[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a sporadic genetic disorder caused by the presence of a tissue-specific mosaicism for isochromosome 12p - i(12) (p10) and is characterized by facial dysmorphism including coarse facies, upslanting palpebral fissures, bitemporal alopecia, pigmentary skin anomalies, developmental delay, hypotonia and seizures. Although typical clinical features of PKS commonly exist, clinicians often do not raise the possibility of this diagnosis.
We reviewed the medical records of 10 patients with confirmed PKS followed in our service (since 1990 to 2015). Age at diagnosis varied from prenatal to 3 years and clinical features were consistent with those described in the literature. In all patients, peripheral blood karyotypes were normal and cytogenomic study was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis. Three of these patients had PKS diagnosis confirmed by buccal smear MLPA.
An early conclusion from our results demonstrated that MLPA on buccal smears is a good and non-invasive method to detect extra copies of 12p and should be considered as the first exam, before a skin biopsy for a fibroblast karyotype is performed.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Molecular Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Certain rare syndromes with developmental delay or intellectual disability caused by genomic copy number variants (CNVs), either deletions or duplications, are associated with higher rates of obesity. Current strategies to diagnose these syndromes typically rely on phenotype-driven investigation. However, the strong phenotypic overlap between syndromic forms of obesity poses challenges to accurate diagnosis, and many different individual cytogenetic and molecular approaches may be required. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) enables the simultaneous analysis of multiple targeted loci in a single test, and serves as an important screening tool for large cohorts of patients in whom deletions and duplications involving specific loci are suspected. Our aim was to design a synthetic probe set for MLPA analysis to investigate in a cohort of 338 patients with syndromic obesity deletions and duplications in genomic regions that can cause this phenotype.
We identified 18 patients harboring copy number imbalances; 18 deletions and 5 duplications. The alterations in ten patients were delineated by chromosomal microarrays, and in the remaining cases by additional MLPA probes incorporated into commercial kits. Nine patients showed deletions in regions of known microdeletion syndromes with obesity as a clinical feature: in 2q37 (4 cases), 9q34 (1 case) and 17p11.2 (4 cases). Four patients harbored CNVs in the DiGeorge syndrome locus at 22q11.2. Two other patients had deletions within the 22q11.2 ‘distal’ locus associated with a variable clinical phenotype and obesity in some individuals. The other three patients had a recurrent CNV of one of three susceptibility loci: at 1q21.1 ‘distal’, 16p11.2 ‘distal’, and 16p11.2 ‘proximal’.
Our study demonstrates the utility of an MLPA-based first line screening test to the evaluation of obese patients presenting with syndromic features. The overall detection rate with the synthetic MLPA probe set was about 5.3% (18 out of 338). Our experience leads us to suggest that MLPA could serve as an effective alternative first line screening test to chromosomal microarrays for diagnosis of syndromic obesity, allowing for a number of loci (e.g., 1p36, 2p25, 2q37, 6q16, 9q34, 11p14, 16p11.2, 17p11.2), known to be clinically relevant for this patient population, to be interrogated simultaneously.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Molecular Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Objective: To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. Methods: The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months) at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18) and/or MLPA (n = 42), in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. Results: CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%). Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60%) and/or elongated nose (53.3%), narrow palpebral fissure (50%), dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%), thin lips (41.6%), elongated fingers (38.3%) and short stature (36.6%). Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in two other patients. Conclusion: Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severe short stature, progressive lower-limb bowing, flattened vertebral bodies, metaphyseal involvement, and visual impairment caused by cone-rod dystrophy. Whole-exome sequencing of four individuals affected by this disorder from two Brazilian families identified two previously unreported homozygous mutations in PCYT1A. This gene encodes the alpha isoform of the phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 choline enzyme, which is responsible for converting phosphocholine into cytidine diphosphate-choline, a key intermediate step in the phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathway. A different enzymatic defect in this pathway has been previously associated with a muscular dystrophy with mitochondrial structural abnormalities that does not have cartilage and/or bone or retinal involvement. Thus, the deregulation of the phosphatidylcholine pathway may play a role in multiple genetic diseases in humans, and further studies are necessary to uncover its precise pathogenic mechanisms and the entirety of its phenotypic spectrum.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study genotype-phenotype correlation of ring chromosome 18 [r(18)] in 9 patients with 46,XN karyotype.
In 9 patients with a de novo 46,XN,r(18) karyotype (7 females, 2 males), we performed high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis (Illumina Human Omni1-QuadV1 array in 6 patients, Affymetrix 6.0 array in 3 patients), investigation of parental origin, and genotype-phenotype correlation.
No breakpoint was recurrent. Single metaphases with loss of the ring, double rings, or secondarily rearranged rings were found in some cases, but true mosaicism was present in none of these cases. In 3 patients, additional duplications in 18p (of 1.4 Mb, 2 Mb, and 5.8 Mb) were detected. In 1 patient, an additional deletion of 472 kb in Xp22.33, including the SHOX gene, was found. Parental origin of r(18) was maternal in 2 patients and paternal in 4 patients, and formation was most likely meiotic. Karyotype was normal in all investigated parents (n = 15). At birth, mean maternal age was 30 years (n = 9) and mean paternal age was 34.4 years (n = 9).
Genotype-phenotype correlation revealed extensive clinical variability but no characteristic r(18) phenotype. Severity of clinical signs were generally correlated with the size of the deletion. Patients with large deletions in 18p and small deletions in 18q exhibited mainly symptoms related to 18p-, whereas those with large deletions in 18q and small deletions in 18p had symptoms of 18q-.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · The Journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The association of balanced rearrangements with breakpoints near SOX9 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9] with skeletal abnormalities has been ascribed to the presumptive altering of SOX9 expression by the direct disruption of regulatory elements, their separation from SOX9 or the effect of juxtaposed sequences.
We report on two sporadic apparently balanced translocations, t(7;17)(p13;q24) and t(17;20)(q24.3;q11.2), whose carriers have skeletal abnormalities that led to the diagnosis of acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD; MIM 114290). No pathogenic chromosomal imbalances were detected by a-CGH. The chromosome 17 breakpoints were mapped, respectively, 917–855 kb and 601–585 kb upstream of the SOX9 gene. A distal cluster of balanced rearrangements breakpoints on chromosome 17 associated with SOX9-related skeletal disorders has been mapped to a segment 932–789 kb upstream of SOX9. In this cluster, the breakpoint of the herein described t(17;20) is the most telomeric to SOX9, thus allowing the redefining of the telomeric boundary of the distal breakpoint cluster region related to skeletal disorders to 601–585 kb upstream of SOX9. Although both patients have skeletal abnormalities, the t(7;17) carrier presents with relatively mild clinical features, whereas the t(17;20) was detected in a boy with severe broncheomalacia, depending on mechanical ventilation. Balanced and unbalanced rearrangements associated with disorders of sex determination led to the mapping of a regulatory region of SOX9 function on testicular differentiation to a 517–595 kb interval upstream of SOX9, in addition to TESCO (Testis-specific enhancer of SOX9 core). As the carrier of t(17;20) has an XY sex-chromosome constitution and normal male development for his age, the segment of chromosome 17 distal to the translocation breakpoint should contain the regulatory elements for normal testis development.
These two novel translocations illustrate the clinical variability in carriers of balanced translocations with breakpoints near SOX9. The translocation t(17;20) breakpoint provides further evidence for an additional testis-specific SOX9 enhancer 517 to 595 kb upstream of the SOX9 gene.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Marateaux-Lamy syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient activity of the enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (arylsulphatase B). Cytoplasmic vacuoles full of dermatan sulphate are observed in endothelial cells, myocyte, and fibroblasts, compromising the function of cardiovascular structures and contributing significantly towards morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of this study was to assess the advantages of early replacement therapy with recombinant human arylsulphatase B through the echocardiographic follow-up of sisters who started treatment at quite different ages: one at 9 years and the other at 1 year and 7 months. The older sibling showed striking mitral and aortic valve compromise when she was only 2 years old and finally needed cardiac surgery at the age of 8, even before starting enzyme replacement. Differently, the younger one has developed only mild mitral and aortic lesions throughout the follow-up period of 3 years. The two siblings had left ventricle cardiomyopathy, but partial reverse remodelling was induced by enzyme replacement therapy in both cases. The younger sibling has never received any cardiovascular drugs, whereas the older one has been using β-blockers and diuretics in addition to enzyme therapy to cope with heart failure. Comparing the outcomes of these two sisters with a very aggressive phenotype of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, the conclusion was that early onset of therapy may slow down the disease progression and prevent severe cardiac lesions to be established. Moreover, patients' compliance is essential for the success of treatment, as sequential echocardiographic evaluation demonstrated worsening of some cardiac lesions whenever infusions were missed.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Cardiology in the Young
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a progressive, chronic and multisystem lysosomal storage disease with a wide disease spectrum. Clinical and biochemical improvements have been reported for MPS VI patients on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with rhASB (recombinant human arylsulfatase B; galsulfase, Naglazyme®, BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.), making early diagnosis and intervention imperative for optimal patient outcomes. Few studies have included children younger than five years of age. This report describes 34 MPS VI patients that started treatment with galsulfase before five years of age.
Data from patients who initiated treatment at <5 years of age were collected from patients' medical records. Baseline and follow-up assessments of common symptoms that led to diagnosis and that were used to evaluate disease progression and treatment efficacy were evaluated.
A significant negative correlation was seen with treatment with ERT and urinary GAG levels. Of those with baseline and follow-up growth data, 47% remained on their pre-treatment growth curve or moved to a higher percentile after treatment. Of the 9 patients with baseline and follow-up sleep studies, 5 remained unaffected and 1 patient initially with mild sleep apnea showed improvement. Data regarding cardiac, ophthalmic, central nervous system, hearing, surgical interventions and development are also reported. No patient discontinued treatment due to an adverse event and all that were treatment-emergent resolved.
The prescribed dosage of 1mg/kg IV weekly with galsulfase ERT is shown to be safe and effective in slowing and/or improving certain aspects of the disease, although patients should be closely monitored for complications associated with the natural history of the disease, especially cardiac valve involvement and spinal cord compression. A long-term follow-up investigation of this group of children will provide further information on the benefits of early treatment as well as disease progression and treatment efficacy and safety in this young patient population.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Williams-Beuren syndrome is a genomic disorder caused by a hemizygous contiguous gene deletion on chromosome 7q11.23. Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome. However, there are few data on the management of voiding symptoms in this population. We report our experience using oxybutynin to treat urinary symptoms in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome.
We prospectively analyzed 42 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome and significant lower urinary tract symptoms due to detrusor overactivity diagnosed on urodynamics in a 12-week, open-label study. Urological assessment included symptomatic evaluation, the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life, frequency-volume chart, urodynamics and urinary tract sonography. After 12 weeks of treatment with 0.6 mg/kg oxybutynin per day given in 3 daily doses, patients were assessed for treatment efficacy and side effects.
A total of 17 girls and 19 boys completed medical therapy and were assessed at 12 weeks. Mean ± SD patient age was 9.2 ± 4.3 years (range 3 to 18). The most common urinary complaint was urgency, which occurred in 31 patients (86.1%), followed by urge incontinence, which was seen in 29 (80.5%). Compared to baseline, urinary symptoms were substantially improved. The negative impact of storage symptoms on quality of life was significantly decreased from a mean ± SD of 3.3 ± 1.7 to 0.5 ± 0.9 (p <0.001). Mean ± SD maximum urinary flow improved from 14.2 ± 15.0 to 20.5 ± 6.4 ml per second (p <0.001).
A total of 12 weeks of therapy with 0.6 mg/kg oxybutynin daily resulted in improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms, quality of life and maximum flow rate in most patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The Journal of urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of RASopathies [Noonan syndrome (NS) and Noonan-related syndromes] and autoimmune disorders has been reported sporadically. However, a concomitant evaluation of autoimmune diseases and an assessment of multiple autoantibodies in a large population of patients with molecularly confirmed RASopathy have not been performed. The clinical and laboratory features were analyzed in 42 RASopathy patients, the majority of whom had NS and five individuals had Noonan-related disorders. The following autoantibodies were measured: Anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-SS-A/Ro, anti-SS-B/La, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Scl-70, anti-Jo-1, anti-ribosomal P, IgG and IgM anticardiolipin (aCL), thyroid, anti-smooth muscle, anti-endomysial (AE), anti-liver cytosolic protein type 1 (LC1), anti-parietal cell (APC), anti-mitochondrial (AM) antibodies, anti-liver-kidney microsome type 1 antibodies (LKM-1), and lupus anticoagulant. Six patients (14%) fulfilled the clinical criteria for autoimmune diseases [systemic lupus erythematous, polyendocrinopathy (autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac disease), primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), autoimmune hepatitis, vitiligo, and autoimmune thyroiditis]. Autoimmune antibodies were observed in 52% of the patients. Remarkably, three (7%) of the patients had specific gastrointestinal and liver autoantibodies without clinical findings. Autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies were frequently present in patients with RASopathies. Until a final conclusion of the real incidence of autoimmunity in Rasopathy is drawn, the physicians should be alerted to the possibility of this association and the need for a fast diagnosis, proper referral to a specialist and ultimately, adequate treatment.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome (NS) and Noonan-related disorders [cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC), Costello, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML), and neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndromes (NFNS)] are a group of developmental disorders caused by mutations in genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Mutations in the KRAS gene account for only a small proportion of affected Noonan and CFC syndrome patients that present an intermediate phenotype between these two syndromes, with more frequent and severe intellectual disability in NS and less ectodermal involvement in CFC syndrome, as well as atypical clinical findings such as craniosynostosis. Recently, the first familial case with a novel KRAS mutation was described. We report on a second vertical transmission (a mother and two siblings) with a novel mutation (p.M72L), in which the proband has trigonocephaly and the affected mother and sister, prominent ectodermal involvement. Metopic suture involvement has not been described before, expanding the main different cranial sutures which can be affected in NS and KRAS gene mutations. The gene alteration found in the studied family is in close proximity to the one reported in the other familial case (close to the switch II region of the G-domain), suggesting that this specific region of the gene could have less severe effects on intellectual ability than the other KRAS gene mutations found in NS patients and be less likely to hamper reproductive fitness.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS; OMIM 194050) is caused by a hemizygous contiguous gene microdeletion at 7q11.23. Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), mental retardation, and overfriendliness comprise typical symptoms of WBS. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered the gold standard technique, the microsatellite DNA markers and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) could be used for to confirm the diagnosis of WBS.
We have evaluated a total cohort of 88 patients with a suspicion clinical diagnosis of WBS using a collection of five markers (D7S1870, D7S489, D7S613, D7S2476, and D7S489_A) and a commercial MLPA kit (P029). The microdeletion was present in 64 (72.7%) patients and absent in 24 (27.3%) patients. The parental origin of deletion was maternal in 36 of 64 patients (56.3%) paternal in 28 of 64 patients (43.7%). The deletion size was 1.55 Mb in 57 of 64 patients (89.1%) and 1.84 Mb in 7 of 64 patients (10.9%). The results were concordant using both techniques, except for four patients whose microsatellite markers were uninformative. There were no clinical differences in relation to either the size or parental origin of the deletion.
MLPA was considered a faster and more economical method in a single assay, whereas the microsatellite markers could determine both the size and parental origin of the deletion in WBS. The microsatellite marker and MLPA techniques are effective in deletion detection in WBS, and both methods provide a useful diagnostic strategy mainly for developing countries.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · BMC Research Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The breakpoints and mechanisms of ring chromosome formation were studied and mapped in 14 patients.
Several techniques were performed such as genome-wide array, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification) and FISH (Fluorescent in situ Hybridization).
The ring chromosomes of patients I to XIV were determined to be, respectively: r(3)(p26.1q29), r(4)(p16.3q35.2), r(10)(p15.3q26.2), r(10)(p15.3q26.13), r(13)(p13q31.1), r(13)(p13q34), r(14)(p13q32.33), r(15)(p13q26.2), r(18)(p11.32q22.2), r(18)(p11.32q21.33), r(18)(p11.21q23), r(22)(p13q13.33), r(22)(p13q13.2), and r(22)(p13q13.2). These rings were found to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as: breaks in both chromosome arms followed by end-to-end reunion (patients IV, VIII, IX, XI, XIII and XIV); a break in one chromosome arm followed by fusion with the subtelomeric region of the other (patients I and II); a break in one chromosome arm followed by fusion with the opposite telomeric region (patients III and X); fusion of two subtelomeric regions (patient VII); and telomere-telomere fusion (patient XII). Thus, the r(14) and one r(22) can be considered complete rings, since there was no loss of relevant genetic material. Two patients (V and VI) with r(13) showed duplication along with terminal deletion of 13q, one of them proved to be inverted, a mechanism known as inv-dup-del. Ring instability was detected by ring loss and secondary aberrations in all but three patients, who presented stable ring chromosomes (II, XIII and XIV).
We concluded that the clinical phenotype of patients with ring chromosomes may be related with different factors, including gene haploinsufficiency, gene duplications and ring instability. Epigenetic factors due to the circular architecture of ring chromosomes must also be considered, since even complete ring chromosomes can result in phenotypic alterations, as observed in our patients with complete r(14) and r(22).
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation in association with a typical small triangular face and other variable features. Genetic and epigenetic disturbances are detected in about 50% of the patients. Most frequently, SRS is caused by altered gene expression on chromosome 11p15 due to hypomethylation of the telomeric imprinting center (ICR1) that is present in at least 40% of the patients. Maternally inherited duplications encompassing ICR1 and ICR2 domains at 11p15 were found in a few patients, and a microduplication restricted to ICR2 was described in a single SRS child. We report on a microduplication of the ICR2 domain encompassing the KCNQ1, KCNQ1OT1, and CDKN1C genes in a three-generation family: there were four instances of paternal transmissions of the microduplication from a single male uniformly resulting in normal offspring, and five maternal transmissions, via two clinically normal sisters, with all the children exhibiting SRS. This report provides confirmatory evidence that a microduplication restricted to the ICR2 domain results in SRS when maternally transmitted.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A