[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have documented that selective delivery of protein antigens to cells expressing mannose receptor (MR) can lead to enhanced immune responses. We postulated that agents that influenced the MR expression level, and the activation and migration status of MR-expressing antigen presenting cells, would modulate immune responses to MR-targeted vaccines. To address this question, we investigated the effect of clinically used adjuvants in human MR transgenic (hMR-Tg) mice immunized with an MR-targeting cancer vaccine composed of the human anti-MR monoclonal antibody B11 fused with the oncofetal protein, human chorionic gonadotropin beta chain (hCGβ), and referred to as B11-hCGβ. We found that humoral responses to low doses of B11-hCGβ could be enhanced by prior administration of GM-CSF, which upregulated MR expression in vivo. However, co-administration of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, poly-ICLC and/or CpG with B11-hCGβ was required to elicit Th1 immunity, as measured by antigen-specific T-cell production of IFN-γ. The TLR agonists were shown to increase the number of vaccine-containing cells in the draining lymph nodes of immunized hMR-Tg mice. In particular, with B11-hCGβ and poly-ICLC, a dramatic increase in vaccine-positive cells was observed in the T-cell areas of the lymph nodes, compared to the vaccine alone or combined with GM-CSF. Importantly, the absence of the TLR agonists during the priming immunization led to antigen-specific tolerance. Therefore, this study provides insight into the mechanisms by which adjuvants can augment immune responses to B11-hCGβ and have implications for the rationale design of clinical studies combining MR-targeted vaccination with TLR agonists.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 27 October 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.100.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD70/CD27 pathway plays a significant role in the control of immunity and tolerance, and previous studies demonstrated that targeting murine CD27 (mCD27) with agonist mAbs can mediate antitumor efficacy. We sought to exploit the potential of this pathway for immunotherapy by developing 1F5, a fully human IgG1 mAb to human CD27 (hCD27) with agonist activity. We developed transgenic mice expressing hCD27 under control of its native promoter for in vivo testing of the Ab. The expression and regulation of hCD27 in hCD27-transgenic (hCD27-Tg) mice were consistent with the understood biology of CD27 in humans. In vitro, 1F5 effectively induced proliferation and cytokine production from hCD27-Tg-derived T cells when combined with TCR stimulation. Administration of 1F5 to hCD27-Tg mice enhanced Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to protein vaccination comparably to an agonist anti-mCD27 mAb. In syngeneic mouse tumor models, 1F5 showed potent antitumor efficacy and induction of protective immunity, which was dependent on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. The requirement of FcR engagement for the agonistic and antitumor activities of 1F5 was demonstrated using an aglycosylated version of the 1F5 mAb. These data with regard to the targeting of hCD27 are consistent with previous reports on targeting mCD27 and provide a rationale for the clinical development of the 1F5 mAb, for which studies in advanced cancer patients have been initiated under the name CDX-1127.
Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TNF receptor superfamily member CD27 is best known for its important role in T-cell immunity but is also recognized as a cell-surface marker on a number of B- and T-cell malignancies. In this article, we describe a novel human monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for CD27 with properties that suggest a potential utility against malignancies that express CD27.
The fully human mAb 1F5 was generated using human Ig transgenic mice and characterized by analytical and functional assays in vitro. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice inoculated with human CD27-expressing lymphoma cells were administered 1F5 to investigate direct antitumor effects. A pilot study of 1F5 was conducted in non-human primates to assess toxicity.
1F5 binds with high affinity and specificity to human and macaque CD27 and competes with ligand binding. 1F5 activates T cells only in combination with T-cell receptor stimulation and does not induce proliferation of primary CD27-expressing tumor cells. 1F5 significantly enhanced the survival of SCID mice bearing Raji or Daudi tumors, which may be mediated through direct effector mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Importantly, administration of up to 10 mg/kg of 1F5 to cynomolgus monkeys was well tolerated without evidence of significant toxicity or depletion of circulating lymphocytes.
Collectively, the data suggest that the human mAb 1F5, which has recently entered clinical development under the name CDX-1127, may provide direct antitumor activity against CD27-expressing lymphoma or leukemia, independent of its potential to enhance immunity through its agonistic properties.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Clinical Cancer Research