[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Patient education is capable of reducing the risk for diabetic foot ulcers. However, specific education on foot ulcer prevention was either included in broader programs addressing different parts of diabetes care or provided with time- and resource-consuming curricula. The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a brief educational program for the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers in high-risk patients. Methods. The study was performed on type 2 diabetic patients, randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio either to intervention or to control group. The principal endpoint was the incidence of foot ulcers. The intervention was a two-hour program provided to groups of 5-7 patients, including a 30-minute face-to-face lesson on risk factors for foot ulcers, and a 90-minute interactive session with practical exercises on behaviors for reducing risk. Results. The study was prematurely terminated due to a highly significant difference in outcome between the two treatment groups. The final sample was therefore composed of 121 patients. Six patients, all in the control group, developed ulcers during the 6-month follow-up (10% versus 0%, p = 0.012). Conclusions. A brief, 2-hour, focused educational program is effective in preventing diabetic foot ulcers in high-risk patients.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basal insulin and DPP4 inhibitors are both possible options in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to oral drugs. The identification of clinical predictors of success with either one of the two approaches could be of help in personalizing therapy.
The retrospective study was performed on a consecutive series of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 1,002) failing to at least one oral agent, who had been prescribed either basal insulin or DPP4 inhibitors in the previous 2 years, with a duration of follow-up of at least 6 months. Clinical predictors of success after 6 months from the beginning of second-line treatment were identified in the cohort.
Among patients receiving a prescription of basal insulin, the proportion of therapeutic success at 6 months was 26.5 %. At multivariate analysis, a higher age and BMI, and a lower duration of diabetes were associated with success, as well as treatment with acarbose; conversely, a history of ischemic heart disease was associated with failure. Prescription of DPP4 inhibitors produced a therapeutic success in 24.8 % of cases. At multivariate analysis, success was associated with a lower baseline HbA1c and duration of diabetes, and a higher BMI and comorbidity; in addition, a lower success rate was found in women after adjusting for other confounders.
The present data support the view that insulin treatment is preferable in patients with severe hyperglycemia, failing to one or more drugs, whereas DPP4 inhibitors appear to be more useful in those with comorbid conditions.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Acta Diabetologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ContextHypoglycemia is a limiting factor for glycemic targets, particularly for some drugs, such as sulfonylureas.Objectiveto assess hypoglycemic risk with sulfonylureas in comparison with other drugs in randomized controlled trials.Data SourcesMEDLINE and EMBASE.Study Selectionrandomized trials with a duration ≥ 24 weeks, enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing sulfonylureas with placebo or active drugs different from other sulfonylureas.Data ExtractionThe principal outcome was the effect of sulfonylureas on the incidence of any or severe hypoglycemia. Cumulative incidence of hypoglycemia was estimated combining sulfonylurea groups of different trials with a random effect model and used for meta-regression analyses.Data SynthesisThe incidence of severe hypoglycaemia in patients treated with sulfonylureas was 1.2 [1.0-1.6]%. The overall risk of severe hypoglycaemia was increased more than three-fold with sulfonylureas than with comparators. The proportion of patients with at least one hypoglycemia while on sulfonylureas was 17.4 [14.5-20.8]%. The overall risk (Mantel-Haenszel Odds Ratio) of any hypoglycaemia with sulfonylureas versus comparators was 3.69[3.47-3.93] (p < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis suggested that the incidence of any hypoglycaemia was higher in trials enrolling patients with higher BMI and lower HbA1c.Conclusions
In conclusion, hypoglycemia, including severe hypoglycemia, is frequent in patients treated with sulfonylureas, particularly when baseline HbA1c levels are lowerand BMI levels higher. Further studies are needed to characterize predictors for the identification of patients at higher risk.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic stenosis (AS) represents a significant healthcare burden in the elderly population. For inoperable patients or those at high-risk for surgery, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative therapeutic option. The recently conducted European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) TAVI survey found that the involvement of geriatricians in the management of patients undergoing TAVI is generally low. Because of the complexity and rapidly progressive nature of severe AS, a geriatrician should be involved because of the need for a comprehensive geriatric patient assessment that may ameliorate or delay disability, cognitive dysfunction or nutritional status and their impact on clinical outcomes. Therefore, the EUGMS is currently setting up a prospective, observational study, designed to evaluate the effectiveness of TAVI from the perspective of the geriatrician (Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Registry with Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, CGA-TAVI). CGA-TAVI will investigate the prognostic relevance of clinical, cognitive, functional, nutritional, and social parameters and is carried out using six standardized scales and information on medications and social support network. Taken together, there is considerable potential for increased involvement of geriatricians in the management of elderly patients with severe asymptomatic AS. The input of geriatricians is invaluable to informed decision-making related to the prognosis and risk status of frail and/or elderly patients. The EUGMS recommends that geriatricians should be involved at an early stage of patient management, and should have a substantial impact on decision-making, rehabilitation and long-term care of elderly patients with AS, requiring valve replacement therapy.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · European geriatric medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present case-control study is to explore the effect of case mix on the relationship between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nested case-control study data set was generated from the cohort-study data set (n = 4140 type 2 diabetic outpatients) by sampling controls from the risk sets. Cases (n = 427) were compared with an equal number of controls chosen from those members of the cohort who were at risk for the same follow-up time of the case, matched for age (±3 years), sex, body mass index (BMI) (±2 kg m(-2)), duration of diabetes (±5 years), and Charlson's Comorbidity Score (CCS) (±1). The main predefined analysis was the comparison of cases and controls for proportion of patients with each HbA1c class (<6.5%, 6.5-7.4%, 7.5-8.4% and ≥8.5%). During a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 3.5 years, 427 deaths were recorded. The lowest risk of death was observed in the HbA1c 6.5-7.4% category; a lower HbA1c was associated with a non-significant trend towards a higher risk. The risk associated with a low (<6.5%) HbA1c was significantly greater in patients who were insulin-treated than in the rest of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that glycaemic targets should be individualised on the basis of the characteristics of each patient, considering age, co-morbidity and duration of diabetes. Caution should be used in prescribing insulin to reach near-normoglycaemia, particularly in older, frail patients.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this case-control study is the assessment of the relationship between antihypertensive treatment and incidence of diabetes in an unselected cohort of subjects participating in a screening program for diabetes.
A case-control study nested within a cohort of nondiabetic subjects with a mean follow-up of 27.7 ± 11.3 months was performed, comparing 40 cases of incident diabetes and 160 controls matched for age, sex, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h post-load glycemia, smoking and alcohol abuse.
When considering antihypertensive treatment at enrolment, a lower proportion of cases was exposed to ACE-inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-i/ARB) in comparison with controls. A non-significant trend toward a higher exposure to diuretics, which were mainly represented by thiazide diuretics, was observed in cases. In a multivariate analysis, including both ACE-i/ARB and diuretics, a protective effect of ACEi/ARB, and an increased risk with diuretics were observed. Similar results were obtained in alternative models, after adjusting for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at enrolment, diagnosis of hypertension, concurrent treatment with β-blockers or calcium-channel blockers, and number of antihypertensive medications.
Diuretics seem to be associated with a higher incidence of diabetes, whereas treatment with ACEi/ARB could have a protective effect.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of endocrinological investigation