[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
-The pathophysiology of hypertension in the immediate postpartum period is unclear.
Methods and results:
-We studied 988 consecutive women admitted to a tertiary medical center for cesarean section of a singleton pregnancy. Angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PlGF), both biomarkers associated with preeclampsia, were measured on antepartum blood samples. We then performed multivariable analyses to determine factors associated with the risk of developing postpartum hypertension. Of the 988 women, 184 women (18.6%) developed postpartum hypertension. 77 out of 184 women developed de novo hypertension in the postpartum period and the remainder had a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in the antepartum period. A higher body mass index and history of diabetes mellitus were associated with development of postpartum hypertension. The antepartum sFlt1/PlGF ratio positively correlated with blood pressures in the postpartum period [highest postpartum systolic (r=0.29; P<0.001) and diastolic (r=0.28, P<0.001)]. Moreover, the highest tertile of the antepartum sFlt1/PlGF ratio was independently associated with postpartum hypertension [OR: 2.25 (1.19, 4.25), P=0.01 in the de novo hypertensive group and 2.61 (1.12, 6.05) in the persistent hypertensive group; P=0.02] in multivariable analysis. Women developing postpartum hypertension had longer hospitalization than those who remained normotensive (6.5 ± 3.5 versus 5.7 ± 3.4 days; P<0.001).
-Hypertension in the postpartum period is relatively common and is associated with prolonged hospitalization. Women with postpartum hypertension share similar clinical risk factors as well as a similar antepartum plasma angiogenic profile found in women with preeclampsia. These data suggest that postpartum hypertension may represent a group of women with subclinical or unresolved preeclampsia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains one of the most common and preventable causes of fetal growth restriction (FGR), a condition in which a fetus is unable to achieve its genetically determined potential size. Even though epidemiologic evidence clearly links maternal cigarette smoking with FGR, insight into the molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced FGR is lacking. Here, we performed transcriptional profiling of placentas obtained from smoking mothers who delivered growth-restricted infants and identified secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), an extracellular antagonist of endogenous WNT signaling, as a candidate molecule. sFRP1 mRNA and protein levels were markedly upregulated (~10 fold) in placentas from smoking mothers compared with those from nonsmokers. In pregnant mice, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sFRP1 led to FGR, increased karyorrhexis in the junctional zone, and decreased proliferation of labyrinthine trophoblasts. Consistent with our hypothesis that placental WNT signaling is suppressed in maternal smokers, we found that exposure to carbon monoxide analogs led to reduced WNT signaling, increased SFRP1 mRNA expression, and decreased cellular proliferation in a trophoblast cell line. Moreover, administration of carbon monoxide analogs to pregnant mice in late gestation led to FGR. In summary, our results indicate that the increased placental expression of sFRP1 seen in smokers impairs fetal growth by inhibiting WNT signaling and trophoblast proliferation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is an antiangiogenic protein believed to mediate the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. We conducted an open pilot study to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of therapeutic apheresis with a plasma-specific dextran sulfate column to remove circulating sFlt-1 in 11 pregnant women (20-38 years of age) with very preterm preeclampsia (23-32 weeks of gestation, systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, new onset protein/creatinine ratio >0.30 g/g, and sFlt-1/placental growth factor ratio >85). We evaluated the extent of sFlt-1 removal, proteinuria reduction, pregnancy continuation, and neonatal and fetal safety of apheresis after one (n=6), two (n=4), or three (n=1) apheresis treatments. Mean sFlt-1 levels were reduced by 18% (range 7%-28%) with concomitant reductions of 44% in protein/creatinine ratios. Pregnancy continued for 8 days (range 2-11) and 15 days (range 11-21) in women treated once and multiple times, respectively, compared with 3 days (range 0-14) in untreated contemporaneous preeclampsia controls (n=22). Transient maternal BP reduction during apheresis was managed by withholding pre-apheresis antihypertensive therapy, saline prehydration, and reducing blood flow through the apheresis column. Compared with infants born prematurely to untreated women with and without preeclampsia (n=22 per group), no adverse effects of apheresis were observed. In conclusion, therapeutic apheresis reduced circulating sFlt-1 and proteinuria in women with very preterm preeclampsia and appeared to prolong pregnancy without major adverse maternal or fetal consequences. A controlled trial is warranted to confirm these findings.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the accuracy of angiogenic biomarkers to predict pre-eclampsia. Design: Prospective multicentre study. From 2006 to 2009, 5121 pregnant women with risk factors for pre-eclampsia (nulliparity, diabetes, previous pre-eclampsia, chronic hypertension) from Argentina, Colombia, Peru, India, Italy, Kenya, Switzerland and Thailand had their serum tested for sFlt-1, PlGF and sEng levels and their urine for PlGF levels at ≤20, 23-27 and 32-35. weeks' gestation (index tests, results blinded from carers). Women were monitored for signs of pre-eclampsia, diagnosed by systolic blood pressure ≥140. mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90. mmHg, and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.3, protein ≥1. g/l, or one dipstick measurement ≥2+) appearing after 20. weeks' gestation. Early pre-eclampsia was defined when these signs appeared ≤34. weeks' gestation. Main outcome measure: Pre-eclampsia. Results: Pre-eclampsia was diagnosed in 198 of 5121 women tested (3.9%) of whom 47 (0.9%) developed it early. The median maternal serum concentrations of index tests were significantly altered in women who subsequently developed pre-eclampsia than in those who did not. However, the area under receiver operating characteristics curve at ≤20. weeks' gestation were closer to 0.5 than to 1.0 for all biomarkers both for predicting any pre-eclampsia or at ≤34. weeks' gestation. The corresponding sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios were poor. Multivariable models combining sEng with clinical features slightly improved the prediction capability. Conclusions: Angiogenic biomarkers in first half of pregnancy do not perform well enough in predicting the later development of pre-eclampsia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Over 20% of pregnancies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) result in an adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) related to abnormal placentation. The ability to identify, early in pregnancy, patients who are destined for poor outcomes would significantly impact care of this high risk population. In non-autoimmune patients, circulating angiogenic factors are dysregulated in disorders of placentation, such as preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction.
To determine whether early dysregulation of circulating angiogenic factors, can predict APO in high risk SLE and/or APL pregnancies.
We used data and samples from the PROMISSE Study (Predictors of pRegnancy Outcome: BioMarkers In antiphospholipid antibody Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus), a multi-center prospective study that enrolled 492 pregnant women with SLE and/or APL between September 2003 and August 2013. Patients were followed through pregnancy from <12 weeks gestation. Circulating levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble endoglin (sEng) were measured monthly and subjects followed for APO, classified as severe (PE<34 weeks, fetal/neonatal death, indicated pre-term delivery <30 weeks) or moderate (PE≥34 weeks, indicated preterm delivery 30-36 weeks, growth restriction without PE).
Severe APOs occurred in 12% and moderate APOs in 10% of patients. By 12-15 weeks, sFlt1, PlGF, and sEng levels were markedly altered in women who developed severe APO. After adjusting for clinical risk factors, sFlt1 was the strongest predictor of severe APO among 12-15 week measures (odds ratio=17.3 comparing highest and lowest quartiles, 95% CI: 3.5-84.8; positive predictive value (PPV)=61%; negative predictive value (NPV)=93%). At 16-19 weeks, the combination of sFlt1 and PlGF was most predictive of severe APO, with risk greatest for subjects with both PlGF in lowest quartile (<70.3 pg/ml) and sFlt1 in highest quartile (>1872 pg/ml; odds ratio=31.1; 95% CI: 8.0-121.9; PPV=58%; NPV=95%). Severe APO rate in this high risk subgroup was 94% (95%CI: 70%-99.8%), if lupus anticoagulant or history of high blood pressure is additionally present. In contrast, among patients with both sFlt1 <1872 pg/ml and PlGF >70.3 pg/ml, rate of severe APO was only 4.6% (95% CI: 2.1%- 8.6%).
Circulating angiogenic factors measured during early gestation have a high negative predictive value in ruling out the development of severe adverse outcomes among patients with SLE and/or APL syndrome. Timely risk stratification of patients is important for effective clinical care and optimal allocation of healthcare resources.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims. Acute kidney injury is a common problem for patients with cirrhosis and is associated with poor survival. We aimed to examine the association between type of acute kidney injury and 90-day mortality. Methods. Prospective cohort study at a major US liver transplant center. A nephrologist's review of the urinary sediment was used in conjunction with the 2007 Ascites Club Criteria to stratify acute kidney injury into four groups: prerenal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome, acute tubular necrosis, or other. Results. 120 participants with cirrhosis and acute kidney injury were analyzed. Ninety-day mortality was 14/40 (35%) with prerenal azotemia, 20/35 (57%) with hepatorenal syndrome, 21/36 (58%) with acute tubular necrosis, and 1/9 (11%) with other (p = 0.04 overall). Mortality was the same in hepatorenal syndrome compared to acute tubular necrosis (p = 0.99). Mortality was lower in prerenal azotemia compared to hepatorenal syndrome (p = 0.05) and acute tubular necrosis (p = 0.04). Ten participants (22%) were reclassified from hepatorenal syndrome to acute tubular necrosis because of granular casts on urinary sediment. Conclusions. Hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis result in similar 90-day mortality. Review of urinary sediment may add important diagnostic information to this population. Multicenter studies are needed to validate these findings and better guide management.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Angiogenic factors are strongly associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes among women with preterm preeclampsia (PE) in developed countries. We evaluated the role of angiogenic factors and their relationship to adverse outcomes among Haitian women with PE.
Material and methods:
We measured plasma antiangiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and proangiogenic placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in women with PE (n=35) compared to controls with no hypertensive disorders (NHD) (n=43) among subjects with singleton pregnancies that delivered at Hospital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Haiti. We divided the preeclamptic women into two groups, early onset (≤ 34 weeks) and late onset (>34 weeks) and examined relationships between sFlt1/PlGF ratios on admission and adverse outcomes (abruption, respiratory complications, stroke, renal insufficiency, eclampsia, maternal death, birth weight <2500 grams, or fetal/neonatal death) in women with PE subgroups as compared to NHD groups separated by week of admission. Data are presented as median (25th-75th centile), n (%), and proportions.
Among patients with PE, most (24/35) were admitted at term. Adverse outcome rates in PE were much higher among the early onset group compared to the late onset group (100.0% vs. 54.2%, P=0.007). Plasma angiogenic factors were dramatically altered in both subtypes of PE. Angiogenic factors also correlated with adverse outcomes in both subtypes of PE. The median sFlt1/PlGF ratios for subjects with early onset PE with any adverse outcome vs. NHD <=34 weeks with no adverse outcome were 703.1 (146.6, 1614.9) and 9.6 (3.5, 58.6); P<0.001). Among late onset group the median sFlt1/PlGF ratio for women with any adverse outcome was 130.7 (56.1, 242.6) versus 22.4 (10.2, 58.7; P=0.005) in NHD >34 weeks with no adverse outcome.
PE-related adverse outcomes are common in women in Haiti and are associated with profound angiogenic imbalance regardless of gestational age at presentation.