on the role of trypsin in pain and inflammation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · European Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the anti-hypernociceptive effects of agmatine (AGM) in acute and chronic models of behavioural pain in mice. Agmatine (30 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min early), produced time-dependent inhibition of mechanical hypernociception induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) injected in the mice paw (inhibition of 52+/-7%) after 4 h. Given chronically (twice a day) during 10 days, AGM significantly reversed the mechanical hypernociception caused by CFA (inhibition of 43+/-6% to 67+/-5%). Moreover, AGM also significantly reduced the mechanical hypernociception caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) during 6 h, with inhibition of 81+/-8%. In thermal hypernociception (cold stimuli) caused by PSNL the antinociceptive effect of AGM was prolonged by 4 h with inhibition of 97+/-3% observed 1 h after the treatment. Nevertheless, AGM failed to inhibit the paw oedema caused by CFA and the myeloperoxidase enzyme activity. Of note, AGM (10-100 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before) also elicited a pronounced inhibition of the biting response induced by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mice, with mean ID(50) values of 61.3 mg/kg (47.7-78.6 mg/kg) and 30.4 mg/kg (18.6-49.8 mg/kg) and inhibitions of 75+/-5% and 66+/-6%, respectively. Together, present and previous findings show that AGM given systemically is effective in inhibiting mechanical and thermal hypernociception present in chronic inflammatory processes caused by CFA and also the neuropathic pain caused by PSNL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the role of spinal glutamatergic receptors in the antinociception elicited by agmatine in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of agmatine (1.0-100.0 mg/kg) dose dependently inhibited the nociceptive response induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate, N-methy-D-aspartate (NMDA) and (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD), with mean ID(50) values of 16.7, 6.8 and 27.0 mg/kg, respectively. However, agmatine completely failed to affect the nociception induced by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or kainic acid (kainate). Agmatine injected by i.t. route (10-100 microg/site) also produced dose-related inhibition of NMDA- and trans-ACPD-induced biting response with mean ID(50) values of 29.6 and 36.0 mug/site, respectively. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (l-NOARG) (75.0 mg/kg, i.p.) also consistently inhibited glutamate-, NMDA- and trans-ACPD-induced nociception (41 +/- 13, 100 and 83 +/- 6%, of inhibition, respectively) but had no effect on the same response caused by AMPA and kainate agonists. The selective NMDA receptor antagonist (5S,10R)-(+)-5-Methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d] (MK-801) at a low dose (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the nociceptive response caused by both glutamate and NMDA agonists (inhibitions of 35 +/- 1 and 72 +/- 2%, respectively). At a high dose, MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited the biting response induced by i.t. administration of all the glutamatergic agonists tested: glutamate, AMPA, NMDA, kainate and trans-ACPD, with inhibitions of 49 +/- 8, 84 +/- 16, 84 +/- 3, 76 +/- 8 and 97 +/- 2%, respectively. Together, these results provide experimental evidence indicating that agmatine given systemically and spinally produce marked antinociception at spinal sites in mice. Furthermore, an interaction with glutamate receptors, namely NMDA and trans-ACPD, metabotropic and NMDA-ionotropic origin, by a mechanism similar to that of nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors, seems to account for the agmatine antinociceptive action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the antinociceptive effects of agmatine in chemical behavioural models of pain. Agmatine (1-30 mg/kg), given by i.p. route, 30 min earlier, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with mean ID50 value of 5.6 mg/kg. Given orally, 60 min earlier, agmatine (10-300 mg/kg) also produced dose-related inhibition of the visceral pain caused by acetic acid, with mean ID50 value of 147.3 mg/kg. Agmatine (3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) also caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of capsaicin- and glutamate-induced pain, with mean ID50 values of 43.7 and 19.5 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, agmatine (1-100 mg/kg, i.p.) caused marked inhibition of both phases of formalin-induced pain, with mean ID50 values for the neurogenic and the inflammatory phases of 13.7 and 5.6 mg/kg, respectively. The antinociception caused by agmatine in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. treatment of mice with L-arginine (precursor of nitric oxide, 600 mg/kg), naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg), p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, 100 mg/kg once a day for 4 consecutive days), ketanserin (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg), ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg), yohimbine (an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, 0.15 mg/kg) or by efaroxan (an I1 imidazoline/alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg). In contrast, agmatine antinociception was not affected by i.p. treatment of animals with pindolol (a 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg) or idazoxan (an I2 imidazoline/alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, 3 mg/kg). Likewise, the antinociception caused by agmatine was not affected by neonatal pre-treatment with capsaicin. Together, these results indicate that agmatine produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical pain through mechanisms that involve an interaction with opioid, serotonergic (i.e., through 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors) and nitrergic systems, as well as via an interaction with alpha2-adrenoceptors and imidazoline I1 receptors.