[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to improve naming in chronic stroke patients with nonfluent aphasia since 2005. In part 1, we review the rationale for applying slow, 1-Hz, rTMS to the undamaged right hemisphere in chronic nonfluent aphasia patients after a left hemisphere stroke; and we present a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol used with these patients that is associated with long-term, improved naming post-TMS. In part 2, we present results from a case study with chronic nonfluent aphasia where TMS treatments were followed immediately by speech therapy (constraint-induced language therapy). In part 3, some possible mechanisms associated with improvement after a series of TMS treatments in stroke patients with aphasia are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter pathway traditionally considered to connect left Broca's area with posterior language zones. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in eight healthy subjects (5 M) to track pathways in the horizontal mid-portion of the AF (hAF) to subregions of Broca's area - pars triangularis (PTr) and pars opercularis (POp); and to ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the right and left hemispheres (RH, LH). These pathways have previously been studied in the LH, but not in the RH. Only 1/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between PTr and hAF in the RH (also, only 1/8 in the LH). In contrast to PTr, 5/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between POp and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Fiber tracts for vPMC were similar to those of POp, where 7/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between vPMC and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Our designated hAF could have included some of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) III, because it is difficult to separate the two fiber bundles. The SLF III has been previously reported to connect supramarginal gyrus with POp and vPMC in the LH. Thus, although the present DTI study showed almost no pathways between PTr and hAF in the RH (and in the LH), robust pathways were observed between POp and/or vPMC with hAF in the RH (and in LH). These results replicate previous studies for the LH, but are new, for the RH. They could contribute to better understanding of recovery in aphasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To present pretreatment and post-treatment language data for a nonfluent aphasia patient who received 2 treatment modalities: (1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for his sleep apnea, starting 1-year poststroke; and (2) repetitive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS), starting 2 years poststroke.
Language data were acquired beyond the spontaneous recovery period of 3 to 6 months poststroke onset. CPAP restores adequate oxygen flow throughout all stages of sleep, and may improve cognition. A series of slow, 1 Hz repetitive TMS treatments to suppress a posterior portion of right pars triangularis has been shown to improve phrase length and naming in chronic nonfluent aphasia.
The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination and Boston Naming Test were administered pre-CPAP, and after 2 to 5 months of CPAP. These same tests were administered pre-TMS, and at 3 and 6 months post-TMS, and again 2.4 years later.
Post-CPAP testing showed increased Phrase Length, Auditory Comprehension, and naming Animals and Tools/Implements (Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination). Testing at 3 and 6 months post-TMS showed significant increase in Phrase Length, Auditory Comprehension, and Boston Naming Test compared with pre-TMS. These gains were retained at 2.4 years post-TMS. CPAP use continued throughout.
Physiologic treatment interventions may promote language recovery in chronic aphasia.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Cognitive and behavioral neurology: official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca's area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Restorative neurology and neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to improve language behavior, including naming, in stroke patients with chronic, nonfluent aphasia. Part 1 of this article reviews functional imaging studies related to language recovery in aphasia. Part 2 reviews the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia (based on functional imaging) and presents our current rTMS protocol. We present language results from our rTMS studies as well as imaging results from overt naming functional MRI scans obtained before and after a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study in which rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy. Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging study examining the possible connectivity of the arcuate fasciculus to different parts of Broca's area (pars triangularis, pars opercularis) and to the ventral premotor cortex. The potential role of mirror neurons in the right pars opercularis and ventral premotor cortex in aphasia recovery is discussed.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients participated in overt naming fMRI scans, pre- and post-a series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatments as part of a TMS study to improve naming. Each patient received 10, 1-Hz rTMS treatments to suppress a part of R pars triangularis. P1 was a 'good responder' with improved naming and phrase length; P2 was a 'poor responder' without improved naming. Pre-TMS (10 years poststroke), P1 had significant activation in R and L sensorimotor cortex, R IFG, and in both L and R SMA during overt naming fMRI (28% pictures named). At 3 mo. post-TMS (42% named), P1 showed continued activation in R and L sensorimotor cortex, R IFG, and in R and L SMA. At 16 mo. post-TMS (58% named), he also showed significant activation in R and L sensorimotor cortex mouth and R IFG. He now showed a significant increase in activation in the L SMA compared to pre-TMS and at 3 mo. post-TMS (p < .02; p < .05, respectively). At 16 mo. there was also greater activation in L than R SMA (p < .08). At 46 mo. post-TMS (42% named), this new LH pattern of activation continued. He improved on the Boston Naming Test from 11 pictures named pre-TMS, to scores ranging from 14 to 18 pictures, post-TMS (2-43 mo. post-TMS). His longest phrase length (Cookie Theft picture) improved from three words pre-TMS, to 5-6 words post-TMS. Pre-TMS (1.5 years poststroke), P2 had significant activation in R IFG (3% pictures named). At 3 and 6 mo. post-TMS, there was no longer significant activation in R IFG, but significant activation was present in R sensorimotor cortex. On all three fMRI scans, P2 had significant activation in both the L and R SMA. There was no new, lasting perilesional LH activation across sessions for this patient. Over time, there was little or no change in his activation. His naming remained only at 1-2 pictures during all three fMRI scans. His BNT score and longest phrase length remained at one word, post-TMS. Lesion site may play a role in each patient's fMRI activation pattern and response to TMS treatment. P2, the poor responder, had an atypical frontal lesion in the L motor and premotor cortex that extended high, near brain vertex, with deep white matter lesion near L SMA. P2 also had frontal lesion in the posterior middle frontal gyrus, an area important for naming (Duffau et al., 2003); P1 did not. Additionally, P2 had lesion inferior and posterior to Wernicke's area, in parts of BA 21 and 37, whereas P1 did not. The fMRI data of our patient who had good response following TMS support the notion that restoration of the LH language network is linked in part, to better recovery of naming and phrase length in nonfluent aphasia.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Brain and Language