[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Climate change is likely to decrease crop yields worldwide. Developing climate resilient cultivars is one way to combat this production scarcity, however, little is known of crop response to future climate conditions and in particular the variability within crops.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extreme climate events as heatwaves, floods and storms cause acute changes in season variability influencing primary production and are very likely to increase in magnitude and/or frequency (IPCC, AR5, WGI)1,2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actively growing plants can stimulate mineralization of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), and increased atmospheric [CO2] can further enhance such plant-mediated SOM degradation. Laccases are central for recalcitrant SOM decomposition, and we therefore hypothesized that plants and elevated [CO2] stimulate laccase activity. We incubated soil exposed to seven years of elevated or ambient field [CO2] in ambient or elevated [CO2] chambers for six months either with or without plants (Deschampsia flexuosa). Elevated chamber [CO2] increased D. flexuosa production and belowground respiration. Interestingly, plants also grew larger in soil with an elevated [CO2] legacy. Plants stimulated soil microbial biomass, belowground respiration and laccase activity, and the plant-induced laccase stimulation was particularly apparent in soil exposed to long-term elevated [CO2] in the field, whereas laccase activity was unaffected by short-term chamber [CO2]. Hence, actively growing plants can stimulate laccase activity, but the potential for plant-induced laccase production appears to depend on the laccase production potential of the soil. Further, initial differences in laccase production potential prevailed during the six months experimental period independent of current [CO2], although plant production increased at elevated [CO2] during this period. Taken together, these findings suggest that although laccase activity depends on plant presence, the laccase production potential does not respond fast to increased plant production.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Journal of Soil Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a long-term field trial we investigated the responses of enchytraeids to simulated future climatic conditions predicted for Denmark. At a semi-natural Danish heathland site we exposed 9.1 m2 plots to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (510 ppm), extended summer drought and passive night-time warming. Treatments and all possible combinations of treatments were replicated 6 times. The enchytraeid community was assessed after 8 years of treatment. Atmospheric CO2 did not have any significant effect on the enchytraeid community even though root biomass was increased in plots with elevated CO2. The warming treatment had a modest effect on soil temperatures (0.3 °C at 5 cm depth) and did not have significant effect on abundance or biovolume of enchytraeids. However, the individual body size of Chamaedrilus chlorophilus (= Cognettia sphagnetorum partim.) was negatively correlated with soil temperature in spring 2013, perhaps indicating that warming stimulates fragmentation (reproduction) rates at this time of the year. Increased drought in May–June 2012 did not have lasting effects on abundance or biomass 3 months after the termination of drought treatment. However, comparison with earlier assessments of enchytraeids in the CLIMAITE experiment shows that the severity of drought and the time elapsed since the last drought is the best predictor of the biovolume (or biomass) of enchytraeids. Moreover, species richness was significantly impacted by the average soil water content experienced by enchytraeids during the 8-year study. It seems, therefore, that the most important factor for enchytraeid abundance and species diversity in the projected future climate conditions is soil water content.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Journal of Soil Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels of temperature (+5 °C) and [CO2] (700 ppm) as single factors and in combination as well as under elevated [O3] (100-150 ppb) as single factor. The setting in general resembled changes projected by IPCC (AR5) to take place at the end of this century. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify markers for increased primary production under climate change conditions and reveal possible genes of interest. Phenotyped traits included grain yield, number of grains, number of ears per plant, aboveground vegetative biomass, harvest index and stability of the production parameters over the five applied treatments. The GWAS encompassed 7864 SNP markers (Illumina iselect), a compressed mixed linear model with the GAPIT package, and conservative validation of markers. A total of 60 marker-trait associations [−log10(P value) 2.97-5.58] were identified, e.g. grain yield under elevated temperature on barley chromosome 2H, static stability of grain yield on 7H, sites for exploitation of elevated [CO2] on 4H and 7H and associations under the two-factor treatment. Marker-trait associations identified from single-factor treatments were not retrieved, when elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined emphasizing the need for multifactor experiments. This GWA study identified markers and chromosome regions to be targeted in breeding for development of climate resilient cultivars.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Molecular Breeding
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, a global-scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here, we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour differs among PFTs according to their marginal carbon cost of water use, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model and the leaf and wood economics spectrum. We also demonstrate a global relationship with climate. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of gs across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Nature Climate Change
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The response in production parameters to projected future levels of temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]), and ozone ([O3]) was investigated in 138 spring barley accessions. The comprehensive set of landraces, cultivars, and breeder-lines, were during their entire life cycle exposed to a two-factor treatment of combined elevated temperature (+5 °C day/night) and [CO2] (700 ppm), as well as single-factor treatments of elevated temperature (+5 °C day/night), [CO2] (700 ppm), and [O3] (100–150 ppb). The control treatment was equivalent to present average South Scandinavian climate (temperature: 19/12 °C (day/night), [CO2]: 385 ppm). Overall grain yield was found to decrease 29% in the two-factor treatment with concurrent elevation of [CO2] and temperature, and this response could not be predicted from the results of treatments with elevated [CO2] and temperature as single factors, where grain yield increased 16% and decreased 56%, respectively. Elevated [O3] was found to decrease grain yield by 15%. Substantial variation in response to the applied climate treatments was found between the accessions. The results revealed landraces, cultivars, and breeder-lines with phenotypes applicable for breeding towards stable and high yield under future climate conditions. Further, we suggest identifying resources for breeding under multifactor climate conditions, as single-factor treatments did not accurately forecast the response, when factors were combined.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · European Journal of Agronomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important long-lived greenhouse gas and precursor of stratospheric ozone-depleting mono-nitrogen oxides. The atmospheric concentration of N2O is persistently increasing; however, large uncertainties are associated with the distinct source strengths. Here we investigate for the first time N2O emission from terrestrial vegetation in response to natural solar ultra violet radiation.
We conducted field site measurements to investigate N2O atmosphere exchange from grass vegetation exposed to solar irradiance with and without UV-screening. Further laboratory tests were conducted with a range of species to study the controls and possible loci of UV-induced N2O emission from plants.
Plants released N2O in response to natural sunlight at rates of c. 20–50 nmol m−2 h−1, mostly due to the UV component. The emission response to UV-A is of the same magnitude as that to UV-B. Therefore, UV-A is more important than UV-B given the natural UV-spectrum at Earth's surface. Plants also emitted N2O in darkness, although at reduced rates. The emission rate is temperature dependent with a rather high activation energy indicative for an abiotic process. The prevailing zone for the N2O formation appears to be at the very surface of leaves. However, only c. 26% of the UV-induced N2O appears to originate from plant-N. Further, the process is dependent on atmospheric oxygen concentration. Our work demonstrates that ecosystem emission of the important greenhouse gas, N2O, may be up to c. 30% higher than hitherto assumed.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Atmospheric Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The terrestrial vegetation is a source of UV radiation-induced aerobic methane (CH4 ) release to the atmosphere. Hitherto pectin, a plant structural component, has been considered as the most likely precursor for this CH4 release. However, most of the leaf pectin is situated below the surface wax layer, and UV transmittance of the cuticle differs among plant species. In some species, the cuticle effectively absorbs and/or reflects UV radiation. Thus, pectin may not necessarily contribute substantially to the UV radiation-induced CH4 emission measured at surface level in all species. Here, we investigated the potential of the leaf surface wax itself as a source of UV radiation-induced leaf aerobic CH4 formation. Isolated leaf surface wax emitted CH4 at substantial rates in response to UV radiation. This discovery has implications for how the phenomenon should be scaled to global levels. In relation to this, we demonstrated that the UV radiation-induced CH4 emission is independent of leaf area index above unity. Further, we observed that the presence of O2 in the atmosphere was necessary for achieving the highest rates of CH4 emission. Methane formation from leaf surface wax is supposedly a two-step process initiated by a photolytic rearrangement reaction of the major component followed by an α-cleavage of the generated ketone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The projected future climate will affect the global agricultural production negatively, however, to keep abreast of the expected increase in global population, the agricultural production must increase. Therefore, to safeguard the future crop yield and quality, the adaptive potential of crops to environmental change needs to be explored in order to select the most productive genotypes. Presently, it is unknown whether cereal crops like spring barley can adapt to climate stressors over relatively few generations. To evaluate if strong selection pressures could change the performance of barley to environmental stress, we conducted a selection experiment over five plant generations (G0–G4) in three scenarios, where atmospheric [CO2] and temperature were increased as single factors and in combination. The treatments represented the expected environmental characteristics in Northern Europe around year 2075 [700 ppm CO2, 22/17 °C (day/night)] as well as a control mimicking present day conditions (390 ppm CO2, 19/12 °C). Two different barley accessions, a modern cultivar and an old landrace, were evaluated in terms of yield and biomass production. In all treatments representing future environmental scenarios, the G4-generation of selected plants did not improve its reproductive output compared to the G0-generation, as G4 produced less seeds and had a lower yield than unselected plants. These results indicate that barley might not respond positively to rapid and strong selection by elevated [CO2] and temperature, contrary to previous results from oilseed rape. The two barley accessions analyzed presented almost the same response pattern in a given treatment, though the modern cultivar had the highest yield in the climate scenarios, while the landrace was superior in yield under present day climate conditions.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Untangling the complex effects that different air pollution and climate change factors cause to forest ecosystems is challenging. Supersites, that is, comprehensive measurement sites where research and monitoring of the whole soil-plant-atmosphere system can be carried out, are suggested as a refinement of the current monitoring and research efforts in Europe. This chapter identifies and discusses key measurements to be carried out at such supersites, with a focus on four topical subjects: the carbon, nitrogen, ozone and water budgets. This kind of holistic approach is vital to a realistic translation of the ongoing changes in climate and air quality into research on the impacts on forest ecosystems. Such an integrated effort requires a considerable use of resources at highly instrumented measurement sites and can only be achieved by building on existing infrastructures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter outlines the aims and scope of the book. An introduction is given to the current status of knowledge which is presented on the topic of the book. Arguments are presented for writing the book, in view of continued, long-term and process-based research needed for mitigating ecological and socio-economic risks to forests under global change. The book will conclude on suggestions for decision making and reasons for continued funding of related research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusions from the individual chapters are integrated into a synopsis, covering achievements and perspectives, and linking challenges for natural and social sciences, provisioning ecosystem services (ESs) under environmental change. The required research and policy making are facilitated by novel understanding of ecosystem functioning and internal factorial interactions with the atmosphere. A basis is provided through methodological progress for establishing forest research 'supersites' within global research networks, possessing capacities for creating generic mechanistic knowledge of ecological relevance. On such grounds, provisioning versus regulating ESs must accommodate diversification in the joint production of agricultural and forestry goods, backed by integrative bioeconomic land-use modelling. Advancement requires forest ecosystem-level unification of air pollution and climate change research while strengthening communication between experimentalists, monitoring experts, modellers, policy makers and stakeholders towards tool development for reliable risk assessment. A critical and appreciative view of forest functions and services is demanded in relation to the (post-)Kyoto debate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going
European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN), based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012.
Area of study: The COST Action FP0903 involves 29 European countries and 4 non-COST institutions from USA, Morocco and Tunisia. In this study, the total of 22 replies to the questionnaire from 18 countries were included.
Materials and methods: Based on the feedback from the Action FP0903 countries, the most popular European
Networks were identified. Thereafter, the access to the network database, available quality assurance/quality control procedures and publication were described. Finally, the so-called “Supersites” concept, defined as a “highly instrumented research infrastructure, for both research and monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions” was discussed.
Main results: The result of the survey indicate that the vast majority of the Action FP0903 countries participate in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forest (ICP Forest). The multi-disciplinary International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICPIM) is the second most widespread forest programme.
Research highlights: To fully understand biochemical cycles in forest ecosystems, long-term monitoring is needed. Hence, a network of “Supersites”, is proposed. The application of the above infrastructure can be an effective way to attain a better integration of research and monitoring networks at forest sites in Europe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant responses to warming, elevated CO2, and changes in summer precipitation patterns involve complex interactions. In this study we aim to reveal the single factor responses and their interactive effects on photosystem II (PSII) performance during an autumn-to-winter period. The study was carried out in the CLIMAITE multifactor experiment, which includes the combined impact of elevated CO2 (free air carbon enrichment; CO2), warming (passive nighttime warming; T) and summer drought (rain-excluding curtains; D) in a temperate heath ecosystem. PSII performance was probed by the effective quantum yield in light, Fv′/Fm′, using the pulse amplitude methodology, and the total performance index, PItotal, which integrate changes of the chlorophyll-a fluorescence transient including the maximal quantum yield in darkness, Fv/Fm.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Environmental and Experimental Botany
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims
Accurate predictions of nutrient acquisition by plant roots and mycorrhizas are critical in modelling plant responses to climate change.
We conducted a field experiment with the aim to investigate root nutrient uptake in a future climate and studied root production by ingrowth cores, mycorrhizal colonization, and fine root N and P uptake by root assay of Deschampsia flexuosa and Calluna vulgaris.
Net root growth increased under elevated CO2, warming and drought, with additive effects among the factors. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization increased in response to elevated CO2, while ericoid mycorrhizal colonization was unchanged. The uptake of N and P was not increased proportionally with root growth after 5 years of treatment.
While aboveground biomass was unchanged, the root growth was increased under elevated CO2. The results suggest that plant production may be limited by N (but not P) when exposed to elevated CO2. The species-specific response to the treatments suggests different sensitivity to global change factors, which could result in changed plant competitive interactions and belowground nutrient pool sizes in response to future climate change.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of climate change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching
consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the
combined effects of multiple climate change drivers on herbivorous insects are
scarce. We independently manipulated three climate change drivers (CO2,
warming, drought) in a Danish heathland ecosystem. The experiment was
established in 2005 as a full factorial split-plot with 6 blocks 9 2 levels of
CO2 9 2 levels of warming 9 2 levels of drought = 48 plots. In 2008, we
exposed 432 larvae (n = 9 per plot) of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis
THOMSON), an important herbivore on heather, to ambient versus elevated
drought, temperature, and CO2 (plus all combinations) for 5 weeks. Larval
weight and survival were highest under ambient conditions and decreased
significantly with the number of climate change drivers. Weight was lowest
under the drought treatment, and there was a three-way interaction between
time, CO2, and drought. Survival was lowest when drought, warming, and elevated
CO2 were combined. Effects of climate change drivers depended on other
co-acting factors and were mediated by changes in plant secondary compounds,
nitrogen, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor
for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect
herbivores may decline under future climate. The complexity of insect herbivore
responses increases with the number of combined climate change drivers.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Ecology and Evolution