[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HHV-6B infection inhibits cell proliferation in G2/M, but no protein has so far been recognized to exert this function. Here we identify the protein product of direct repeat 6, DR6, as an inhibitor of G2/M cell-cycle progression. Transfection of DR6 reduced the total number of cells compared with mock-transfected cells. Lentiviral transduction of DR6 inhibited host cell DNA synthesis in a p53-independent manner, and this inhibition was DR6 dose-dependent. A deletion of 66 amino acids from the N-terminal part of DR6 prevented efficient nuclear translocation and the ability to inhibit DNA synthesis. DR6-induced accumulation of cells in G2/M was accompanied by an enhanced expression of cyclin B1 that accumulated predominantly in the cytoplasm. Pull-down of cyclin B1 brought down pCdk1 with the inactivating phosphorylation at Tyr15. Together, DR6 delays cell cycle with an accumulation of cells in G2/M and thus might be involved in HHV-6B-induced cell-cycle arrest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and EBV may transform lymphoblastoid cell lines more frequently in MS patients than controls, but it is not clear whether this reflects a higher viral load or an enhanced ability to reactivate EBV.Material and methodsMS patients and controls were examined for their B-cell subsets and during 16 weeks for spontaneous lymphocyte transforming events.ResultsMS patients had normal distribution of B-cell subsets, but a significantly higher incidence of B-cell transforming events, which occurred with kinetics similar to controls.Conclusions
The higher incidence suggests an increased frequency of latent EBV-infected B cells in MS.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to establish a successful infection, it is of crucial importance for invading viruses to alter the activities of the regulatory protein p53. Beta-herpesviruses stabilize p53 and likely direct its activities towards generation of a replication-friendly environment. We here study the mechanisms behind HHV-6B-induced stabilization and inactivation of p53. Stable transgene expression of the HHV-6B protein U19 was sufficient to achieve upregulation of p53. U19 bound directly to the p53-regulating protein HDM2 in vitro, co-precipitated together with HDM2 in lysates, and co-localized with HDM2 in the nucleus when overexpressed. U19 contained a sequence with a putative p53 BOX I-motif for HDM2 binding. Mutation of the two key amino acids within this motif was sufficient to inhibit all the described U19 functions. Our study provides further insight into p53-modulating strategies used by herpesviruses and elucidates a mechanism used by HHV-6B to circumvent the antiviral response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shortly after the discovery of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), two distinct variants, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, were identified. In 2012, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classified HHV-6A and HHV-6B as separate viruses. This review outlines several of the documented epidemiological, biological, and immunological distinctions between HHV-6A and HHV-6B, which support the ICTV classification. The utilization of virus-specific clinical and laboratory assays for distinguishing HHV-6A and HHV-6B is now required for further classification. For clarity in biological and clinical distinctions between HHV-6A and HHV-6B, scientists and physicians are herein urged, where possible, to differentiate carefully between HHV-6A and HHV-6B in all future publications.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B cell subsets in newly diagnosed untreated, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were examined. The fraction of CD20(+) B cells was significantly increased in MS. Among subsets of B cells, MS patients had increased frequency of naïve cells, but reduced frequency of memory and B1 cells. The frequencies of B1 cells were inversely correlated with the time since last attack. B1 cells resembled the phenotype of either lymphocytes (CD11b(-) B1 cells) or monocytes (CD11b(+) B1 cells) and a small fraction of cells was CD3(+)CD20(+) by confocal microscopy.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of neuroimmunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of the human herpesviruses can be found in semen, although the reported prevalence varies considerably between individual studies. The frequent presence of herpesvirus in semen raises the question whether sexual transmission of the virus could have an impact on human reproduction. Only few studies have associated seminal shedding of herpesviruses with impaired sperm quality, reduced fertility, or reduced chances of pregnancy, whereas most studies fail to find an association. Taken together, no firm evidence is so far linking the presence of herpesviruses in semen to impaired human reproduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human dendritic cells (DC) can be differentiated from blood monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 and matured by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Vitamin D3 inhibits the maturation of human DC measured by changes in surface expression of HLA-DR, CD14, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86. We here examine the function of vitamin D3 during DC maturation. One of the earliest changes to LPS-induced maturation was an increase in CD83 expression. Vitamin D3 inhibited the increase in expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 and the decrease in expression of CD14, which was paralleled morphologically by vitamin D3-induced inhibition of dendritic cell differentiation. Vitamin D3 acted in synergy with the TLR agonists LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN) in inducing IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, whereas vitamin D3 completely inhibited LPS-induced secretion of IL-12. The synergy occurred at concentrations where neither vitamin D3 nor the TLR agonists alone induced measurable cytokine secretion. Both LPS and PGN enhanced the level of the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR). Taken together, these data demonstrated that vitamin D3 and TLR agonists acted in synergy to alter secretion of cytokines from human DC in a direction that may provide an anti-inflammatory environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with human herpesvirus (HHV)-6B alters cell cycle progression and stabilizes tumor suppressor protein p53. In this study, we have analyzed the activity of p53 after stimulation with p53-dependent and -independent DNA damaging agents during HHV-6B infection. Microarray analysis, Western blotting and confocal microscopy demonstrated that HHV-6B-infected cells were resistant to p53-dependent arrest and cell death after γ irradiation in both permissive and non-permissive cell lines. In contrast, HHV-6B-infected cells died normally through p53-independet DNA damage induced by UV radiation. Moreover, we identified a viral protein involved in inhibition of p53 during HHV-6B-infection. The protein product from the U19 ORF was able to inhibit p53-dependent signaling following γ irradiation in a manner similar to that observed during infection. Similar to HHV-6B infection, overexpression of U19 failed to rescue the cells from p53-independent death induced by UV radiation. Hence, infection with HHV-6B specifically blocks DNA damage-induced cell death associated with p53 without inhibiting the p53-independent cell death response. This block in p53 function can in part be ascribed to the activities of the viral U19 protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An analysis of all known human herpesviruses has not previously been reported on sperm from normal donors. Using an array-based detection method, we determined the cross-sectional frequency of human herpesviruses in semen from 198 Danish sperm donors. Fifty-five of the donors had at least one ejaculate that was positive for one or more human herpesvirus. Of these 27.3% (n = 15) had a double herpesvirus infection. If corrected for the presence of multiple ejaculates from some donors, the adjusted frequency of herpesviruses in semen was 27.2% with HSV-1 in 0.4%; HSV-2 in 0.1%; EBV in 6.3%; HCMV in 2.7%; HHV-6A/B in 13.5%; HHV-7 in 4.2%, whereas none of the samples had detectable VZV or HHV-8. Subsequently, we examined longitudinally data on ejaculates from 11 herpesvirus-positive donors. Serial analyses revealed that a donor who tested positive for herpesvirus at one time point did not necessarily remain positive over time. For the most frequently found herpesvirus, HHV-6A/B, we examined its association with sperm. For HHV-6A/B PCR-positive semen samples, HHV-6A/B could be detected on the sperm by flow cytometry. Conversely, PCR-negative semen samples were negative by flow cytometry. HHV-6B was shown to associate with sperm within minutes in a concentration dependent manner. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that HHV-6B associated with the sperm head, but only to sperm with an intact acrosome. Taken together, our data suggest that HHV-6A/B could be transported to the uterus via binding to the sperm acrosome. Moreover, we find a 10 times higher frequency of HHV-7 in semen from healthy individuals than previously detected. Further research is required to determine the potential risk of using herpesvirus-positive donor semen. Longitudinally analyses of ejaculate series indicate that implementation of quarantine for a donor shown to shed a herpesvirus is not a tenable solution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, but impaired immune suppression may be part of the disease pathogenesis. CD8(+) T cells that are restricted by HLA-E exert an important immunoregulatory mechanism. To explore how EBV might interfere with immune regulation, we examined the expression of HLA-E and the frequency of CD8(+) cells recognizing HLA-E, presenting either an EBV peptide from the BZLF1 protein or a signal sequence peptide from HLA-A2, in relapsing remitting (MS-RR), primary progressive (MS-PP) MS patients, and healthy controls (HC). Treatment with IFN-α or EBV increased HLA-E expression on CD4(+) cells. However, only MS-PP had increased expression of HLA-E on resting CD4(+) cells when compared with HC (p<0.005). CD8(+) cells were divided into CD8(bright) and CD8(dim) cells by flow cytometry analyses. MS-RR had significantly fewer CD8(dim) cells than HC (p<0.003). Flow cytometry analyses were performed with HLA-E tetramers folded in the presence of the EBV or HLA-A2 peptide to identify HLA-E-interacting cells. MS-RR had increased frequency of CD8(bright) cells recognizing HLA-E/A2 (p = 0.006) and HLA-E/BZLF1 (p = 0.016). Conversely, MS-RR had fewer CD8(dim) cells that recognized HLA-E/BZLF1 (p = 0.001), but this could be attributed to the overall lower number of CD8(dim) cells in MS-RR. Whereas HLA-E/A2 was predominantly recognized by CD8(dim) cells, HLA-E/BZLF1 was predominantly recognized by CD8(bright) cells in MS-RR and MS-PP, but not in HC. As expected, HLA-E/A2 was also recognized by CD8-negative cells in a CD94-dependent manner, whereas HLA-E/BZLF1 was poorly recognized in all groups by CD8-negative cells. These data demonstrate that MS-RR patients have expanded their CD8(bright) cells recognizing HLA-E/BZLF1. Moreover, HLA-E/BZLF1 appears to be recognized by the immune system in a different manner than HLA-E/A2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune system targets virus-infected cells by different means. One of the essential antiviral mechanisms is apoptosis
induced by ligation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). This receptor can be activated by tumor necrosis factor alpha
(TNF-α), which upon binding to TNFR1 induces the assembly of first an inflammatory and later a proapoptotic signaling complex.
Here, we report that infection by human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase
3 and 8 activation, and IκBα Ser-32 phosphorylation downstream of TNFR1, indicating inhibition of both the inflammatory and
apoptotic signaling pathways. We identified a hitherto uncharacterized viral protein, U20, as sufficient for mediating this
inhibition. U20 was shown to locate to the cell membrane, and overexpression inhibited PARP cleavage, caspase 3 and 8 activation,
IκBα Ser-32 phosphorylation, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of U20
demonstrated that the protein is necessary for HHV-6B-mediated inhibition of TNFR signaling during infection. These results
suggest an important novel function of U20 as a viral immune evasion protein during HHV-6B infection.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A perturbed immunoregulation may be part of the pathogenesis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In this study, we demonstrate a dichotomy within the frequency of Treg among newly diagnosed RRMS patients but not in healthy controls. A group of RRMS patients was characterized by a significantly lower percentage of Treg cells than that of their matched, healthy controls, and this was inversely correlated with their score on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Since the EDSS reflected severity of the last attack, this study demonstrates a correlation between low frequency of Treg and severity of clinical disease in RRMS.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of neuroimmunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive HPV array. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization were performed with HPV-6, HPV-16 and -18, and HPV-31-specific probes. The prevalence of HPV-positive sperm donors was 16.0% and in 66.7% of these individuals high-risk types of HPV were detected. In 5.3% of sperm donors, two or more HPV types were detected. Among all identified HPV types, 61.9% were high-risk types. In situ hybridization experiments identified HPV genomes particularly protruding from the equatorial segment and the tail of the sperm. Semen samples from more than one in seven healthy Danish donors contain HPV, most of them of high-risk types binding to the equatorial segment of the sperm cell. Most HPV-positive sperm showed decreased staining with DAPI, indicative of reduced content of DNA. Our data demonstrate that oncogenic HPV types are frequent in men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is the causative agent of the common childhood febrile illness, exanthema subitum. The virus is predominantly regarded as a T-cell tropic virus, although in reality it has the ability to infect a wide variety of cell types including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). Although DC are important immune regulators, the modulating effects of HHV-6B on DC are controversial. Here, we examine the phenotypic and functional consequences of HHV-6B infection of DC. The addition of HHV-6B to immature DC led to expression of the nuclear viral p41 protein and cell surface expression of the viral glycoprotein gp60/110 consistent with HHV-6B infection. Nevertheless, HHV-6B did not induce noticeable cytopathogenic effects or cell death in infected DC. Importantly, HHV-6B infection induced a partial phenotypic maturation of immature DC as demonstrated by a substantial increase in the expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and CD40, whereas only a minor increase in CD80 and CD83 was observed. This phenotypic maturation was, however, not followed by functional maturation, because HHV-6B infection did not induce IL-10 and IL-12p70 production in immature DC. However, infected DC were still able to react to bacteria-derived stimuli such as lipopolysaccaharide by an even more pronounced production of IL-10 and IL-12p70 when compared to that of uninfected DC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SalI-L fragment from human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) encodes a protein DR7 that has been reported to produce fibrosarcomas when injected into nude mice, to transform NIH3T3 cells, and to interact with and inhibit the function of p53. The homologous gene in HHV-6B is dr6. Since p53 is deregulated in both HHV-6A and -6B, we characterized the expression of dr6 mRNA and the localization of the translated protein during HHV-6B infection of HCT116 cells. Expression of mRNA from dr6 was inhibited by cycloheximide and partly by phosphonoacetic acid, a known characteristic of herpesvirus early/late genes. DR6 could be detected as a nuclear protein at 24 hpi and accumulated to high levels at 48 and 72 hpi. DR6 located in dots resembling viral replication compartments. Furthermore, a novel interaction between DR6 and the viral DNA processivity factor, p41, could be detected by confocal microscopy and by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. In contrast, DR6 and p53 were found at distinct subcellular locations. Together, our data imply a novel function of DR6 during HHV-6B replication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superantigen, encoded by the envelope gene (env) of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-K18, may be involved in autoimmunity. Its expression is transactivated in B cells during infection with Epstein-Barr virus and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that are treated with IFN-alpha.
We investigated whether HHV-6B infection was able to induce the expression of HERV-K18 env.
The expression of HERV-K18 env gene was measured by real-time quantitative PCR in HHV-6B-infected PBMC.
Infection of PBMCs with HHV-6B resulted in a rapid and dose-dependent induction of HERV-K18 env gene expression, predominantly in monocytes. Induction was dependent on the interaction of glycoprotein H with CD46, but did not require viral transcription or DNA synthesis. Cycloheximide inhibited both the induction and basal expression of HERV-K18 env, indicating that de novo synthesis of proteins was necessary.
HHV-6B induced transcriptional activation of the endogenous superantigen HERV-K18 independently of virus replication, which may have consequences for the development of autoimmunity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a cytokine with multiple functions, including immune defense mechanisms against invading microorganisms. OPN-deficient mice are impaired in clearing intracellular pathogens, suggesting an important role of OPN during phagocytosis, but it remains to be defined how OPN may enhance this innate immune process. Here, we demonstrate that OPN binds to monocytes, but not resting T cells, NK cells, or B cells, and mediates chemoattraction of IL-1-activated human monocytes. Moreover, OPN binds in a specific manner to all known serotypes of the two bacterial species Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus and opsonizes these bacteria for phagocytosis. We identify the integrin alpha(X)beta(2) (CD11c/CD18), which is highly expressed on the cell surface of monocytes, as a novel OPN receptor. To eliminate the contribution from other molecular interactions between the bacteria and the phagocyte, we show that OPN-coated synthetic beads are phagocytosed in an alpha(X)beta(2) integrin-dependent manner. The ligand recognition does not involve the RGD motif previously reported to support binding of OPN to integrins. Taken together, these data identify the alpha(X)beta(2) integrin as a novel OPN receptor that is required for OPN-mediated phagocytosis, thereby elucidating an important mechanism of an innate immune function of OPN.
Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are an integral part of the innate immune system and govern the early control of foreign microorganisms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the intracellular pattern recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD2, nucleotide oligomerization domain 2) are associated with Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated the impact of NOD2 polymorphisms on cytokine secretion and proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD2 ligands. Based on NOD2 SNP analyses, 41 CD patients and 12 healthy controls were studied. PBMCs were stimulated with NOD2 and TLR ligands. After 18 h culture supernatants were measured using multiplex assays for the presence of human cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. In CD patients, TLR-induced GM-CSF secretion was impaired by both NOD2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Moreover, TNF-alpha production was induced by a TLR-2 ligand, but a down-regulatory function by the NOD2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide, was impaired significantly in CD patients. Intracellular TLR ligands had minimal effect on GM-CSF, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta secretion. CD patients with NOD2 mutations were able to secrete TNF-alpha, but not GM-CSF, upon stimulation with NOD2 and TLR-7 ligands. CD patients have impaired GM-CSF secretion via NOD2-dependent and -independent pathways and display an impaired NOD2-dependent down-regulation of TNF-alpha secretion. The defect in GM-CSF secretion suggests a hitherto unknown role of NOD2 in the pathogenesis of CD and is consistent with the hypothesis that impaired GM-CSF secretion in part constitutes a NOD2-dependent disease risk factor.