[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solanum lyratum (SLEC) Thunberg (Solanaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in China for centuries. Numerous studies have shown that SLEC Thunberg (Solanaceae) extract inhibited cancer cell growth in vitro. Herein, we investigated cell death-induced by EcoAc, water, chloroform, butanol extract of SLEC in human oral cancer cell lines (HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27) in vitro. Different SLEC extract induced cytotoxic effects in human oral cancer cells were examined by contrast phase microscopy. We selected the chloroform extract of SLEC to examine the cytotoxic effects by using DAPI staining, comet assays, flow cytometric assay, Western blotting and examination of confocal laser microscopy. SLEC decreased the percentage of viable cells, induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. These effects were concentration- and time-dependent manners. SLEC increased protein levels of p21, p16, CDK2, and cyclin D1 in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Also, SLEC increased CDK6 in HSC-3 and CAL-27 cells, but inhibited CDK6 in SAS cells. Cyclin E in HSC-3 and SAS cells was increased by SLEC, but it was inhibited in CAL-27 cells. SLEC suppressed the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, but increased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. SLEC promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca (2+), decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and stimulated NO production in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Specific caspase inhibitors (caspase-8 inhibitor: Z-IETD-FMK; caspase-9 inhibitor: Z-LEHD-FMK and caspase-3 inhibitor: Z-DEVD-FMK) for caspase-8, -9, and -3 blocked SLE-activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activities which were associated with an increase in the percentage of viable cells. Taken together, SLE induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis via extrinsic- and intrinsic-dependent pathways in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research focused on the induction of cytotoxic effects by danthron, a natural anthraquinone derivative on C6 rat glioma cells through exploring the means of cell death and the effects on mitochondrial function. We found that danthron decreased the percentage of viable C6 cells and induced cell morphological changes in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The morphological and nuclei changes (DAPI staining) in C6 cells were observed using a contrast-microscope and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The results suggest that cell death of C6 cells which are induced by danthron is closely related to apoptotic death. Danthron decreased the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ( m )), stimulated the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and promoted the levels of caspase-9 and caspase-3, or induced the release of AIF and Endo G from mitochondria. Based on both observations, we suggest that the danthron-provoked apoptotic death of C6 cells is mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. Furthermore, our results also indicated that danthron triggered apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which were increased after 1 h exposure of danthron, which was reversed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L: -cysteine (NAC). As a consequence, danthron-mediated cell death of C6 cells via ROS production, mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse and releases of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G. Taken together, danthron was demonstrated to be effective in killing C6 rat glioma cells via the ROS-promoted and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Neurochemical Research